Organization of gastronomic tourism in Ukraine

The concept, the history of gastronomic tourism. Classification, features and characteristics of construction gastronomic routes. The description of the financial indicators of tourist enterprises the establishment and development of a gastronomic tour.

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Explanatory note

to the diploma work

onthetheme: Organization of gastronomic tourism in Ukraine

Zubko E.Y.

Kharkiv - 2016




1.1 Gastronomic tourism as a special kind of tourism

1.2 The concept and history of the gastronomic tourism development

1.3 Classification of gastronomic routes


2.1 The review of the world restaurant chains

2.2 General characteristic of LLC Globus Travel

2.3 Financial performance of LLC Globus Travel







Culinary traditions of the world were formed over the centuries, as were influenced by many factors. Such as: climatic conditions and geographical location, economic development of countries, and the degree of influence of other cultures. Ethnicity of the country was formed, and as a result of this process, the formation of the gastronomic features was established.The food and the rituals are an essential element of the material culture of any nation. This statement can be proved at least by the fact that men, being omnivorous by nature, in the different national cultures are fed differently. There is a statement if you want to know the culture of the country ? try it on taste. Because of this, a new direction as gastronomic tourism has appeared.

Any country is able to develop this kind of tourism, since each one has its own cuisine. Today, not all countries use this potential for their development: some are considered to be the world's cuisine, others are very popular all over the world, and some have not received wide demand.

In recent years, gastronomic tourism has gained considerable scale and has become one of the most dynamic and creative tourism segments. We can confidently assert that the development of this sector diversifies tourism and stimulates local and national economic development. Moreover, gastronomic tourism contributes to the development of ethical culture and a stable basis for the study of the territory, the landscape, culture, local products, food authenticity.

The topic of research is rather significant, because the competition between tourism destinations increases, local culture is becoming an increasingly important source of new products and activities to attract and amuse tourists. Gastronomy has a particularly important role to play in this,because food is central to the tourist experience, and because gastronomy has become an important source of identity formation in postmodern societies.

The object of research is the development of gastronomic tourism.

The subject of research is the peculiarities and organizationof gastronomic tourism.

The goal of this work is to determine the specifics of gastronomic tourism and its development in the world and in Ukraine.

To achieve this goal, the following objectives were determined:

1) to analyze the concept of gastronomic tourism and its history of origin and development;

2) to make a classification of gastronomic tourism;

3) to identify the specific features and characteristics of this type of tourism;

4) to compile and analyze the list of the world's popular gastronomic centers;

5) to determine the current state and problems of gastronomic tourism in Ukraine.

The following methods were used to achieve the objectives: descriptive, historical, geographical, comparative geography,mapping and others.


1.1 Gastronomic tourism as a special kind of tourism

According to the law of Ukraine, tourism is the temporary departure of persons from their residence for health, cognitive, professional and business or other purposes without taking up paid employment in a place where a person departs [1].Tourism is a fast growing industry that every year divides into different types and directions. It happens because of the dead level of recreational tourism. It is the factor of similarityof many resorts, in spite of all the historical and cultural features of flavor; it encourages the development of new forms of tourism. One of such form, which gets great popularity, has become a gastronomic tourism. Today, travelers are more experienced, have more disposable income and more leisure time to travel, and thus tourism allows them to escape the daily routine of their usual environment and immerse themselves in a world of freedom and novelty. Thus, more and more tourists in the world are looking for concrete learning experiences, and in this endeavor the gastronomic experience, in highly diverse ways, is playing an increasingly prominent part [2].Going on a trip, every tourist sets well-defined goals. The purpose of gastronomic tours is to enjoy the features of a cuisine of a particular country. At the same time, this goal cannot be reduced to trying some rare, exotic dish or countless dishes. Gastronomic tourism is a means of learning the mentality, age-old traditions and national spirit of the nations through the culture of cooking and eating. The gastronomic journey - is a palette with which tourists can draw their vision of one country or another. Food reveals the mystery of the spirit ofpeople, it helps to understand the mentality of a nation.

Thus, gastronomic tourism is more than usual excursion, because it requires a careful approach to the choice of local food. The main feature of the tour is a gastronomic tasting of dishes that can't be found nowhere in the world.

There are many terms used to express a close relation between food and tourism, such as gastronomic tourism, culinary tourism or simply food tourism. There are slight differences among those terms, regarding the context in which they are used and level of eating and drinking experience concerned. For instance, Gastronomy tourism was rooted from the word gastronomy which was defined in Encyclopedia Britannica (2000) as: The art of preparing, serving, and enjoying fine food. This definition entails a sense of nobility and is considered not anymore suitable in modern context. However, it has been accepted as a more general sense of food enjoyment [3].

Gastronomic tourism also implies a hint of culture aspects that tourists nowadays encounter, such as: food culture, eating culture and so on.

