Dialogue and the "culture of encounter" as the path to the peace in the modern world (in the light of pope Francis course)
The role of the human subject, which is a tool for profit or power. A social process created by people for their good. The leaders of the states trying to escape from the cycle of violence and the "culture of conflict", both economic and political.
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Dialogue and the «culture of encounter» as the path to the peace in the modern world (in the light of pope Francis course)
Location of the Research problem. Richard Dawkins in his famous book «The God Delusion» clearly forms the thesis of the need to the «release» of man and civilization of false «God hypothesis» Dawkins R. The God Delusion. - Boston-New York, 2008. - P. 51-98.. The postulate of «freedom from religion» and «disenchantment of the world» is nothing new in the social thought of the last centuries; it was the origin of sociology as a science having therapeutic consequences for the community Whimster S. Max Weber - Work end Interpretation Handbook of Social Theory// ed.: Ritzer G, Smart B. London-Thousand Oaks-New Delhi, 2003. - P. 54-65.. However, Dawkins` book is not only a justification for atheism, but also the act against religion. Total criticism of religion and the postulate of the world`s release from it Dawkins considers entirely justified because religion is seen as the reason for the persecution of science, bigotry inciting and intolerance. He believes that in many ways religion has a negative impact on society. In his opinion, the most disgusting is the indoctrination of children, which results in psychological trauma and this indoctrination is a form of psychological abuse against defenceless. Religion - in his opinion - rises a buse between communities functioning within different cultures, not only politically, but also cultural abuse in families, at schools, as well as already at the stage of education Dawkins R. The God Delusion. - Boston-New York, 2008. - P. 318-387..
Is it in fact religion guilty of wars and is the cause of hatred? Do antagonism and hostility were taught by greatest religious leaders and founders of great religions of the world: Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed?
Or perhaps mis under stood religion, used as a political tool, understood as a form of pressure on the community - that is deformed and ill-used - could become a source of division? And maybe proceedings in which perverted interpretation of each religion assumptions gets materialized prevents from peace? Thus, are those right, who want to eliminate God from the stage of history and the human mind Alberoni R. La cacciata di Cristo. - Roma, 2007. - P. 6-8., because God is evil: «God is against man. Every human progress is a victory against God» Tulowiecki D. Without God, Church and principles? Sociological study on religiosity of the youth. - Cracow, 2012. - P. 27.?
The research problem. In order to, at least partially respond to posed above theses and questions, it seems reasonable to analyze the doctrine and assumptions of the unquestionably of the greatest range religion, ie. Christianity, and in this particular case - the get concerned of the statements of Pope Francis and his predecessors. On the basis of his doctrine there was taken an attempt to respond to particular questions: Is Christianity a religion of peace or conflict? What conditions are necessary to build peace - according to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church? What is a «culture of encounter» by Pope Francis? What are the conditions of its building? What are the effects of relations changes between people according to the principle of «culture of encounter»?
Justification for the choice of the research problem. Statements of popes are in fact for Catholics-important branch of Christianity - the evaluation criterion, standards of principles and patterns of courses of action. Only reference of these patterns to life in today`s world can give a view of the real impact of religion on society and the evaluation of this impact as positive or negative one. The choice of analyzed text sis based on the assumption that their authors (also their popes) are the undisputed supreme authority in the Roman Catholic Church. Individual popes` teachings are also close lylinked, none of them creates a kind of teaching in the «separation» without regard to teachings of predecessors. So, at the beginning of this analysis teachings of popes formed during the Second World War and the «coldwar» are presented to introduce, at this background, the thought of Pope Francis focusing on «culture of encounter».
The choice of Papal Magisterium as an area of analysis has been made due to the fact that the rank of bishop of Rome as the most important person in the Roman Catholic Church is particularly high, determines the fact that his teaching as the highest indicator of all Catholics` internal bond. The Pope is the head of a highly centralized religious organization and has an influence on the views of all people making the Latin Church throughout the world. The importance of the Pope is underlined by the dogma of papal infallibility when speaking in a solemn way on faith and morals: «The Lord made St. Peter the visible foundation of his Church. He entrusted the keys of the Church to him». The bishop of the Church of Rome, successor to St. Peter, is «head of the College of Bishops, the Vicar of Christ and Pastor of the universal Church on earth» Catechism of the Catholic Church. - N. 936.. And further, according to the most important source of knowledge about the dogmas of the Catholic Church: «The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter`s successor, «is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful». For the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered» Catechism of the Catholic Church. - N. 882..
