Human resources management system: the case of leisure organizations
Identifying the peculiarities of human resource management practice in leisure organizations. Investigation of adaptation processes of new employees. Study personality, personnel initiatives and their promotion to creativity in the leisure organizations.
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Human resources management system: the case of leisure organizations
The article analyzes the aspects of problematic human resource management system improvement by identifying the peculiarities of human resource management practice in leisure organizations and establishing measures for human resource management system improvement. In order to achieve the set objective, the theoretical analysis and empirical quantitative research were carried out with the help of online questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was sent to various leisure-service organizations operating in Kaunas city and Kaunas region. The study involved 66 leisure- service organizations. This study revealed that leisure organizations pay less attention to the new employees and their adaptation process, but are more focused on the development and qualification of employees who have worked there for a longer period. The analysis of the data showed that employees often feel negative psychological environment in the workplace that may arise because of experienced routine, underestimation of work, lack of attention paid to the employee and others. The main conclusions - human resource management improvement in leisure organizations requires an integrated approach. Many factors such as working conditions, staff interrelation, etc., may cause negative emotions in employees, which in turn would increase dissatisfaction with the work done and could lead to worse results of the organization. Leisure organizations should pay more attention to new employees' adaptation and competence development, as well as focus on personal initiative of the employees and their creativity promotion.
Keywords: human resources, management, staff development, adaptation process, labor relations.
МИКОЛАЙТІС, ЕВАЛДАС, студент, Литовський університет спорту (Каунас, Литва), E -mail: email@example.com
РОЗВИТОК ЛЮДСЬКИХ РЕСУРСІВ СИСТЕМИ УПРАВЛІННЯ: ПРИКЛАД ОРГАНІЗАЦІЇ ДОЗВІЛЛЯ
У статті проаналізовано аспекти удосконалення системи управління проблематично людськими ресурсами, що ідентифікує особливості практики управління людськими ресурсами в організації дозвілля та сприяє розробці заходів щодо вдосконалення системи управління людськими ресурсами. З метою досягнення встановити цілі теоретичного аналізу та емпіричного кількісного дослідження були проведені за допомогою онлайн анкетного опитування. Анкета була відправлена до різних сфер дозвілля сервісних організацій, що працюють в Kaunas city та Каунас області. У дослідженні брали участь 66 дозвіллєвих сервісних організацій. Це дослідження показало, що організації дозвілля платити менше уваги на нових співробітників та їх адаптації процесу, але більше зосереджені на розвитку та кваліфікації співробітників, які працювали там протягом більш тривалого періоду.
Аналіз даних показав, що співробітників часто відчувають негативну психологічну обстановку на робочому місці, які можуть виникнути через досвідчені рутини, недооцінку роботи, відсутність уваги до працівників та інші. Головний висновок - удосконалення управління людськими ресурсами в організації дозвілля вимагає інтегрованого підходу. Багато факторів, таких як умови праці, персонал взаємозв'язку тощо, може викликати негативні емоції співробітників, які в свою чергу призведуть до збільшення незадоволеності результатами виконаної роботи і можуть призвести до гіршого, - результатів організації.
Дозвілля організації повинні приділяти більше уваги до адаптації і компетентності розвитку нових співробітників, а також зосередитися на особистості, ініціативи працівників та їх заохочення до творчості.
Ключові слова: людські ресурси, управління, розвиток персоналу, процес адаптації, трудові відносини.
МИКОЛАЙТИС, ЭВАЛДАС, студент, Литовский университет спорта (Каунас, Литва), E -mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
РАЗВИТИЕ ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКИХ РЕСУРСОВ СИСТЕМЫ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ: ПРИМЕР ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ В СФЕРЕ ДОСУГА
В статье проанализированы аспекты усовершенствования управления проблематично человеческими ресурсами, которые идетифицируют особенности практики управления человеческими ресурсами в организации в сфере досуга и способствуют разработке рекомендаций относительно усовершенствования системы управления человеческими ресурсами. С целью достижения установить цели теоретического анализа и эмпирического количественного исследования были проведены при помощи онлайнанкетного опроса. Анкета была отправлена в разные сферы досуга сервисных организаций, которые работают в Канунас сити и Каунас области. В исследовании брали участие 66 организаций досуга сервисных орагнизаций. Это исследование показало, что организации досуга приделяют меньше внимания новым сотрудникам и их адаптации к процессу, но больше сосредоточены на развитии и квалификации сотрудников, которые работают там на протяжении длительного периода. Анализ даннях показал, что сотурдники часто на себе испытывают негативную психологическую обстановку на рабочем месте, которая может возникнуть в результате рутины, недооценки работы, отсутствия внимания и другое. Главный вывод - усовершенствование управления человеческими ресурсами в организации досуга требует интегрального подхода. Множество факторов, таких, как условия труда, персонал взаимосвязи и другое, может вызвать негативные эмоции сотрудников, которые в свою очередь приведут к увеличению недовольства результатами выполненной работы и могут привести к худшему -, ухудшению результатов оргаанизации. Организации досуга должны больше приделять внимания к адаптации и компетентности развития новых сотрудников, а также сосредоточиться на личности, инициативе работников и их мотивации к творчеству.