One of the most utilized definition of gastronomic tourism used in the literature is proposed by Hall and Sharples (2003), according to which food tourism is an experiential trip to a gastronomic region, for recreational or entertainment purposes, which includes visits to primary and secondary producers of food, gastronomic festivals, food fairs, events, farmers' markets, cooking shows and demonstrations, tastings of quality food products or any tourism activity related to food. In addition, this experiential journey is related to a particular lifestyle that includes experimentation, learning from different cultures, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the qualities or attributes related to tourism products, as well as culinary specialties produced in that region through its consumption. Thus, the experience of gastronomic tourism is considered as such, if everything mentioned above constitutes the main reason or motivation to travel for visitors to a particular destination or at least one significant reason [2].

The same term is applied in UNWTO's report on food tourism; however, this definition is more straightforward to tourism-motivation as a behindthe-scene factor. Gastronomic tourism applies to tourists and visitors who plan their trips partially or totally in order to taste the cuisine of the place or carry out activities related to gastronomy [4].

The World Food Travel Association has chosen Food tourism to express the whole industry. According to their definition, food tourism is the pursuit and enjoyment of unique and memorable food and drink experiences both far and near. This term implies contribution of food and drink services in tourism industry, for instance restaurants, street food vendors, local markets and eateries to delivering enjoyment, exclusive and unforgettable experiences when travelling [5].

Hall &Sharples (2003) defined the term food tourism in their research as visits to primary or secondary food producers, restaurants, food events, festivals, food fairs, local farmers? markets, cooking classes, chef demonstrations or any activities in which food involves. More importantly, those are the primary factors contributing to travelling decision. The two author's definition is one of the most utilized definitions and it describes food tourism at its own right [6].

Have considered several definitions above, food tourism (gastronomic tourism)comprisesthese following characteristics:

1) food is one of primary travel motivators;

2) eating and drinking create memorable travelling experiences;

3) tourists consume cultural products via eating and drinks at the destination.

Gastronomy or food consumption in its most general sense is one of the integral constituents of the humans life and thus it is the essential and very important condition of all forms of tourism. According to some scholars, the expenses spent on food can exceed even one third of all the tourism expenses and that makes gastronomy and boarding the key factors influencing the quality of an offered product of a tourist destination and the final tourist experience [3].

1.2 The concept and history of the gastronomic tourism development

Gastronomic tourists were the first travelers. Marco Polo and Athanasius Nikitin, among other experiences, described how they had tasted local food. Traders sent three sea to find, try and bring unprecedented dishes: strange fruits, nuts, wine and spices [4].It became as a kind of tourism later.

The initial stage of formation of gastronomic tourism is considered to bein 1998, when the assistant professor of popular culture at the State University Bowling Green (Bowling Green, USA) Lucy Long presented the term culinary tourism. Therefore, gastronomic tourism and culinary tourism are often also called [7].

Since 2001, the scientists from around the worldhave been conducting research in the field of culinary and wine tourism.

In 2001, the future president of the International Association of gastronomic tourism, American economist Eric Wolf wrote the first article about culinary tourism in the world, he developed this theme in the first book of the International Organization of culinary tourism.

In 2003, he founded the International Association of gastronomic tourism (The International Culinary Tourism Association). It provides a wide range of benefits for its members, such as training, development and promotion. The organization's mission states: To help people, communities and businesses to develop by establishing mutually beneficial relations based on the general interest in food and beverages. Manifesto of the International Culinary Tourism Association reflects a person's ability to learn the culture of the country through its national cuisine: Food -- is the quintessence of the nation, its character and history.

In 2006, the International Institute of Culinary Tourism was created. It was responsible for education and training components of the International Association of gastronomic tourism programs. The widespread development of culinary tourism has led to the formation of travel agencies specializing in international gastronomic tourism. There are examples of such companies, as: Gourmet on Tour (USA), The International kitchen (Great Britain), Gourmet Getaways (Italy).

Despite the fact that the International Association of Culinary tourism has appeared in the United States, Italians are considered the pioneers in generating ideas gastronomic tours. They skillfully combined the establishment of trade and technological productions involving travelers under the sign of healthy and delicious food. Since its birth, gastronomic tourism is growing exponentially every year [5].

French cuisine is not less popular. The French attitude to the process of cooking and food consumption was very serious and responsible from immemorial times. Almost every native of France considers himself/herself an outstanding cook, each family firmly keeps own family's secrets of cooking of various dishes.

By the end of the XVIII century, French gastronomy was put on a scientific basis. Anselm Brihaye-Savarin ? French public figure ?the deputy mayor and the judge ?described the basics of nutrition, developed regulatory rules of gastronomy, and entered the concept of taste into everyday practice. His contemporary Antonym Karem, long time worked in Russia, pointed out the role of chemistry in cooking for the first time and introduced a natural thing today, as exact weight dosage in a recipe.

The final construction of gastronomy to the rank of a scientific discipline was formed already in the XXI th.century, when the world's first gastronomic university was established in France [6].

