Modern English Grammar
Survey of the Development of English Grammatical Theory. Morphology and syntax in the English Voice System. Problems of Field Structure. Infinitival, Gerundial and Participial Phrases. Transpositions and Functional Re-evaluation of Syntactic Structures.
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N. M. RAYEVSKA
For Senior Courses of the Foreign Language Faculties in Universities and Teachers' Training Colleges
Сканирование, распознавание, проверка:
Аркадий Куракин, сентябрь 2004 г.
Для некоммерческих целей.
Исправлено ок. 10 опечаток.
Орфография из американской переведена в британскую.
(Пропущены с.c. 129-136, 154-155 и 168-169)
VYSCA SKOLA PUBLISHERS KIEV -- 1976
Н. М. РАЄВСЬКА
ТЕОРЕТИЧНА ГРАМАТИКА СУЧАСНОЇ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ
Допущено Міністерством вищої і середньої спеціальної освіти УРСР як підручник для студентів факультетів романо-германської філології університетів і педагогічних інститутів іноземних мов
ВИДАВНИЧЕ ОБ'ЄДНАННЯ «ВИЩА ШКОЛА»
КИЇВ -- 1976
4И (Англ) Р16
Учебник теоретической грамматики современного английского языка состоит из трёх разделов: I. Вступление, II. Морфология и III. Синтаксис. Основная задача курса -- развитие лингвистического мышления студентов, научного понимания грамматических и лексико-грамматических категорий современного английского языка. В центре внимания проблемные вопросы теории грамматики на современном этапе развития языкознания. Эти вопросы освещаются в плане систематических сопоставлений с украинским и другими языками.
В конце каждого раздела представлены контрольные вопросы, Revision Material, которые должны содействовать усвоению материала учебника и помочь студентам в их самостоятельной научной работе.
Учебник рассчитан на студентов старших курсов факультетов романо-германской филологии университетов и педагогических институтов иностранных языков.
Підручник теоретичної граматики сучасної англійської мови складається з трьох розділів: І. Вступ, II. Морфологія і III. Синтаксис. Основне завдання курсу -- розвиток лінгвістичного мислення студентів, наукового розуміння граматичних і лексико-граматичних категорій сучасної англійської мови. В центрі уваги проблемні питання теорії граматики на сучасному етапі розвитку мовознавства. Ці питання висвітлюються в плані систематичних зіставлень з українською та іншими мовами.
В кінці кожного розділу подано контрольні питання, Revision Material, які мають сприяти засвоєнню матеріалу підручника і допомогти студентам в їхній самостійній науковій роботі.
Підручник розраховано на студентів старших курсів факультетів романо-германської філології університетів і педагогічних інститутів іноземних мов.
Редакція літератури з іноземних мов
Зав. редакцією М. М. Азаренко
НАТАЛИЯ НИКОЛАЕВНА РАЕВСКАЯ
Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка
Допущено Министерством высшего и среднего специального образования УССР в качестве учебника для студентов факультетов романо-германской филологии университетов и педагогических институтов иностранных языков (на английском языке)
Издательское объединение «Вища школа». Головное издательство.
Редактор Л. О. Нагорна Обкладинка художника Я. М. Яковенка. Художній редактор М. М. Панасюк Технічний редактор Т. І. Мазюк Коректор О. I. Кравчук.
Здано до набору 27.05 1975 р. Підписано до друку 13 01 1976 р. Формат паперу 60Х90 1/16 Папір друк. № 2 Друк арк. 19 Обл.-видавн. арк. 21,78 Видавн. № 2380. Тираж 5000 Ціна 85 коп. Зам. № 5--1419.
Головне видавництво видавничого об'єднання
«Вища школа» 252054, Київ-54, Гоголівська, 7.
Надруковано з матриць Головного підприємства республіканського виробничого об'єднання «Поліграфкнига» Держкомвидаву УРСР, м. Київ, вул. Довженка, 3 в Київській книжковій друкарні наукової книги, Рєпіна, 4. Зам 6-281.
(C) Видавниче об'єднання «Вища школа», 1976.
(перевод с русского языка сделан при сканировании)
Учебник теоретической грамматики современного английского языка предназначается для студентов старших курсов факультетов романо-германской филологии университетов и педагогических институтов иностранных языков.