Them ethod of study. To achieve the goal of the research, original texts of Pope Francis speeches were used. Their analysis was done by analysis of the existing text. These text sare a available on the official website of the Vatican City. In order to emp has izet he originality of Francis` thought, elaborations of biograp her sas well as researchers of Jorge Mario Bergoglio / Pope Francis teaching. Because thet hought of Francis is a continuation of previous popes doctrines - the synthesis of the doctrine of twentieth century Popes on peace, social conflicts and wars is the introduction to the thought of Francis.
The status of a study. The influence of religion, including Christianity on the origination or prevention of conflicts among people has been taken up in many publications. The extreme form of atheism shows the religion as a source of tensions and conflicts (Richard Dawkins). While the Roman Catholic Church sees in Christianity the way to peace among people and communities. Christian doctrine on peace and dialogue was developed by the previous popes: Leo XIII, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul II and Benedict XVI. A special place has contemporary Pope Francis and his view on the dialogue called the «culture of encounter». Analysis of the Church`s doctrine on peace has been carried by many Christian researchers, among others in Italy, Germany, France, the US and Poland (Piwowarski, Mazur, Zwolinski, Dulus, Fel). The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith as well as Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace are responsible for an integral unity of the Church`s doctrine on peace and conflicts resolution. Promoting the teachning of the Popes and of the entire Roman Catholic Church is acarried by a number of communities and international and local centers, including: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, the International Work of Koling, Centre for Thought of John Paul II in Warsaw, the Foundation Tertio Millennio Adveniente in Krakow, Foundation of Charles Schuman, and many others. The social thought of Pope Francis has never been fully elaborated, as its development continues. Francis, even as Archbishop of Buenos Aires, came by a few Spanish-speaking investigators, especially the Jesuits, who analyze the current teaching of the pope from Argentina in the light of his past Argentine teaching (Fares, Rodari). Therefore, in this point, the approach to the problem it is new, but the study of the «culture of encounter» will require constant enhancement and monitoring of Francis` social teachin.
Teachings of the Popeson peace, conflicts and war. What do popes consider the cause of wars and conflicts between people and between nations? Shortly after the end of World War II Pope Pius XII wrote about the war: -But everyone must come to realize that lost wealth will not be recovered, or present wealth secured, by discord, public tumult, fratricide. This result can be achieved only by working together in harmony, by cooperation, by peaceful labour. Those who deliberately and rashly plan to incite the masses to tumult, sedition, or infringement of the liberty of others are certainly not helping to relieve the poverty of the people but are rather increasing it by fomenting mutual hatred and disturbing the established order; this can even lead to complete chaos. Factional strife «has been and will be to many nations a greater calamity than war itself, than famine or disease»” Pius XII. Optatissimapax. - N. 4-5.. The same pope after the invasion of the Third Reichat the Second Republicon September 1, 1939, wrote about the horrors of war and the actions of Vatican aiming at preventing the war outbreak: -What has already happened and is still happening, was presented, as it were, in a vision before Our eyes when, while still some hope was left, We left nothing undone in the form suggested to us by Our Apostolic office and by the means at Our disposal, to prevent recourse to arms and to keep open the way to an understanding honourable to both parties. Convinced that the use of force on one side would be answered by recourse to arms on the other, We considered it a duty inseparable from Our Apostolic office and of Christian Charity to try every means to spare mankind and Christianity the horrors of a world conflagration, even at the risk of having Our intentions and Our aims misunderstood. Our advice, if heard with respect, was not however followed and while Our pastoral heart looks on with sorrow and foreboding, the Image of the Good Shepherd comes up before Our gaze, and it seems as though We ought to repeat to the world in His name: «If thou ... hadst known ... the things that are to thy peace; but now they are hidden from thy eyes»” Pius XII. Summipontificatus. - N. 107.. Pius XII saw the source of peace and resolving tensions in the human heart. Written law rules can never provide the world peace, especially when the right and respect for the other person are not the source of those regulations. On one hand, the necessary condition for the peace is written law based on the legitimate moral principles, but on the one hand, implementing the law by the people with respect for those principles. Unions and pacts signed in the atmosphere of tension and blackmail, which are based on the actual domination and lust for power and its demonstration are not going to guarantee peace. Peace also cannot be brought by following the mentality that stronger is right. Even if stronger, in fact, is right, it is not strength and its demonstration which should be a path to peace. To achieve, and more importantly to keep peace, there is a need for a clean heart, free from lust for power, domination, guided by good and respect for human rights. Before the war, Pius XII, said: «because the external peace among the people must be a reflection of in ner peace, that is why it is necessary, first of all, to seek for peace of consciences. If you are lack of it, then you need to renew it as soon as possible. If we have peace of conscience, we must carefully cultivate it, defend and preserve» Pius XII. Quoniam Paschaliasollemnia, Homily forthe Solemnity of Easter. - April 9, 1939 y..