In general, all gastronomic tours are divided into urban and rural, or green ones. Their fundamental difference is that, going to the countryside, the tourist seeks to try eco-friendly product, grown without the use of chemicals. Obligatory condition is: accommodation facilities for tourists, individual or specialized, must be in rural areas or small towns with no high-rise buildings. For example, green tours offer a collection of wild berries in the forest, fruit and vegetable farms, truffle hunting excursions or places, famous for wine production. Such tours are interesting not only for its culinary component, but also the fact that enable products through food and plunge into the daily life of local people, their customs, habits, orders and other subtleties, sometimes surprising and incomprehensible for the representatives of another language and culture.

City gastronomic tours involve visiting the restaurants of national cuisine, confectionery factories, plants for the production of sausages and other products with its obligatory wine. Particular kinds of city tours are restaurant and an educational tours.

A restaurant tour is a trip, that includes a visit to the most famous and popular restaurants, it is of high quality, exclusive cuisine, as well as the national focus. Paris is on the first place among the restaurant cities. Visiting the institutions of famous restaurateurs?Alain Ducasse, Michel Troisgros, Pierre Garnier and the other [8].

Educational tours give an opportunity to acquire practical skills in the preparation of national and exotic dishes. Most schools offer two-three-year training programs for professionals: chefs, sommeliers, baristas. However, there are those who will offer you the most saturated schedule, laid in a few weeks. Of course, if time and resources allow, the training period may be extended. Rates depend on the number of participants and duration of sessions.

The so-called mono tours are dedicated to one product, thatare especially popular. It can be wine, cheese, beer or any particular dish in different areas of touristic interest. Typically, during such tours people visit different regions of the country and they are interested in tasting their product. Moreover, cooking methods and the composition of food (in the case of a plate) may differ dramatically. For example, the Spanish paella in various cities of the region of Valencia is made with the addition of rabbit meat, and with the addition of chicken. There is a special recipe of paella of seafood, which is added instead of rice pasta.Vine gastronomic tours are very popular. They include vineyard tours, help of winemakers and wine tasting. The most popular regions are, of course, France and Italy. Less well-known, from this point of view are Germany, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. China, South Africa, Chile and Argentina are less popular, but a trip can be also organized in these countries. The most popular wine regions in France are Bordeaux and Alsace, in Italy ? Tuscany and Piedmont [9].Cheese tours are famous in Switzerland, Holland and Italy. At this trip, you can taste rare cheeses and visit the fascinating cheese fair [8].

The direction of green tourism is an eco-tour ?a tour that includes a visit to organic farming and production, familiarity with environmentally friendly, organic products and their production. The most popular European destinations are Finland, Sweden, Austria, Germany, France and Italy.

A gastronomic tour can be combined with other types of recreation. In any case, stay in the countryside will be measured and calm [9].Private rank in the classification of gastronomic tours takes eventful and combined tours.

Event-oriented tours are created to visit the area at a certain time in order to participate in social and cultural events with culinary themes: exhibitions, fairs, shows, festivals, holidays. For example, the July festival of melon Cavaillon in France, the town of Cavaillon and August Tomatina in Spain, the town of Buol [10].

A combined tour is a direction, containing several of the above types of tours. These tours are suitable for tourists who are already familiar with the gastronomy of a country. An example of a combined tour are tours in France: the first couple of days, tourists visit Paris restaurants and then a couple of days are enrolled in culinary school from the best chefs, and then go deep into France to get acquainted with the cultivation of herbs in Provence or the production of cider in Normandy [11].

The map of gastronomic traveler is not particularly limited, as each country has to offer something different in this kind of tourism. After all, each ethnic cuisine as unique as the country's character [12].

According to the World Food Travel Association [5], it is now possible to allocate 12 categories of gastronomic tourism:

1) culinary schools and master classes;

2) culinary entertainment;

3) culinary trends;

4) culinary events;

5) culinary media;

6) cooking preform;

7) food store;

8) gastronomic tours of agencies;

9) catering establishments;

10) farmers' markets;

11) gastronomic clubs;

12) manufacture of food products [13].

The destinations of gastronomic tourism are:

1) Countries, which has specific kitchen with some, peculiar features;

2) Some regionsknownby products, produced in this area. For example, regions of France such as Bordeaux, Alsace, Burgundy, Champagne, known for its unique wines.

3) Restaurants, known for the quality and exclusivity of the kitchen, the original menu. For example, owners of three-star restaurant guide Michelin, La Pergola in Rome, Italy, The Fat Duck in Bray, United Kingdom, Koji in Tokyo, Japan.

4) Companies, known for their culinary products. For example, the world's largest chocolate factory Alproze in Switzerland and the famous monastery brewery Andechs and Ettal, located in Upper Bavaria, Germany.

5) The institutions providing educational services in areas of cooking and gastronomy. For example, the French Academy of Culinary Art La Cordon Bleu, Graduate School of Italian cuisine (Italian Cuisine High School) [14];

6) Culinary events: festivals, fairs, degustation, master classes, exhibitions, conferences. For example, Christmas fairs, opening in November in cities such as Cologne, Dresden, Budapest, Nuremberg. For representatives of the hotel, restaurant and tourism business, a variety of conferences and showrooms are hosted annually: for example, international culinary conference, organized by the International Association of Culinary Tourism, International Culinary Salon World restaurant and hotel [5].