Курс состоит из трёх разделов: I. Вступление. II. Морфология и III. Синтаксис. Материал книги изложен в плане программных требований к теоретическим курсам, направляя внимание студентов на научное понимание новейших достижений в развитии современной грамматической теории. В центре внимания лежит вопрос системного характера языка, диалектического единства формы и содержания всех грамматических явлений, функционально-семантических связей между единицами разного уровня.
Книга знакомит читателя с развитием грамматической теории английского языка и научными поисками новых методов грамматического анализа в исследованиях советских и зарубежных лингвистов.
В учебнике освещаются также такие вопросы, как синтагматические и ассоциативные отношения лингвистических единиц, проблема «грамматическая категория и контекст», понятие оппозиции для раскрытия сути грамматических категорий в морфологии и синтаксисе, принцип поля в изучении структуры языка, семантические аспекты синтаксиса, имплицитная предикация и проблема синтаксической парадигмы. Валентность грамматических форм изучается в разных условиях их синтагматической дистрибуции. Надлежащее внимание уделено функциональным транспозициям разных форм их полисемии, синонимической корреляции и стилистическим функциям.
Учитывая то, что специализация студентов факультетов иностранных языков университетов ведётся в настоящее время с двух иностранных языков, отдельные вопросы курса теоретической грамматики современного английского языка освещаются в плане сопоставлений с другими языками.
В конце каждого раздела представлены контрольные вопросы, Revision Маterial, которые не только содействуют усвоению материала учебника, а и направляют студента на самостоятельную научную работу по теории грамматики.
Підручник теоретичної граматики сучасної англійської мови призначається для студентів старших курсів факультетів романо-германської філології університетів і педагогічних інститутів іноземних мов.
Курс складається з трьох розділів: І. Вступ. II. Морфологія і III. Синтаксис. Матеріал книги викладено в плані програмних вимог до теоретичних курсів, скеровуючи увагу студентів на наукове розуміння найновіших досягнень у розвитку сучасної граматичної теорії. У центрі уваги питання системного характеру мови, діалектичної єдності форми і змісту всіх граматичних явищ, функціонально-семантичних зв'язків між одиницями різного рівня.
Книга знайомить читача з розвитком граматичної теорії англійської мови та науковими пошуками нових методів граматичного аналізу в дослідженнях радянських і зарубіжних лінгвістів.
У підручнику висвітлюються також такі питання, як синтагматичні і асоціативні відношення лінгвістичних одиниць, проблема «граматична категорія і контекст», поняття опозиції для розкриття суті граматичних категорій в морфології і синтаксисі, принцип поля у вивченні структури мови, семантичні аспекти синтаксису, імпліцитна предикація і проблема синтаксичної парадигми. Валентність граматичних форм вивчається в різних умовах їх синтагматичної дистрибуції. Належну увагу приділено функціональним транспозиціям різних форм їх полісемії, синонімічній кореляції і стилістичним функціям. Зважаючи на те, що спеціалізація студентів факультетів іноземних мов університетів провадиться в цей час з двох іноземних мов, окремі питання курсу теоретичної граматики сучасної англійської мови висвітлюються в плані зіставлень з іншими мовами.
В кінці кожного розділу подано контрольні питання, Revision Маterial, які не тільки сприяють засвоєнню матеріалу підручника, а й скеровують студента на самостійну наукову роботу з теорії граматики.
The book is designed for the students of the senior courses of the University faculties of foreign languages and Teachers' Training Colleges. The aim of the book is therefore to lead the students to a scientific understanding of new assumptions and views of language as system, keeping abreast of the latest findings set forth in the progressive development of grammatical theory by Soviet and foreign scholars in recent times.
The central interest in functional semantic correlation of grammatical units has given shape to the whole book. In a description of language structure we have to account for the form, the substance and the relationship between the form and the situation. Linguistic activity participates in situations alongside with man's other activities.
Grammatical categories are viewed as a complicated unity of form and grammatical content. Due attention has been drawn to contextual level of analysis, to denotative and connotative meanings of grammatical forms, their transpositions and functional re-evaluation in different contexts, linguistic or situational.
