Game-based learning as a way to enhance intrinsic motivation and speaking skills
Game-based learning and its impact on intrinsic motivation and performance of students, in particular speaking skills. The theoretical part includes definitions of main concepts such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, gamification and creativity.
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Российский государственный социальный университет,
Национальная ассоциация преподавателей английского языка, г. Москва
Обучение, основанное на игре, как средство формирования внутренней мотивации учения и навыков говорения
Бусарова В.В.1, Степичев П. А.2
1Бусарова Виктория Валерьевна / Busarova Victoria - учитель,
Российский государственный социальный университет,
Языковая школа «Лицом к лицу»;
2Степичев Петр Анатольевич / Stepichev Peter - кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, вице-президент Ассоциации учителей английского языка г. Москвы, исполнительный директор, кафедра английской филологии,
Abstract: the article describes game-based learning and its impact on intrinsic motivation and performance of students, in particular their speaking skills. The theoretical part includes definitions of main concepts such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, gamification and creativity. The practical part is dedicated to certain games and tasks to enhance motivation and speaking skills.
Game-based learning as a way to enhance intrinsic motivation and speaking skills Busarova V.1, Stepichev P.2
The concept of edutainment as a blend of material which is meant to be both educational and enjoyable is getting more and more popular. Many teachers realize that the challenges with the lack of motivation for learning, including short attention span that most modern learners have, need to be tackled by means of new methods and tools [4, p. 117]. We believe that educational games can be especially powerful in this respect.
Keywords: game-based learning, gamification, intrinsic motivation, creativity.
Аннотация: статья описывает обучение, основанное на игровых технологиях, и его влияние на формирование внутренней мотивации к учению и успеваемости студентов, в частности, успешного формирования у них навыков говорения. Теоретическая часть включает определения основных понятий, таких как внутренняя и внешняя мотивация, сращение игры и образования, творчество. Практическая часть посвящена конкретным технологиям, способствующим развитию внутренней мотивации к учению и навыков говорения.
Ключевые слова: обучение, основанное на игре, игрофикация (сращение игровой и учебной деятельности), внутренняя мотивация, творчество.
Motivation is very important: it is the key to successful learning and obtaining knowledge. Students who do not feel rewarded get lower marks, and, most importantly, cannot speak a foreign language.
According to Guay, et al. motivation is «the reasons that underlie behaviour» [2, p. 712]. Motivation can be extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity for instrumental reasons rather than for the intrinsic qualities of the activity and intrinsic motivation refers to «engaging in an activity for its own sake, for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from participating in it» [2, p. 712]. So the main difference between these two forms of motivation is that extrinsic motivation comes from the outside of student while the intrinsic comes from within. If we want to obtain a long-lasting, permanent motivation we have to start within every student and awake the inner desire in order to have durable outcome. Being extrinsically motivated is much easier that is to only have a desire to do something yet it is a not long-lasting one as students may become bored or find the foreign language difficult to learn. The intrinsic motivation comes from within each student and may last much longer. If learners are excited, curious or surprised it provokes their participation in the number of projects , the afterword affect satisfies, the level of challenge suits the students and the teacher cares about them we have a well-motivated individuals ready to learn a foreign language.
Imagine that you're the only one standing on the shore during the stormy time and you have to tame the rebellious waves. This is the way teenagers (aged 15-17) nowadays look at you as a teacher. You're either their prey or friend. The failure or idol they would love to worship. And as the result teaching such individuals can be a very difficult task. And if one wonders what can be more complicated that teaching here's the answer: it's almost impossible to make them hear you. These days student-teacher roles have vanished therefore we need some advanced and modern ways of teaching a foreign language.
A regular teacher today for many students is mostly a part of entertainment, a so-called gaming character. And it's up to the teacher to decide whether his pupil would like to continue the game or quit. So a learning process becomes nothing less but a strategy-like gaming industry where teacher is the target of the animated cartoon for any teenager to look at. So, one has to move forward and get an 'achievement' as the trendiest teacher.