Culinary tourism is a special type of tourism, that has a number of features.Firstly, these are tours, which include tasting of dishes and drinks. During the trip a tourist will be told about the local cuisine, the peculiarities of wine, cheese, compatibility of products, which provide a unique opportunity to taste the wine and the product which has just been told; demonstrate production technology. Thus, a tourist will be able to learn all the nuances of their production in a particular country, because each nation or even region has its traditions.

The second feature are special trips, which conduct tasting or cooking various dishes. During the trip, a professional chef is accompanying tourists in the way he chooses products, designs the menu, gives master classes on cooking national dishes [12].

The unique distinctive features of gastronomic tourism should include the following:

1) absolutely all countries have the conditions for the development of culinary tourism;

2) seasonality doesn't influence on the gastronomic tourism, the right tour for all seasons can be chosen;

3) culinary tourism is a constituent element of all trips. But unlike other forms of tourism familiarity with the cuisine becomes the main motive, purpose and part of a gastronomic tour;

4) promotion of local farms and producers of food products is an integral part of any gastronomic tour [6].

The specifics of tourism destinations defines some rules that must be followed:

1) Accuracy in the choice of the tour. Gastronomic tours are well-designed activities. Often, tourists like to explore independently the local culinary traditions, visiting restaurants and cafes. With quality dishes no one but the host institution can provide. In turn, travel agencies selling gastronomic tours will not cooperate with restaurants or any other institutions that offer questionable foods and beverages. Therefore, health problems can occur often due to their own mistakes in the selection;

2) Reassessment of capabilities of the organism. Culinary travel abound in a variety of dishes and drinks, tourists want to try all the dishes offered;

3) There is no necessity in the overabundance of alcohol. The purpose of a wine tasting was to evaluate the gustatory gamut, not to try as many kinds of alcoholic beverages, as possible;

4) Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. The elementary rules of hygiene: to wash hands before and after eating, wash fruits and vegetables and other are especially relevant for gastronomic tourism.

Thus, a visitor arriving in any country should be aware that exotic dishes, snacks, fruits from street stalls can deliver a lot of trouble, and avoid them [15].

There are some weaknesses in gastronomic tours, such as low popularity of women segment. It can be separated from the specific features of gastronomic trip (they are less likely to choose such tours for fear of gaining weight); individual intolerance of certain food components [16].

In the experience of many tourists who have visited at least once the gastronomic tours, cuisine does not leave anyone indifferent. Therefore, a lot of them start to self-development of all the subtleties of cooking favorite dishes. Considering that the geography of culinary delights is unbounded, the popularity of such tours will grow.

The target audience of gastronomic tours includes:

1) tourists who want to join the country's culture through its national cuisine;

2) gourmet tourists. Gourmet is a person with high demands for food and sophisticated taste. In contrast, the gourmand - a man who simply like to eat a lot. The literature often confuse these two concepts;

3) tourist, using culinary tour with a purpose to complete the course and gain an experience (chefs, sommeliers, baristas, tasters, restaurateurs);

4) representatives of travel agencies, traveling with the purpose to explore this tourist destination.

The main groups of gastronomic tourists in the near future will form:

1) families with double income without kids (DINKS: Double Income No Kids);

2) families (or single) without children (SINKS: Single Income No Kids);

3) young people aged 25-35 with no children;

4) middle-aged people, 45-55 years, well-educated with high-income, whose children areleft at home;

5) representatives of the generation of the baby boom birth of 1950;

6) divorced, seeking to create a couple, and considering going to the restaurantfrom this point of view [17].

1.3 Classification of gastronomic routes

Geography of gastronomic program covers almost all continents, since each country has its own national cuisine. In this regard, we have ratings of popular world cuisines, that were analyzed, compiled by various tourism organizations and Internet portals.

Popularity of wine-gastronomic tours actively developed in recent years. The biggest fans of this entertainment proved to be Germans, British, Americans and Japanese. First, who proposed the idea of gastronomic tours, were Italians. One of the most popular destinations are France, Thailand, China, Japan and Spain. These countries are known for their original cuisine [18].

The Creative Cities Network was launched by UNESCO in October 2004, following the decision taken by the 170th Executive Board. It aims to enhance the creative, social and economic potential of cultural industries held by local actors and therefore promote UNESCO's goals of cultural diversity. This network of networks is structured around seven themes which can be chosen by the cities according to their preference for a specific creative industry sector to which they devote their talent and energy. Cities are able to develop their creativity because:

1) they harbour the entire range of cultural actors throughout the creative industry chain in their chosen sector;

2) as breeding grounds for creative clusters, they can create synergies that optimize their potential;

3) they are small enough to impact local cultural industries but also large enough to serve as gateways to international markets.Cities apply to join the Network because they want to:

a) showcase their cultural assets on a global platform;

b) make creativity an essential element of local economic and social development;

c) share knowledge across cultural clusters around the world;

d) build local capacity and train local cultural actors in business skills;

e) cultivate innovation through the exchange of know-how, experiences and technological expertise;

f) promote diverse cultural products in national and international markets.