Linguistic studies of recent years contain a vast amount of important observations based on acute observations valid for further progressive development of different aspects of the science of language. The conception of the general form of grammars has steadily developed. What becomes increasingly useful for insight into the structure and functioning of language is orientation towards involving lexis in studying grammar.
In a language description we generally deal with three essential parts known as phonology, vocabulary, and grammar. These various ranges, or levels, are the subject matter of the various branches of linguistics. We may think of vocabulary as the word-stock, and grammar as the set of devices for handling this word-stock. It is due precisely to these devices that language is able to give material linguistic form to human thought.
Practically speaking, the facts of any language are too complex to be handled without arranging them into such divisions. We do not mean to say, however, that these three levels of study should be thought of as isolated from each other. The affinities between all levels of linguistic organisation make themselves quite evident. Conceived in isolation, each of them will always become artificial and will hardly justify itself in practice. It is not always easy to draw precise boundaries between grammar and vocabulary. Sometimes the subject matter becomes ambiguous just at the borderline. The study of this organic relationship in language reality seems to be primary in importance.
For a complete description of language we have to account for the form, the substance and the relationship between the form and the situation. The study of this relationship may be referred to as contextual level of analysis.
Grammar, whose subject matter is the observable organisation of words into various combinations, takes that which is common and basic in linguistic forms and gives in an orderly way accurate descriptions of the practice to which users of the language conform. And with this comes the realisation that this underlying structure of the language (as system) is highly organised. Whatever are the other interests of modern linguistic science, its centre is surely an interest in the grammatical system of language.
To-day we have well-established techniques for the study of language from a number of different points of view. Each of these techniques supplements all the others in contributing to theoretical knowledge and the practical problems of the day.
Language is a functional whole and all its parts are fully describable only in terms of their relationship to the whole. This level of linguistic analysis is most obviously relevant to the problems of "overt" and "covert" grammar and the problem of "field structure" in grammar that has long attracted the attention of linguists.
There is a discussion of the problems that arise in the presentation of the material in this light but the scope of the material presented is dictated by its factual usefulness.
Analysing the language from the viewpoint of the information it carries we cannot restrict the notion of information to the cognitive aspect of language. Connotative aspects and emotional overtones are also important semantic components of linguistic units.
The components of grammatical meaning that do not belong to the denotation of the grammatical form are covered by the general term of connotation most obviously relevant to grammatical aspects of style.
Grammatical forms play a vital role in our ability to lend variety to speech, to give "colour" to the subject or evaluate it and to convey the information more emotionally.
The given quotations from different sources serve to show how the structural elements of English grammar have been variously treated by different writers and which of the linguistic approaches seems most convincing.
Extracts for study and discussion have been selected from the works of the best writers which aid in the formation of the student's literary taste and help him to see how the best writers make the deepest resources of grammar serve their pen.
Only some of the quotations used are the gatherings of the author's note-books through many years of teaching, and it has not seemed possible in every instance to trace the quotation to its original source. Most of them, however, have been freshly selected as the direct result of the extensive reading required by the preparation of the book.
The discussion of the linguistic facts has been made concrete by the use of illustrative examples and comparison with Russian and Ukrainian, French and German.
Suggested assignments for study and discussion have been selected with a view to extend the practical knowledge of the language. "Revision Material" after each chapter has been arranged so that the student should acquire as much experience in independent work as possible.