Ключевые слова: человеческие ресурсы, управление, развитие персонала, процесс адаптации, трудовые отношения
human resource management leisure
The analysis of the problem
The current paradigm of human resources management that was formed as the need and the ability to respond to changes of local, international and global competition circumstances reflects the approaches to human resources and their management in the conditions of market economy. This paradigm is more focused on economic efficiency of using human resources and develops such management methods and standards, on the basis of which it would be possible to achieve some measurable activities results in business (Lobanova, 2015). Human resource management issues, highlighting various problematic issues, are analyzed in the works of Lithuanian scientists (Kazlauskaite and Buciuniene, 2008, Lobanova, 2015, Mendele-Leliugiene, 2013, Pivoriene, 2014, Barsauskiene, 2006, Vanagas, Vysniauskiene, 2012, Zaptorius, 2007) as well as foreign authors (Berber, Susnjar, Slavic, & Baosic, 2014, Matsuo, 2015, Russ-Eft, 2014, Valentin, 2015, Santos, 2015, Homberg, Vogel, 2016, Ishizaka, Pereira, 2016, Boxall, 2014, Aryanto, Fontana, Afiff, 2015, Uslu, 2015, Gungor, 2011, Sendogdu, Kocabacak, Guven, 2013, Pasaoglu, 2015, Wright, McMahan, 2011, Cinar, Karcioglu, 2013, Berber, Susnjar, Slavic, Baosic, 2014, Rose, 2016, Moon, Hur, Ko, Kim, Yoo, 2016).
Literature review on human resources management theme shows that there are analyzed such relevant scientific problems as the role of human resources in the formation of sustainable competitive advantage, integration of new people management methods and standards into management practice, the role of human resources in the context of sustainable development, strengthening of human / social capital, formation of socially responsible personality, connections of corporate social responsibility, sustainable development and human resource management, CSR strategy implementation in the development of HIV education and career, assessment as socially responsible practice, the role of leadership in the development of human resources. Summarizing the results of the survey, it could be stated that human resource management is the ideology, the development of human resources is part of a strategy and a key component trying to reach the competitiveness of organizations, a condition for implementation of corporate social responsibility principles and sustainable development, and the methods of human resource development, the measures, standards, human resources development models should be matched with the processes of modern cohesion in the European Union and the challenges assigned by global economics. The strengthening of human social capital, the development of socially responsible personality, creation of human resources development systems and the government support is an important field of activities trying to reach the sustainable development in organizations.
Human Resource Management, as a modern personnel management concept, defines the organization's management human dimension, the staff behavior in terms of organizations. Human resource management concept was introduced since 1970. Various researchers are trying to deal with the human role in the organization in a complex way, his values and cultural aspects. Human resources must be thought of as company employees having some kind of competencies who, accepting and realizing solutions, affect the organization's operational efficiency. The aim of Human Resources Management - to improve the employment of organization's staff, e. human resources so that the employer could get the maximum benefits by properly using staff knowledge and skills (Grehem, 2003). Human resource management goal for the organizations - decisions and actions, such as providing them with high-quality human resources, i.e. to use the human resources effectively, to allocate their physical workload optimally, to provide a sense of security, to educate workforce, to create favorable social and psychological environments for employees, as well as to raise the motivation and confidence in the organization, thus increasing productivity or their longer performance in organization's activities (Barsauskiene, 2006).
Table 1 Human Resource Management System (formed on the basis of Korsakiene, Lobanova, Stankeviciene, 2011)
Human resource management objectives
Human resource management policy
Human resource management results
The selection, based on specific criteria, using sophisticated tests.