The key to true peace is in the heart of man-believed Pius XII. This fasting for peace for the entire duration of World War II pope, wrote in 1939: «No, Venerable Brethren, safety does not come to peoples from external means, from the sword which can impose conditions of peace but does not create peace. Forces that are to renew the face of the earth should proceed from within, from the spirit. Once the bitterness and the cruel strife's of the present have ceased, the new order of the world, of national and international life, must rest no longer on the quicks ands of changeable and ephemeral standards that depend only on the selfish interests of groups and individuals. No, they must rest on the unshakable foundation, on the solid rock of natural law and of Divine Revelation. There the human legislator must attain to that balance, that keen sense of moral responsibility, without which it is easy to mistake the boundary between the legitimate use and the abuse of power»Pius XII. Summipontificatus. - N. 81-82.. War, terror or coercion will not change the world for the better. This is also posted by predecessor of Pius XII, when he reminded in 1937 that violence causes moral decay and destroys trust and social structuresPius XI. Diviniredenptoris. - N. 23..
Pius XII explicitly referred even to the occupied Poland: «Do We need to give assurance that Our paternal heart is close to all Our children in compassionate love, and especially to the afflicted, the oppressed, the persecuted? The nations swept into the tragic whirlpool of war are perhaps as yet only at the «beginnings of sorrows» (Saint Matthew XXIV. 8), but even now there reigns in thousands of families death and desolation, lamentation and misery. The blood of countless human beings, even noncombatants, raises a piteous dirge over a nation such as Our dear Poland, which, for its fidelity to the Church, for its services in the defense of Christian civilization, written in indelible characters in the annals of history, has a right to the generous and brotherly sympathy of the whole world, while it awaits, relying on the powerful intercession of Mary, Help of Christians, the hour of a resurrection in harmony with the principles of justice and true peace» Pius XII. Summipontificatus. - N. 106..
Pope John XXIII formulated one of the most important speeches of the Roman Catholic Church in the XX century on the causes of wars and international conflicts In fact, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; Italian; born in1881y in Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo (Northern Italy); since 1904 Roman Catholic priest; from 1905 to 1914y - the women`s chaplain and guardian of the labor movement in Bergamo (Northern Italy); in 1915 drafted into the army, served in an army as a paramedic and military chaplain; since 1925 - the archbishop and apostolic visitor of the Holy See in Bulgaria; since 1935 - delegate of the Holy See in Turkey and Greece; during the Second World War as a diplomat helped persecuted by the Nazis people, for example, sending to Palestine forged certificates of baptismal and immigration for Hungarian Jews, gave status of pilgrimage to the holy places for Christians to transports of Jews escaping from Europe, by Roncalli estimations, rescued about 24 thousand of Jews; since 1945 - nuncio in Paris; to 1951 as a permanent observer at UNESCO; since 1953 - cardinal and the patriarch of Venice; from 1958 to 1963 - The Pope and Bishop of Rome; in 1962, he convened the Second Vatican Council, and invited representatives of all Christian Churches to participate in it: also Protestant and Orthodox Churches; a strong opponent of the war; he wrote a letter-encyclical «Pacem in teris» on peace, for which in 1963 received an international award from the President of Italy; He sought to ease and stave off the Cold War, he appealed to the governments of the USA and the USSR for caution in activities, which made him earn the sympathy of President Kennedy and Secretary Khrushchev. Thanks to this warming of diplomatic relations, on March 7, 1962, John XXIII received in audience a daughter and a son in love of Khrushchev; he was a pope, who used to meet with people outside the Vatican: in prisons and hospitals; The Man of the Year 1962 by the magazine «Time».. The pope, working as a paramedic and hospital chaplain during the World War I, mindful of dying in his arms young men - soldiers, he always was a strong opponent of the war. A few months before his death, in times of «cold war» he wrote a letter - the encyclical «Pacem in Terris» to the Roman Catholic Church formers as well to «all people of good will». In the subtitle, he added: «On establishing universal peace in truth, justice, charity, and liberty». The encyclical was written and published in the times of the «cold war», or - as Pope Pius XII used to say - «cold peace», which in the long term is not sustainable.