Methods of scientific research used in linguistic studies have always been connected with the general trends in the science of language. We therefore find it necessary to begin our grammatical description with a brief survey of linguistic schools in the theory of English grammar so that the students could understand various theoretical approaches to the study of language structure. This will facilitate the study of grammar where we find now divergent views of scholars on some of the most important or controversial problems of the English grammatical theory, and on some special questions of morphology and syntax.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Survey of the Development of English Grammatical Theory
Grammar in Its Relation to Other Levels of Linguistic Structure
Problems of Field Structure
Functional Re-evaluation of Grammatical Forms in Context
Part I. Morphology
Chapter 1. The Subject-Matter of Morphology
Chapter II. Parts of Speech
Problem of Classification
Chapter III The Noun
Chapter IV. The Adjective
The Category of Intensity and Comparison
Substantivation of Adjectives
Chapter V. The Verb
The Structural Functions of the English Verb
Active:: Passive in the English Voice System
Lexico-Grammatical Categories in the Field of Aspect
Chapter VI. English Verb-Forms and Their Pattern-Value
The Present Tense
The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense
The Past Tense
The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense
The Perfect Tenses
The Future Tense
Chapter VII. The Pronouns
Chapter VIII. The Adverb
Category of State
Part II. Syntax
Chapter IX. Sentence Structure
Chapter X. The Simple Sentence
The Principal Parts of the Sentence
The Secondary Parts of the Sentence
Verbless Two-Member Sentences
Chapter XL Phrase-Structure
Infinitival, Gerundial and Participial Phrases
Chapter XII. The Composite Sentence
Subject and Predicate Clauses
Clauses of Cause
Clauses of Place
Clauses of Condition
Clauses of Result
Clauses of Purpose
Clauses of Concession
Clauses of Manner and Comparison
Overlapping Relationships and Synsemantics in Hypotaxis
Transpositions and Functional Re-evaluation of Syntactic Structures
Final Remarks on Subordination
Nominality in English Sentence-Structure
Grammar and Style
Index of Grammatical Points Treated
SURVEY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL THEORY
EARLY PRESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR
English grammatical theory has a long tradition going back to the earliest Latin grammars of the 17th century when "grammar" meant only the study of Latin. Until the end of the 16th century there were no grammars of English. One of the earliest Latin grammars written in English was W. Lily's work published in the first half of the 16th century.
Looking at English through the lattice of categories set up in Latin grammar, W. Lily presented standards for similar arrangement of the English grammatical material proceeding from Latin paradigms and using the same terminology as in Latin grammar.
Lily's work went through many editions until 1858. In other early "prenormative" grammars the arrangement of the material was similar to that of "Lily's grammar. It is to be noted that using Latin categories the writers of that time did not altogether ignore distinctions that the English language made. Thus, for instance, in Lily's grammar translation of Latin inflectional forms is given with the important points of reservation that some of their English equivalents are analytical forms, which include auxiliary words as "signs".
Attempts to break with Latin grammatical tradition characterise the treatment of the structure of English in Bullokar's and Ch. Butler's grammars but in many cases they still follow the Latin pattern.
The early prenormative grammars of English reproduced the Latin classification of the word-classes which included eight parts of speech. Substantives and adjectives were grouped together as two kinds of nouns, the participle was considered as a separate part of speech.
In the earliest English grammars the parts of speech were divided dichotomically into declinable and indeclinable parts of speech or words with number and words without number (Ben Jonson), or words with number and case and words without number and case (Ch. Butler). Declinable words, with number and case, included nouns, pronouns, verbs and participles, the indeclinables -- adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Ben Jonson increased the number of parts of speech. His classification includes the article as the ninth part of speech.
In J. Brightland's grammar (the beginning of the 18th century) the number of parts of speech was reduced to four. These were: names (nouns), qualities (adjectives), affirmations (verbs) and particles.
Brightland's system was accepted only by a few English grammarians of the period. But since that time the adjective came to be viewed as a separate part of speech.
Brightland's grammar was the first to include the concept of the sentence in syntax proper.
The logical definition of the sentence existed in old times, but grammarians understood the subject matter of syntax only as a study of word arrangement.
In Lily's grammar, for instance, we find three Latin concords: the nominative and the verb, the substantive and the adjective, the relative pronoun and its antecedent.
The second half of the 18th century is generally referred to as the age of the so-called prenormative grammar. The most influential grammar of the period was R. Lowth's Short Introduction to English Grammar, first published in 1762.
Lowth's approach to the study of grammar was upheld by his followers.
The first to be mentioned here is Lindley Murray's English. Grammar Adapted to the Different Classes of Learners. First published in 1795, it was then widely used in its original form and in an abridged version for many years to come. Murray's grammar was considered so superior to any then in use that soon after its appearance it became the text-book in almost every school.
The principal design of a grammar of any language, according to Lowth, is to teach us to express ourselves with propriety, to enable us to judge of every phrase and form of construction, whether it be right or not. The plain way of doing this is to lay down rules and to illustrate them by examples. But besides showing what is right, the matter may be further explained what is wrong.