Fifteen to seventeen age gap is a very difficult period for teenagers as they have the idea of a perfect world where they are already grown-ups and therefore don't make mistakes. Nevertheless they are still young and seek for some care and protection, yet sometimes scared to ask for any as they might be misunderstood as weak or pathetic. So a teacher's task is to create a reliable connection, so-called bridge between him or her and a student. A teenager sees and feels the emotions deeper than any adult so a teacher should just show that he or she has emotions as well. Whether they are bad, sad or encouraging, touching some of hidden pieces of teacher's character or just thoughts on everyday routine of teacher's life you might get into consideration that these little things is what counts the most. Share your disadvantages with students and they will tell you how horrible studying is. This is where one, as the trendiest teacher, goes one step ahead: «We do not study. We play».
As we see there are more interesting ways for teenagers aged 15-17 to learning a foreign language than just sitting and moaning that something is boring . Sometimes all we need is an always willing to learn something new teacher, friendly atmosphere and a good, educational game .
Here are a few methods that may help students to enhance intrinsic motivation to speak English as a foreign language.
Storytelling is «a universal function of language and one of the main ingredients of casual conversation» [2, p. 95]. Through the stories learners not only practice an essential skill, but can also learn one another as we are the stories we tell. Let us consider such speaking activities and highly motivating and emotionally interesting for teenagers:
- A story from everyday life:
Telling something that a student did or will do on a particular day is very motivating for those who love sharing their lifestyle with others.
- A prepared speech on a specific topic.
A prepared in advance speech is motivating for those, who are a little bit scared to give a monologue without some preparation. Students can use the given time to look up some needed words in the dictionary and organize their thoughts into a well-structured speech. This is going to intrinsically motivate a more shy students to speak as they first have some time to prepare.
- Show and tell.
This is an activity that boosts student's imagination and creativity and is intrinsically motivating for students who love the idea of speaking on challenging and unusual topics.
- Chain story.
A story can be told by a whole group one by one and motivate the group to work as a team. The key pluses are the idea of working in a group yet still being an individual: some students will be very motivated to speak to add something of their own to the story.
- Guess the lie.
Turning an English lesson in some kind of a game may be the enhancer of intrinsic motivation too. Student by telling stories two of which are true in every particular and the third of which is totally a lie will be eager to tell something about himself or herself and others will be eager to give their guesses. The main part of storytelling here is choosing a topic that is equally liked by students.
Overall we can admit that a relevant game or an engaging task can be an effective tool to enhance motivation and boost speaking skills. The potential of games in the ELT classroom can hardly be underestimated in respect of developing creative personalities of students. Barry J. Schwartz and Marlene Damon in the article «Searching for a Creative School» point out that the too-familiar standard recipe of workbooks and multiple choice tests allows for no creative exploration or high-level critical thought. They conclude that the nurturing of creativity is a great barometer of quality education .
We believe that gamification is a modern tool that should be studied and used to make the process of learning English more effective in many ways.
game learning particular student
1. Baklanova N. K., Stepichev P. A. Creative Orientation Development as a Requirement of Professional Training of a Teacher in the XXI Century // Paradigmata poznani. - 2016. - № 1. - S. 40-43.
2. Guay F., Chanal J., Ratelle C. F., Marsh H. W., Larose S., & Boivin M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 711-735.
3. How to Teach Speaking / S. Thornbury. - Pearson Education; 1 edition (8 Sept. 2005). 160 p.
4. Stepicheva O. D., Stepichev P. A. Reaching New Teaching Horizons With Grammar Puzzle - A New Game To Inspire Learners Of English // Obuchaja, vdohnovljaj: k novym vysotam pedagogicheskogo masterstva Materialy XXI mezhdunarodnoj konferencii nacional'nogo ob#edinenija prepodavatelej anglijskogo jazyka v Rossii. Otv. redaktor Shustrova E. V.. Ekaterinburg, 2015. S. 117.
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