There are themes, among which a participant can choose: Gastronomy, Literature, Cinema, Music, Design, Media Arts, Crafts and Folk Art.

Characteristics of gastronomy according to The Creative Cities Network:

1) Well-developed gastronomy that is characteristic of the urban centre and/or region;

2) Vibrant gastronomy community with numerous traditional restaurants and/or chefs;

3) Endogenous ingredients used in traditional cooking;

4) Local know-how, traditional culinary practices and methods of cooking that have survived industrial/technological advancement;

5) Traditional food markets and traditional food industry;

6) Tradition of hosting gastronomic festivals, awards, contests and other broadly targeted means of recognition;

7) Respect for the environment and promotion of sustainable local products;

8) Nurturing public appreciation, promotion of nutrition in educational institutions and inclusion of biodiversity conservation programs in cooking schools curricula.

According to UNESCO, there is a list of countries, that are included in the category Gastronomy:

Florianopolis (Brazil), Shunde (China), Gaziantep (Turkey), Parma (Italy), Chengdu (China), Jeonju (South Korea), stersund (Sweden), Popayn (Colombia), Tsuruoka (Japan), Zahl (Lebanon) [19].

English speaking travel guide made a rating of 10 culinary gems of the world. It includes: Thailand (Bangkok), India (Mumbai), Hawaii, Argentina (Buenos Aires), USA (Carmel WalaWala, Velfilt), Morocco (Fez), UK (London), Turks and Caicos Islands (Providenciales) . This list does not reflect the most visited place, it reflects the true place of pilgrimage for food lovers [20].

At travel portal presented its list of attractive gastronomic destinations. It includes: Thailand, United States, Turkey, the Netherlands, Singapore, France, Italy, Great Britain, Greece, China, Mexico, India, Japan and Indonesia.

The travel guide TripAdvisor has called the world's top leaders among the popular tourist destinations on the basis of one ?the most delicious cuisine. Winners are not determined by the members of the jury, but by the tourists themselves all over the world. The survey revealed the most attractive destinations on the gastronomic regions in the world.

The number of European countries were: Italy (Tuscany, Florence, Rome, Sorrento, Siena, Bologna), France (Paris), United Kingdom (York, Edinburgh), Spain (San Sebastian, Barcelona). List of Asian countries are: Thailand (Bangkok, KohSamui), China (Hong Kong), India (Mumbai, New Delhi, Bangalore, Goa, Kolkata, Chennai), Indonesia (Seminyak), Singapore, Japan (Sapporo, Kyoto, Osaka) Vietnam (Hoi An), South Korea (Seoul).

As a particular region the US and Canada are highlighted. The list of cities is: among the American stand New Orleans (LA), Napa (California), Chicago (Illinois), Charleston (South Carolina), San Francisco (California), New York (NY), Savannah ( GA), Santa Fe (New Mexico), Las Vegas (Nevada), Asheville (North Carolina). From Canada: Niagara-on-the-Lake (Ontario), Montreal (Quebec), Vancouver (British Columbia), Quebec City (Quebec), Victoria (British Columbia), Toronto (Ontario), the Okanagan Valley (British Columbia), Banff (Alberta) Ottawa (Ontario), Whistler (British Columbia).

Argentina (Buenos Aires, Cuyo, Bariloche), Peru (Lima, Cusco), Chile (Santiago), Colombia (Cartagena, Bogota), Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Panama City (Panama- City) stand out in Central and South America. And closes the list of Australia (Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Cairns), New Zealand (Queenstown, Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington) [21].

Publisher Lonely Planet has published its survey results on Where gastronomic tourism lovers prefer to enjoy the local cuisine?. Most of the respondents voted for the city of New York and Singapore. These areas occupy the first place in a variety of culinary options, from cheap food, which can be bought on the street, to expensive restaurants exotic cuisine. Second place in the ranking was divided by Rome (Italy) and Paris (France). Completing the top three leaders of the gastronomic cities such as San Francisco and Oakland (USA) and Melbourne (Australia)[22].

Leading online booking site in cooperation with the ABC magazine decided to find out what routes captivate travelers, had interviewed 5,000 visitors from 19 countries. This was an opportunity to choose several options proposed. Italy took the first place in the ranking of culinary preferences. With regard to the second place, opinions were divided. The international community preferred French cuisine. But Russian tourists were patriots. They voted for dishes of traditional Russian and Ukrainian cuisine. The Asian countries were on the third place. Japan, Thailand and Russia became the world's third most popular. It is worth noting that the gourmet Asian food issue is more acute than the European one, which features the national cuisine, though of interest, but it is not a decisive factor in choosing the destination of travel. Over 50% of Japanese and 40% of Koreans basically choose the geography travels on the basis of the gastronomic features of the country [23].