In the words of Lowth, grammar in general, or Universal grammar explains the principles which are common to all languages. The Grammar of any particular language, as the English grammar, applies those common principles to that particular language.
O. Jespersen showed good judgement in observing at this point that in many cases what gives itself out as logic, is not logic at all, but Latin grammar disguised.
The early prescriptive grammars exerted an enormous influence and moulded the approach of many generations to English grammar.
Applying the principles of Universal grammar, Lowth subjected to criticism many expressions established by long use in English, such as, for instance, the use of adverbs without the suffix -ly, the expressions it is me, these kind of, or, say, such patterns as had rather, had better.
Lowth and other grammarians of that time condemned as wrong many constructions and forms which occurred in the works of the best authors. They used passages from the works of classical writers as exercises for pupils to correct bad English or "false" English.
Classical Scientific Grammar
The end of the 19th century brought a grammar of a higher type, a descriptive grammar intended to give scientific explanation to the grammatical phenomena.
This was H. Sweet's New English Grammar, Logical and Historical (1891).
Instead of serving as a guide to what should be said or written, Sweet's explanatory grammar aims at finding out what is actually said and written by the speakers of the language investigated. This leads to a scientific understanding of the rules followed instinctively by speakers and writers, giving in many cases the reasons why this usage is such and such.
The difference between scientific and prescriptive grammar is explained by H. Sweet as follows: "As my exposition claims to be scientific, I confine myself to the statement and explanation of facts, without attempting to settle the relative correctness of divergent usages. If an 'ungrammatical' expression such as it is me is in general use among educated people, I accept it as such, simply adding that it is avoided in the literary language.
Whatever is in general use in language is for that reason grammatically correct" H. Sweet. New English Grammar. Logical and Historical. Oxford, 1955, p. 5..
In the words of Sweet, his work is intended to supply the want of a scientific English grammar, founded on an independent critical survey of the latest results of linguistic investigation as far as they bear, directly or indirectly, on the English language.
Scientific grammar was thus understood to be a combination of both descriptive and explanatory grammar. Sweet defines the methods of grammatical analysis as follows: "The first business of grammar, as of every other science, is to observe the facts and phenomena with which it has to deal, and to classify and state them methodically. A grammar, which confines itself to this is called a descriptive grammar. ...When we have a clear statement of such grammatical phenomena, we naturally wish to know the reason of them and how they arose. In this way descriptive grammar lays the foundations of explanatory grammar."
Sweet describes the three main features characterising the parts of speech: meaning, form and function, and this has logical foundations but the results of his classification are, however, not always consistent.
It is to be noted, in passing, that H. Sweet's ideas seem to anticipate some views characteristic of modern linguistics.
Here are a few lines from H. Sweet's work which bear relevantly upon F. de Saussure's ideas about synchronic and diachronic linguistics: "...before history must come a knowledge of what now exists. We must learn to observe things as they are without regard to their origin, just as a zoologist must learn to describe accurately a horse ..." H. Sweet. Words, Logic and Meaning. Transactions of the Philological Society. London, 1875--1876, p. 471.
The idea that language is primarily what is said and only secondarily what is written, i. e. the priority of oral is in accord with Sweet's statement that "the first requisite is a knowledge of phonetics or the form of language. We must learn to regard language solely as consisting of groups of sounds, independently of the written symbols ..." H. Sweet. Words, Logic and Meaning. Transactions of the Philological Society. London, 1875--1876, p. 471..
The same viewpoints were advocated by other linguists of the first half of the present century, such as C. Onions, E. Kruisinga, H. Poutsma, G. Curme, O. Jespersen, H. Stokoe, M. Bryant, R. Zandvoort and others 2.