Low staff turnover;
Loyalty to the company;
There exists an assumption that the system of practices pointed to high loyalty or high results will benefit the organization, regardless of the situation. On the other hand, there still is a discussion about which specific practices constitute really the best practices, but it should be noted that there is more consensus on the areas covered. There are also exist differences in practices, such as a family friendly and equal opportunity practices, as well as those that cannot be considered to be good for all business sectors, for instance, profit-related pay and employee stock ownership schemes. Nowadays, there are widely recognized such elements of the best practices: employee security; complex selection; teamwork and decentralization; high income linked to organizational results; extensive training; narrow differences in status; communication and participation. In general terms, human resource management is not just personnel recruitment, dismissal or social welfare, it is such human resources employment which allows the organization to achieve its strategic goals. According to Jewell (2002), human resource management is based on four principles: investing in employees is as important as other types of investments; strategic importance of human resources is beyond doubt, so the organization's top management should take this into account when making its strategic plans; commitments - this is not blind obedience, that is why the main levers (i.e., human resources employment, assessment of the work done and payment) must be applied in order not to encourage employees to obey, but to encourage their commitment to the organization.
According to Lobanova (2015), the study found a positive correlation between human resource management practical areas and the organization's performance efficiency (Armstrong, 2010), between human resource management practical methods and human resource management results (Guest, 1997; Guest et al., 2012) what is considered a prerequisite in terms of human resource management practices impact on employee engagement, motivation, loyalty and quality of human resources in principle.
Usually every company, organization or units of other status (hereafter called - organizations) seek personal benefits: higher profits, better quality, provided services improvement, the improvement and optimization of organization's activities, and these goals would not be achieved without the members of the organization (Zaptorius, 2007). HR improvement in the organization is directly linked with almost all possible aspects of quality improvement. For this reason, HR development activities in the organizations is one of the key success factors in the further performance of the organization, these activities are often accentuated more important than any other organization's activity (Ishizaka, Pereira, 2014).
In recent years, the organizations have paid a much more important role to HR management because the human resources are the main cornerstone source of success to the organization if it is able to properly and rationally distribute and develop them (Boxall, 2014). HR possibilities are broad, but developing them one has to keep in mind that they have feelings and also the pursuit of their own benefit. Many factors for an employee, such as low income for the work performed, lack of assurance of career opportunities or social security, psychological environment and big physical workload, and other similar factors may lead to less loyalty to the organization, lower effort, indifference or other dissatisfaction which could influence the company's development slowdown or even the organization's diverse operational inefficiency. In the situation when the technology evolves, the competition increases, new cultural environment is created, new customer needs appear, the companies in order to keep up with the quality and other standards, have to continuously improve the system of available human resources management. So it can be said that human resources management and their continuous improvement is necessary part for modern organizational development and management.
According to Barsauskiene (2006), the type of the organization, direction, the choice of management strategy have a significant impact on HR management. Human resource management techniques and methods in different organizations vary depending on their size, the type of chosen management and others. Every human resource in the organization must have his own position, which has the formulated job descriptions, precisely formulated tasks to achieve common organizational goals. If the organization's management structure is different, their HR management types differ, too. According to the authors Vanagas and Vysniauskiene (2012), traditional businesses in most cases, depending on their level of development, choose these management types: patriarchal, linear, functional, staff and, in fewer cases, there is an attempt to introduce matrix management type. According to these management types, the management structure schemes are drawn which help the employees and members of the organization understand their positions and their place.
Human resource management system includes such key elements of the system as the development of employee competencies (knowledge and skills) and training, employee relations and their coordination, employee welfare by creating a favorable working environment from organizational point of view, reward and motivation systems as well as strong organizational climate from the psychological point of view. Organization's performance productivity in terms of human resources is influenced by coordinated actions; the frequency of training; internal interaction; the allocation of responsibilities; conflicts; motivation, cooperation. The organization should properly choose HR ways by analyzing the current situation.
In scientific works where the impact of human resource management practices and systems on results of organizational performance is determined (Guest et al., 2012) it is stated that there are many contextual and contingency factors linking human resource management and organizational performance (Fig. 1). According to Lobanova (2015), human resource management methods, standards and practices belonging to the sphere of contextual factors in terms of the cohesion processes problems should be assessed on the basis of other criteria. Employee relations and motivation as well as organizational climate are more dependent on internal conditions and strength of expression of "soft" human resource management models characteristics.
Meanwhile, assessment requirements for knowledge, skills and abilities have characteristics of "solid" models - in the conditions of labor market internationalization the requirements for staff competencies become more regulated and adapted to international standards. In the conditions of cohesion in the European Union developing social market economy, the understanding of requirements for evaluation of the welfare also changes.
Staff training. As noted by Muhammad, Riaz, Chandan (2009), human capital development is the task as difficult as formation of competitive strategy for the leaders. The competitors are always trying to hire better employees that is why the company has to take into account the human factor. The possibilities of creating a unique team is the best way to increase profits. The way in which companies manage their employees, has a very significant impact on their performance. Employee involvement, job design, including teamwork, employee training significantly improve the organization's activities. Strategic management of human resources and human capital refer to competitive advantage provided by the organization's people - the most important property of the organization.