Swiss Institute Gottlieb Duttvaylera (GDI) conducted its research in the field of taste preferences. It began to study fine dining restaurants in Europe. Scientific works of the authors gave the name Food Nations (Nation-chefs). The basis for the study, to which the legislators were involved in culinary fashion. Processing performed Michelin Guide editions and The results of the study summed taking into account such national indicators as the volume of sales literature, cooking, the amount subject to the protection of EU statistics, local produce and tourism industry. The aim of the study was to identify the most popular in the culinary countries and cities in Europe, as well as identifying the reasons for this popularity. According to Michelin Guide information, the three leaders in the world of culinary catering market premium segment include Italian, French and Asian cuisines [24, 25].

Thus, in general, the following most preferred world gastronomic destinations can be distinguished: in Europe - Italy, France, Spain; in Asia - Thailand, Singapore, India; in other regions of the world: the US, Argentina and Australia. Kitchen of each of these countries was influenced by a variety of factors and can tell us about the features of the local culture and mentality.

Global cuisine - is a cuisine that is practiced around the world. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, [26] often associated with a specific region, country [27] or culture. To become a global cuisine, a local, regional or national cuisine must spread around the world with its food served world-wide.

Regional cuisine - based upon national, state or local regions [28]. Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, varying climates, cooking traditions and practices, and cultural differences [29]. One noteworthy definition is based upon traditional cuisine: A traditional cuisine is a coherent tradition of food preparation that rises from the daily lives and kitchens of a people over an extended period in a specific region of a country, or a specific country, and which, when localized, has notable distinctions from the cuisine of the country as a whole. There are a lot of different cuisines in the world.

Fusion cuisine is cuisine that combines elements of different culinary traditions. Cuisines of this type are not categorized according to any one particular cuisine style and have played a part in innovations of many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s.Fusionfoodis a generaltermforthecombinationofvariousformsofcookeryandcomesinseveralforms. Regionalfusioncombinesdifferentcuisinesof a regionor sub-regioninto a singleeatingexperience. gastronomic route tourism

Note by Note cuisine is a style of cooking based on molecular gastronomy, created by Herv This. Dishes are made using pure compounds instead of using animal or plant tissues. HervThis said the cuisine is like a painter using primary colours, or a musician composing note by note.Ingredients used in Note by Note cuisine include water, ethanol, sucrose, amino acids and lipids.[3] For example, in wine made by Note by Note cuisine, the following might be added: water, anthocyanins (for colour), sugars, ethanol, amino acids (for flavour), glycerol, phenols, quinones, and organic acids.

Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine. In contrast to cuisine classique, an older form of haute cuisine, nouvelle cuisine is characterized by lighter, more delicate dishes and an increased emphasis on presentation. It was popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, and his colleagues Andr Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide.

Haute cuisine or Grande cuisine refers to the cuisine of high level establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. Haute cuisine is characterized by meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food, at a high price level, perhaps accompanied by expensive wines.

Unlike a peasant or bourgeois cuisine, in which bold, earthy tastes and textures are allowable and even desirable, grande cuisine aims at a mellow harmony and an appearance of artfulness and order.

The world has plenty of products and cuisines to offer; but to taste all the symphonies of flavor, it is necessary to move out of homes and travel. This is because to live through the flavor of any popular cuisine, you have to dine like locals. All the modern world advancements have bought the things only a click away. Any type of cuisine can be ordered. But the true flavor of the dish comes from the experienced hands preparing it. There is a list of most popular cuisines and their description in table 1.1.


The description of the most popular cuisines





1. Thai

Thai cuisine is often mistaken as Chinese food and many people consider both of them as the same. Rice is the main component in this cuisine (like any other Asian cuisine) and the food is a perfect blend of sweet, bitter and sour flavors. In fact, this cuisine is one of the few in the world that balances all four main taste senses including sweet, sour, bitter and salty. Thai dishes are normally



prepared with less spices.

2. Indian

It is considered as the most diverse and one of the most popular cuisines in the world. Diversity in food is almost in direct proportion to the diversity in the language, customs and cultures in this country. Indian dishes can be divided into four main parts: Northern, Southern, Western and Eastern. Most Indian food items have been inspired by Vedic, Jain and Buddhist beliefs. Some dishes were also introduced by foreign invaders, rulers and merchants.

3. Turkey

If there is any country in the world which is really serious about the taste for its food, it is Turkey. Turkish people cook every single vegetable in the world and in the tastiest way possible. Due to proximity of this place to the sea, it has some seafood influence, too. Turkey is also renowned for the desserts people make here, and to everyone's surprise the desserts are free of sugar. They use different flavors to make deserts sweet, healthy and tasty.