According to O. Jespersen, for instance, of greater value than prescriptive grammar is a purely descriptive grammar, which, instead of serving as a guide to what should be said or written, aims at finding out what is actually said and written by the speakers of the language investigated, and thus may lead to a scientific understanding of the rules followed instinctively by speakers and writers. Such a grammar should also be explanatory, giving, as far as this is possible, the reasons why the usage is such and such. These reasons may, according to circumstances, be phonetic or psychological, or in some cases both combined. Not infrequently the explanation will be found in an earlier stage of the same language: what one period was a regular phenomenon may later become isolated and appear as an irregularity, an exception to what has now become the prevailing rule. Grammar must therefore be historical to a certain extent. Finally, grammar may be appreciative, examining whether the rules obtained from the language in question are in every way clear (unambiguous, logical), expressive and easy, or whether in any one of these respects other forms or rules would have been preferable3.
Some 19th-century grammars continued to be reprinted in the modern period, e. g. L e n n i e 's Principles of English Grammar underwent quite a number of editions and Mason's grammars were reprinted by A. J. Ashton (1907--1909).
Numerous other grammar books continue the same tradition. Some of them, in the words of H. A. Gleason 4, are most heavily indebted to J. C. Nesfield, either directly or indirectly.
Published in 1898, Nesfield's grammar influenced prescriptive and to a certain extent scientific grammars of the 20th century, comparable to the influence of Murray's grammar on the 19th-century grammarians. It underwent a number of variant editions, such as: English Grammar Past and Present, Manual of English Grammar and Composition, and Aids to the Study and Composition of English. The latter consists of five parts: Part I contains a series of chapters on Accidence; Parsing, and Analysis of Sentences, all of which are a reprint, without any change, of the corresponding chapters in his Manual of English Grammar and Composition. Part II Studies and Exercises Subsidiary to Composition nearly coincides with what was already given in different parts of the Manual, but has only a new and important chapter on Direct and Indirect Speech. Part III Composition in Five Stages is almost entirely new; Part IV contains two chapters on Idiom and Construction, which are for the most part a reprint of what we find in his English Grammar Past and Present. Part V Aids to the Study of English Literature is intended to help the student in the study of English Literature, both Prose and Verse. The last chapter Style in Prose and Verse is entirely new.
Nesfield's grammar was revised in 1924 in accordance with the requirements of the Joint Compreceded. The revision continued the tradition of 19th-century grammar: morphology was treated as it had been in the first half of the 19th century, syntax, as in the second half of that century. Of the various classifications of the parts of the sentence current in the grammars of the second half of the 19th century the author chose a system, according to which the sentence has four distinct parts: (1) the Subject; (2) Adjuncts to the Subject (Attributive Adjuncts, sometimes called the Enlargement of the Subject); (3) the Predicate; and (4) Adjuncts of the Predicate (Adverbial Adjuncts); the object and the complement (i. e. the predicative) with their qualifying words, however, are not treated as distinct parts of the sentence. They are classed together with the finite verb as part of the predicate. Although grammars as a rule do not consider the object to be the third principal part of the sentence, indirectly this point of view persists since the middle of the 19th century and underlies many methods of analysis.
In Nesfield's scheme, though the object is not given the status of a part of the sentence, it is considered to be of equal importance with the finite verb. In diagramming sentences, grammarians place the subject, predicate, objects and complements on the same syntactic level, on a horizontal line in the diagram, while modifiers of all sorts are placed below the line See: Q. D. Craig, A. Hutson, G. Montgomery. The Essentials of English Grammar. New York, 1941, pp. 213..
In Essentials of English Grammar O. Jespersen aims at giving a descriptive, to some extent, explanatory and appreciative account of the grammatical system of Modern English, historical explanations being only given where this can be done without presupposing any detailed knowledge of Old English or any cognate language.
One of the most important contributions to linguistic study in the first half of the 20th century was O. Jespersen's The Philosophy of Grammar first published in 1924 where he presented his theory of three ranks intended to provide a basis for understanding the hierarchy of syntactic relations hidden behind linear representation of elements in language structures. In its originality, its erudition and its breadth this was the best book on grammar.