Employees - the core of any organization's competitive development factor. Organization staff management can be characterized by the whole of activities which, first of all, allows the employee and the organization using his skills to conclude an agreement on the relationship between nature and objectives and control that this agreement is carried out (Zakarevicius et al., 2011).
Order to make it function properly, it is necessary that HR would exactly be aware of their duties, official knowledge, be ready to properly carry out their current and future obligations. Inappropriate HR training and improvement usually leads to many misunderstandings, improper performance of the duties, maximum staff productivity is not developed that has a significant impact on the organization. Competent employees of the organization are the main technical, technology, work organization development factors, the driving force in these areas. Any organization's success depends largely on employees' knowledge and skills to realize them and the desire to do so. Only continuous learning and development allows an organization to survive in a competitive, constantly changing environment.
The aim of the article aims to identify the peculiarities of human resource management practice in leisure organizations and determine the measures for developing human resource management system. Empirical research problem is posed with the question of what human resource management weaknesses prevail and how to improve human resource management system by using management measures in a complex way?
Empirical study. Qualitative research was selected for empirical study, the results were obtained by using an anonymous online survey. Anonymous survey was sent by e-mail to 260 leisure organizations in Kaunas region, the responses were received from 66. This approach was chosen in order to cover the maximum possible amount of leisure organizations sector participants. The survey was targeted only to organizations engaged in leisure time organization (sports clubs, active leisure, entertainment, etc.). People employed in leading positions as well as non-leading ones could participate in the survey, anonymity was guaranteed throughout the whole research and after the research (Bitinas, Rupsiene, Zydziunaite, 2008). The questionnaire consists of 36 questions, 6 of which were control (mandatory) in order to identify the key characteristics of the respondents. When preparing the survey questionnaire, it was based on scientific works of the authors dealing with human recourse management and development problematic issues (see Table 2)
Data analysis methods. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software version 22.0 was used for statistical analysis of the research data. The research results are shown using Microsoft Excel program. For the assessment of the obtained results there were used:
For comparing two independent research groups - Mann Whitney rank amounts criterion.
2. In order to compare the frequency of ambiguous survey data in several groups of respondents - Chi-square test. 3. For assessment of the dependence links between the two factors there was calculated Spearman correlation coefficient. The statistical analysis results are reliable if the calculated p value is less than the significance level a = 0.05.
Table 2 Questionnaire forming justification
Categories of questions
Sub-categories of questions
Based on authors
Employee coordination, well-being and climate of the organization
Organizational management structure and functions
Zakarevicius et al. (2011); Vanagas and Vysniauskiene (2012); Guest et al.( 2012); Lobanova (2015); Barsauskiene (2006)
Employee well-being, communication and organizational climate
Lobanova (2015); Boxall (2014); Santos (2015); Broune (2005); Homberg, Vegel (2016)
developing of employee knowledge, abilities and skills
Organization of selection
Muhammad, Riaz; Chandan (2009); Korsakiene, Lobanova, Stankeviciene (2011);
Boxall (2014); Lobanova (2015);
Employee adaptation and assessment
Lobanova (2015); Boxall ( 2014)
Human resource assessment
Lobanova (2015); Boxall (2014); Santos (2015); Homberg, Vegel (2016)
Organizing human resource training
Lobanova (2015); Barsauskiene (2006)
External pay and motivation
Motivation of human resources
Zakarevicius et al. (2011); Korsakiene, Lobanova, Stankeviciene (2011); Lobanova (2015);
Dennis D. Fehrenbacher (2013); Zabtorius (2007)
Discussion of the empirical research results. In this study the peculiarities of human resource management system were found in organizations providing leisure services. At the beginning of empirical study the framed hypothesis that the organizations do not pay sufficient attention to human resources adaptation process was confirmed. Only 24.2 percent of leisure organizations surveyed have implemented employee adaptation programmes, and only 15.2 percent of these have people responsible for new employees' adaptation process. Regardless of the size of the organization, high importance is not given to creation of adaptation system. The second framed hypothesis - in leisure organizations employees feel negative psychological state, was proved only partially. The study results revealed that a very high percentage of employees working in leisure organizations often feel or sometimes feel negative psychological state in the workplace (30.3 percent and 51.5 percent accordingly). This high rate can be caused by many factors related to HR management features in leisure organizations, and this should be viewed holistically. Negative psychological atmosphere causes can be varied. As the survey results show, greater proportion of employees feel no career development opportunities in the organizations, often or sometimes feel work routine, their work is most often assessed informally (not accumulating actual data according to the evaluation criteria and not making performance reports), there prevails lack of motivation, part of the respondents do not feel properly evaluated, etc. (see the Annexes). However, despite all these negative aspects, the respondents noted that their work is pleasant or very pleasant for them ( 51.5 percent and 15.2 percent accordingly), the majority of them feel an important “part” of the organization, they are satisfied with their working conditions (78.8 percent). In summary, it can be assumed that the negative psychological atmosphere felt by employees in the workplace can demotivate employees, so the duty is likely to be carried out with less enthusiasm, employees will be less loyal to the organization, resulting in unsatisfactory organization performance results. The questions of such type were used by Uslu (2015) assessing the human resource management system in the public and private sector in the organizations. It was found that the negative psychological atmosphere has a negative
impact on the employees and reduces their job satisfaction which leads to improper employee performance of the delegated functions.