4. Japanese

Soup, rice, noodles, sushi, meat and tofu ?Japan has limited number of dishes but the way it has dominated the world says everything about its taste. Japanese cuisine is popular because it is low in fat and light to digest. Japanese food is consumed all over the world and chefs have tried to create newer variety of the old dishes. Though, nothing can serve as a substitute for the original delicious Japanese cuisine.

5. French

The infinite flavors of French foods cannot be described in words. The amazing bonbons, fish and the beef stews, France has it all. There are many dishes that are considered part of French national cuisine today. A meal often consists of three courses, hors d'uvre or entre (introductory course, sometimes soup), plat principal (main course), fromage (cheese course) or dessert, sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert.

6. Spanish

People generally turn to Spanish food when they want something light and leafy. It is famous for meat, fish and leafy vegetables. Most dishes make use of oil in higher quantities than any other food in the world, probably because it has a heavy seafood influence. Spain is also known for the amazing wines made up of fruits; sangria is one which always goes with every kind of food. Spanish food offers a typical Mediterranean diet.

7. Italian

Italian cuisine is characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. [30] Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. [31] Ingredients and dishes vary by region. Many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine, with many variations and Denominazione di originecontrollata (DOC) (regulated appellation)



laws. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine.

8. Chinese

Cuisine in China is a harmonious integration of color, redolence, taste, shape and the fineness of the instruments. For the cooking process, chefs pick choice and various ingredients and seasonings while employing unparalleled complicated skills handed down from their fathers, ever aspiring to their ideal of perfection for all the senses. Among the many cooking methods it is used boiling, stewing, braising, frying, steaming, crisping, baking, and simmering and so on. Cuisine can rise to many different occasions from luxury court feasts, fetes, holy sacrificial rites, joyous wedding ceremonies to simple daily meals and snacks. The art of a good cook is to provide a wholesome and satisfying dish to suit the occasion.

9. Mexican

Mexican cuisine contains everything from spicy and sweet to sour. It is as complex as Chinese or French. It's the combination of different flavors that makes Mexican food a favorite for many. The food is famous for variety of spices and colorful decoration. Mexican food, perhaps, makes use of the largest number of chili peppers, mostly for flavors and not heat.

10. Indonesian

Indonesian cuisine is perhaps one of the most diverse in the world. It's appreciated all over and has been influenced by India, Spain, Middle-East, China, Portugal and Japan. This ethnic diversity is clearly reflected in the kind of food the Indonesian people make. The delicious food is rich in spices, coconut, peanuts, rice and satay.

Ukrainian cuisine is a part of the population's culture, lifestyle and customs. Well-known for its great diversity and amazing flavors, Ukrainian cuisine has had a number of influences including Russian, Polish, German and Turkish. Popular ingredients in the cuisine of Ukraine are meat, mushrooms, vegetables, berries, fruit and herbs. As Ukrainians are extremely hospitable their meals are served in very generous quantities. Some of the best Ukrainian specialties are actually very simple. Many ingredients are used in unusual combinations, creating a unique and sumptuous dish.

The list of Ukrainian dishes: borshch - beet soup often made with meat; ukha -fish soup typically with carp; hybivka - mushroom soup; vinigret - beetroot salad made with beans, peas and onions; oseledets - pickled herring salad with onion, sunflower oil and pepper; kapustianyi - sauerkraut salad with oil, walnuts and mayonnaise; paska - Easter bread; korovai - braided bread used in wedding celebrations; babka - Easter bread containing dried fruit. Main Course: varenyky - boiled dumplings stuffed with fruit, potatoes, cheese and cabbage; holubtsi - cabbage rolls stuffed with millet or minced meat with rice; blyntsi - crepes served with meat, cheese, fruit or caviar; pechenya - roast pork, lamb, beef or veal; studynets - jellied meat or fish; kotljetys - fish or meat fritters; deruny - potato fritters served with sour cream or cottage cheese; shashlyk - type of shish kebab usually with marinated lamb and vegetables. Dessert: tort - cakes often made with ground walnuts or almonds instead of flour; kutia - a Christmas dessert with honey, nuts, poppy seeds and wheat; zhely - jellied fruit; pampushky - fried dough, similar to doughnuts. Beverages: kvas - made from bread with a sweet-sour taste; compote - dried or fresh fruit drink; kefir - sour milk.

The most favorite dish all over the world is famous Ukrainian borsch. Borsch is cooked of fresh vegetables: cabbage, beet, tomato with the addition of pounded lard with garlic and parsley. The combination of all these groceries give the borsch its piquancy, aroma and unforgettable taste. There are about 30 types of Ukrainian borsch (Poltava borsch, Chernigov borsch, Kiev borsch, Volyn borsch, Lviv borsch and others).

Various porridges -varenikiare filled with cottage cheese, potatoes, stewed cabbage and berries. The same popularity among Ukrainian lovers of tasty food have stewed meat with potatoes, Ukrainian bitki with garlic and lard, stewed cold boiled pork with cabbage and lard, krucheniki and others.