The book is an attempt at a connected presentation of his views of the general principles of grammar. The starting point of the theory of three ranks is the following:
"In any composite denomination of a thing or person we always find that there is one word of supreme importance to which the others are joined as subordinates. This chief word is defined (qualified, modified) by another word, which in its turn may be defined (qualified, modified) by a third word, etc."1. Distinction is thus made between different "ranks" of words according to their mutual relations as defined or defining. In the combination extremely hot weather the last word weather, which is evidently the chief idea, may be called primary; hot, which defines weather, secondary, and extremely, which defines hot, tertiary. Though a tertiary word may be further defined by a (quarternary) word, and this again by a (quinary) word, and so forth, it is needless to distinguish more than three ranks, as there are no formal or other traits that distinguish words of these lower orders from tertiary words. Thus, in the phrase a certainly not very cleverly worded remark, no one of the words certainly, not, and very, though defining the following word, is in any way grammatically different from what it would be as a tertiary word, as it is in a certainly clever remark, not a clever remark, a very clever remark.
If now we compare the combination a furiously barking dog (a dog barking furiously), in which dog is primary, barking secondary, and furiously tertiary, with the dog barks furiously, it is evident that the same subordination obtains in the latter as in the former combination. Yet there is a fundamental difference between them, which calls for separate terms for the two kinds of combination: we shall call the former kind junction, and the latter nexus. It should be noted that the dog is a primary not only when it is the subject, as in the dog barks, but also when it is the object of a verb, as in I see the dog, or of a preposition, as in he runs after the dog.
As regards terminology, the words primary, secondary, and tertiary are applicable to nexus as well as to junction, but it will be useful to have special names adjunct for a secondary word in a junction, and adnex for a secondary word in a nexus. For tertiary we may use the term subjunct, and quarternary words, in the rare cases in which a special ' name is needed, may be termed sub-subjuncts.
As will have been seen already by these examples, the group, whether primary, secondary, or tertiary, may itself contain elements standing to one another in the relation of subordination indicated by the three ranks. The rank of the group is one thing, the rank within the group another. In this way more or less complicated relations may come into existence, which, however, are always easy to analyse from the point of view given above.
He lives on this side the river: here the whole group consisting of the last five words is tertiary to lives; on this side, which consists of the particle (preposition) on with its object this (adjunct) side (primary), forms itself a group preposition, which here takes as an object the group the (adjunct) river (primary). But in the sentence the buildings on this side the river are ancient, the same five-word group is an adjunct to buildings. In this way we may arrive at a natural and consistent analysis even of the most complicated combinations found in actual language.
There is certainly some degree of correspondence between the three parts of speech and the three ranks here established. But this correspondence is far from complete as will be evident from the following survey: the two things, word-classes and ranks, really move in two different spheres. This will be seen from the following survey given by O. Jespersen.
I. Nouns as primaries are fairly common. Examples are hardly needed.
Nouns as adjuncts, e. g.: Shelley's poem, the butcher's shop, etc.
The use of nouns as adjuncts may be well illustrated by premodification of nouns by nouns. Examples are numerous: stone wall, iron bridge, silver spoon, space flight, morning star, etc.
The use of nouns as subjuncts (subnexes) is rare, e. g.: the sea went mountains high.
II. Adjectives as primaries, e. g.: the rich, the poor, the natives, etc.
Adjectives as adjuncts: no examples are here necessary. Adjectives as subjuncts, e. g.: a fast moving engine, a clean shaven face, etc.
III. Pronouns as primaries: I am well. This is mine. What happened. Nobody knows.
Pronouns as adjuncts: this book, my sister, our joy, etc. Pronouns as subjuncts: I am that sleepy, I won't stay any longer, somewhat better than usual.
IV. Finite forms of verbs can only stand as secondary words (adnexes), never either as primaries or as tertiaries. But participles, like adjectives, can stand as primaries and as adjuncts.
Infinitives in different contexts of their use may belong to each of the three ranks.
Infinitives as primaries: to see is to believe (cf. seeing is believing); to understand is to forgive; she wants to rest.
Infinitives as adjuncts: generations to come; times to come; the correct thing to do; the never to be forgotten look.
Infinitives as subjuncts: to see her you would think she is an actress; I shudder to think of it; he came here to see you.
V. Adverbs as primaries. This use is rare. O. Jespersen gives such examples as: he did not stay for long; he's only just back from abroad. With pronominal adverbs it is more frequent: from here, till now, etc.
Adverbs as adjuncts are not a frequent occurrence either: the off side; in after years; the then methods; the few nearby trees.