The third hypothesis, having assessed the received results, was confirmed as it was found that in leisure organizations more attention is paid to higher seniority employees. This is related to the first hypothesis, the lack of attention during the adaptation process. Also, the results of the survey revealed that possibilities for additional studying and training in the organizations are given to employees having more years of working experience. It can be assumed that training is more oriented to the present, and not to new employees. Less attention to new staff is being felt in terms of relationships with colleagues and management - better evaluation is given by employees having a longer working experience in the organization. It can be assumed that the organization's management's distrust of new employees conditions the behavior of all the staff in the processes of human resource management, where insufficient attention is paid to adaptation, training, motivation and other HRM system processes. During the study, it was also found what factors could most encourage and motivate, increase employee loyalty in leisure organizations. The received results confirmed Pasaoglu (2015) study conclusions - award, directly dependent on the quality of employee's work results, is one of the most staff motivating and encouraging factors.
Recommended human resource management system model in leisure organizations
Human resource management system development model is characterized by a feedback process stages. The organization's performance results are observed and evaluated according to the following categories: employee coordination, well-being and climate of the organization; assessment and developing of employee knowledge, abilities and skills; external pay and motivation. The analysis of human resources management system, methods, standards and management practice is carried out with regards to quality, duties and flexibility aspects, the weaknesses, interference and causes are found out. Based on the received results of the analysis, the plan for HRM system development measures is made. Not having found out improper leadership means, unwanted discrepancies in activities, the situation in terms of HRM is observed and current situation is supported. Human resource management system is constantly evaluated, analyzed, changes are observed and changes in the requirements for human resources, activities are improved by choosing appropriate methods and HRM standards and progressive practice.
1. The analysis of the survey data on the issues of staff coordination, welfare and organization's climate showed that employees in leisure organizations often do not feel sufficiently appreciated, important and motivated, but they tend to evaluate their work as pleasant, are satisfied with the created working conditions; staff of leisure organizations holding managerial positions, evaluate their job satisfaction better than those holding non-managerial positions; women in leisure organizations are more aware of being “part” of the organization than men, but they are not satisfied with the career prospects; employees working in small organizations evaluate their career options better than working in a micro organization or a medium-sized organization; most often mentioned redundancy reasons - unsatisfactory work results or inappropriate behavior; adverse psychological atmosphere in the workplace is experienced by most of the questioned employees in the organizations; employees working in leisure organizations evaluate their relationships with colleagues and the administration in most cases positively; the more working experience the employee has, the better relationship he has with his colleagues Leisure organizations managers should pay more attention to employees' initiative and creativity encouragement by providing proposals.
2. The analysis of the data on the topics of employees' knowledge, abilities, skills assessment and education showed that not very strong focus is put on employee adaptation in leisure organizations; staff evaluation in these organizations is usually conducted informally by using these evaluation methods - employee survey and leadership survey; possibilities for additional learning and training in leisure organizations basically satisfy their employees; lower-level employees have fewer opportunities for additional education and training than the higher-level employees; the bigger the employee's working experience, the better he evaluates his potential for additional learning and training. It should be noted that in leisure organizations the staff is usually sought relying on references and using CV banks, and the most appropriate employees for the company are usually selected with the help of the interviews or during work trials.
3. The analysis of the data on the topics of external employee pay showed that only half of the surveyed employees in the organization feel like being properly evaluated in terms of a suitable amount of pay. Almost a third of them do not always feel sufficiently evaluated. A large part of the surveyed employees do not feel that their efforts in the organization are properly paid for. It can be assumed that the evaluation and motivation system is not sufficiently clear and fair. The most effective measures for motivating employees are income increase depending on the results and extra pay or bonuses. Leisure organizations employees could as well be motivated by non-financial motivational measures such as praise or granting independence.
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