Fish dishes have a considerable part in Ukrainian national food assortment from the old times. For example, crucian (carp) baked in sour cream, fish krucheniki, carp stuffed with mushrooms and boiled buckwheat, carp stewed with onion or sour cream, pike perch stuffed with mushrooms and crawfish, and others.

Ukraine national cookery is rich in meals cooked in special cases (wedding, birth of the child, send-off to the army and others). In this way pancakes of wheat and buckwheat flour and vareniki are the obligatory meals in Pancake week (Maslenica).

Meat or liver pies are usually cooked for the most solemn occasions. The ceremonial dish was fruit compote -uzvar. Now these dishes are common in every Ukrainian and Russian canteen or restaurant.

The ethnographic studies documented that Ukrainian cuisine had more than 4,000 recipes of meat, especially pork, fish, vegetables, eggs, dairy products. Variety of flour dishes are alwayspresent in the Ukrainian menu. Vine and rural tours become more popular in Ukraine, especially in Transcarpathia, Odessa, Kherson and Mykolaiv regions. According T.BozhukV.Prokopchuk, the most successful form is a combination of rural and wine tourism. Accommodation in eco-houses allows visitors to join in the proceses of growing and vintage, wine, culture and its use, to buy some wine and authentic souvenirs [32]. Such scientistsO.Stelmah, O.Aheyenko,
K. Kovalenko, noted demand for gourmet tours in the sector of ethnic and green tourism [33].

Tourists are usually expected to visit ethnic restaurants ? catering that represent traditional Ukrainian with the rituals, structure, life, crafts of the population of different regions or other ethnic cuisines living in Ukraine - Bulgarians, Russians, Poles, Armenia and so on.

The practice of recent years shows that tourist flows have increasedin regions where specialized tourism products were formed, such as fairs, folk festivals. Recently, Ukraine started many gastronomic festivals Carpathian Ratatouille (Uzhgorod), -Carpathian cheese (Rachel), Chervene wine (Mukachevo) Festival wine Transcarpathian Beaujolais (Uzhgorod), cheese and wine festival (Lviv), festival Kulish (v. Kamenets).

Culinary tourism provides an opportunity not only to get acquainted with the culinarytraditions of a country; the way of material culture of people, its elements of folklore and traditional methods of food production, but the touch of its historical past. The culinary heritage is the part of the tourist experience. In addition, there path-depth study of traditional cuisine in the understanding and interpretation of social, cultural, commercial, technological, economic and health contexts. It should also be noted that the catering has ethnic aspect in tourism. National cuisine is closely linked to other aspects of life that reflects the relationship between people in a society, norms and behaviors. Culinary tourism is an important factor of positive globalization of modern society that promotes transformation of cultures.

Gastronomic tourism is important and has possibilities for development in Ukraine, because:

1) it contributes the development of local farms and manufacturers
(restaurants, hotels, etc.);

2) it doesn't have seasonal dependence;

3) it stimulates the popularity of national cuisine and brand of the country;

4) all regions have perspectives for development;

5) new type of tourism creates new work places in different enterprises;

6) it provides more business opportunities;

7) it increases tourist flows;

8) it influences on the economy of the country;

9) enrichment of social, educational and cultural level of citizens.


2.1 The review of the world restaurant chains

A restaurant chain is a set of related restaurants in many different locations that are either under shared corporate ownership (e.g., McDonald's in the U.S.) or franchising agreements. Typically, the restaurants within a chain are built to a standard format through architectural prototype development and offer a standard menu and/or services [34].

The last decade can be seen a significant increase in the number and size of restaurant chains in the world. The undoubted leader here is the United States, whose restaurant chains are aggressively expansionist policy outside their own country. Their success is due to a large number of American tourists and Americans living abroad, as well as a huge number of foreigners in a different time working or studying in the United States. Especially fast growing chains of restaurants are, the main products of which are burgers and pizza.

The main advantages of the restaurant chains are following:

1) attraction of additional customers through brand popularity;

2) economies of scale. Developed network allows you to increase the frequency of visits to the restaurant chain;

3) large resistance in periods of crisis, compared with a single restaurant;

4) the ability to attract highly qualified professionals;

5) the ability to develop the franchising system, that the single restaurants virtually unavailable. This means that it is possible to accelerate the development, including in other countries;

6) the network has the ability to strengthen its advertising campaign with greater resources at the expense of the central budget. Every restaurant has the opportunity to advertise themselves directly in their place of accommodation, and in addition there is a network of advertisement, aimed at brand promotion;

7) Restaurants included in the network often have the opportunity to receive the best places to rent at reasonable prices. Landlords prefer network clients.

There are almost no disadvantages in the restaurant chain in comparison with a single restaurant. Theoretically, they can be attributed the fact that a single restaurant is able to more quickly respond to changing external circumstances. For example, if you want to enter into any additional food menu, the restaurant in the unit it is easier. In networks, the decision applies to all institutions, including those working in a completely different environment, such a solution can not simply be taken quickly - the cost of failure is directly proportional to the number of restaurants included in the network[35].

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