Adverbs as subjuncts -- the ordinary use of this word-class.
Examples are hardly needed.
When a substantive, O. Jespersen goes on to say, is formed from an adjective or verb, a defining word is, as it were, lifted up to a higher plane, becoming secondary instead of tertiary, and wherever possible, this is shown by the use of an adjective instead of an adverb form:
absolutely novel absolute novelty
utterly dark utter darkness
perfectly strange perfect stranger
describes accurately accurate description
I firmly believe my firm belief, a firm believer
judges severely severe judges
reads carefully careful reader
VI. Word groups consisting of two or more words, the mutual relation of which may be of the most different character, in many instances occupy the same rank as a single word. A word group may be either a primary or an adjunct or a subjunct.
Word groups of various kinds as primaries: Sunday afternoon was fine. I spent Sunday afternoon at home.
Word groups as adjuncts: a Sunday afternoon concert; the party in power; a Saturday to Monday excursion; the time between two and four; his after dinner pipe.
Word groups as subjuncts: he slept all Sunday afternoon; he smokes after dinner; he went to all the principal cities of Europe; he lives next door to Captain Strong; the canal ran north and south; he used to laugh a good deal, five feet high; he wants things his own way; he ran upstairs three steps at a time.
In his final remarks on nexus O. Jespersen gives a tabulated survey of the principal instances of nexus, using characteristic examples instead of descriptive class-names. In the first column he includes instances in which a verb (finite or infinitive) or a verbal noun is found, in the second instances without such a form:
The dog barks Happy the man, whose ...
when the dog barks however great the loss
Arthur, whom t hey say is kill'd
I hear the dog bark he makes her happy
count on him to come with the window open
for you to call
he is believed to be guil she was made happy
8. the winner to spend everything considered
9. the doctor's arrival the doctor's cleverness
10. I dance! He a gentleman!
In 1 and 10 the nexus forms a complete sentence, in all the other instances it forms only part of a sentence, either the subject, the object or a subjunct See: O. Jespersen. The Philosophy of Grammar. London, 1958, pp. 97, 102, 131..
O. Jespersen's theory of three ranks provides logical foundations for identifying the hierarchy of syntactic relations between elements joined together in a grammatical unit.
The "part of speech" classification and the "rank classification" represent, in fact, different angles from which the same word or form may be viewed, first as it is in itself and then as it is in combination with other words.
No one would dispute the value of O. Jespersen's analysis and deep inquiry into the structure of language. In the theory of three ranks he offered much that was new in content and had most notable merits.
The concepts on which this theory is based is the concept of determination. The primary is an absolutely independent word, the secondary is the word which determines or is subordinated to the primary, the tertiary modifies the secondary and so on. This seems perfectly reasonable as fully justified by the relations between the words arranged in a string, according to the principle of successive subordination.
With all this, O. Jespersen's analysis contains some disputable points and inconsistency.
The very definition of the notion of rank is not accurate which in some cases leads to inadequacy of analysis.
Applying his principle of linguistic analysis to sentence structures, such as the dog barks furiously he ignores the difference between junction and nexus and does not distinguish attributive and predicative relations and thus seems to return to the principle of three principal parts of the sentence.
In his Analytic Syntax, published in 1937, O. Jespersen gives a symbolic representation of the structure of English. Grammatical constructions are transcribed in formulas, in which the parts of the sentence and the parts of speech are represented by capital and small letters -- S for subject, V -- for verb, v -- for auxiliary verb, O --for object, I -- for infinitive, etc. and the ranks by numerals 1, 2, 3. As far as the technique of linguistic description is concerned this book may be regarded as a forerunner of structural grammar which makes use of such notations.
O. Jespersen's morphological system differs essentially from the traditional concepts. He recognises only the following word-classes grammatically distinct enough to recognise them as separate "parts of speech", viz.:
Substantive (including proper names).
In some respects (1) and (2) may be classed together as "Nouns".
Pronouns (including numerals and pronominal adverbs).
Verbs (with doubts as to the inclusion of "Verbids").
Particles (comprising what are generally called adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions -- coordinating and subordinating and interjections). This fifth class may be negatively characterised as made up of all those words that cannot find any place in any of the first four classes.
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