Violence will not bring peace - he reminded after The Second World War. Neo-colonial policy and economic imperialism - as well. Discrimination of ones by others, the use of some nations for their own interests - will not bring peace to the world: «The crisis is most serious indeed. Remedies must be found, and found without further delay. On the one hand the economic system of many nations, as a result of fabulous military expenditures and enormous destruction wrought by the war, has been dislocated and weakened to such an extent as to be powerless to meet the problems with which it is faced, and to provide the materials for appropriate constructive enterprise, where work might be available for the unemployed who now must live their lives in forced and fruitless idleness. On the other hand there is no lack of those who, sad to say, embitter and exploit the working man in his distress, following a secret and astute plan, and thus abstruct the heroic efforts which the forces of justice and order are making to rebuild scattered fortunes. But everyone must come to realize that lost wealth will not be recovered, or present wealth secured, by discord, public tumult, fratricide. This result can be achieved only by working together in harmony, by cooperation, by peaceful labor. Those who deliberately and rashly plan to incite the masses to tumult, sedition, or infringement of the liberty of others are certainly not helping to relieve the poverty of the people but are rather increasing it by fomenting mutual hatred and disturbing the established order; this can even lead to complete chaos. Factional strife «has been and will be to many nations a greater calamity than war itself, than famine or disease» Pius XII. Optatissima Pax. - N. 3-5..
The document «Pacem in Terris» of John XXIII consists of five parts. In each of them, Pope Roncalli shows the diagnosis of the actual state of peace and its lack in the world, assessing the current situation he indicates solutions and the paths to global reconciliation of nations. The document recalls that all believers and gathered in the Catholic Church are concerned about the peace constantly, they pray for harmony and suffer from its lack. Roman Catholic Church`s concern has become greater in the face of two heavy wars, which took the form of a general humanity catastrophe. John XXIII is also aware that the experience of two world wars was a nightmare for humanity but the international situation after 1945 is not one of peace. Although many international institutions, which are intended to peace and prevent armed conflicts were formed, politicians are still not able to protect the world from the threat of war and to build a lasting and fair peace. According to John XXIII it happens because the peace is not only a matter of security defense, armament, military doctrine and treaty agreements, but is primarily a moral issue. Even the frank and wide-scale political efforts will become fruitless, if they are not based on common, immutable, rooted in the heart of each person principles. Separating politics from morality - will again result in war. Politics moving away from respecting every human being because of his human dignity as well as rights of every nation based on the same principle, in favor of the principle of «the stronger is right» causes dehumanization of the world, and human relations and international politics are brought into a state in which those who are weaker have no right to express and achieve their rights. «And yet there is a disunity among individuals and among nations which is in striking contrast to this perfect order in the universe. One would think that the relationships that bind men together could only be governed by force» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 4..
In the Pope`s letter the significant role plays the faith in man and mankind as a whole capable of self-determination and self-management for their own good. Peace is that good. The foundation of this faith is the belief that people, who base their behaviour on correct principles are able to function in a way that ensures development and peace. In their behavior, people should follow principle that emerges from the rest of the letter: «But the mischief is often caused by erroneous opinions. Many people think that the laws which govern man`s relations with the State are the same as those which regulate the blind, elemental forces of the universe. But it is not so; the laws which govern men are quite different. The Father of the universe has inscribed them in man`s nature, and that is where we must look for them; there and nowhere else. These laws clearly indicate how a man must behave toward his fellows in society, and how the mutual relationships between the members of a State and its officials are to be conducted. They show too what principles must govern the relations between States; and finally, what should be the relations between individuals or States on the one hand, and the world-wide community of nations on the other. Men`s common interests make it imperative that at long last a world-wide community of nations be established» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 6-7..
Peace - by John XXIII - is therefore not possible without respect for the man as a person, and without morality. In a situation where politicians consider only authority as a value, economists care or profit, doctrine of the Church reminds principles that should form the basis of every human actions, and without those rules peace is not possible. Pope John XXIII made such a great reminder of moral principles and the role of the Church as the «soul of the world» in the encyclical «Mater et Magistra» - on Christianity and social progress in modern world. The Church cares primarily about human salvation, but it is not true that it is interested only in fate after death. The Church is interested in a man, not only as a potential deceased, but also in the conditions of his life, because in the course of earthly life a man meets God, he learns and responds to His love, she gives Christian witness. That`s why he wrote «Mater et Magistra»: «Mother and Teacher of all nations - such is the Catholic Church in the mind of her Founder, Jesus Christ; to hold the world in an embrace of love, that men, in every age, should find in her their own completeness in a higher order of living, and their ultimate salvation. [...] Hence, though the Church`s first care must be for souls, how she can sanctify them and make them share in the gifts of heaven, she concerns herself too with the exigencies of man`s daily life, with his livelihood and education, and his general, temporal welfare and prosperity» John XXIII. Mater et Magistra. - N. 1-3..
John XXIII repeatedly reminded that building authentic peace is not possible without mutual respect for the rights of people and nations. Among other things, he said in the Radio Message «We make this appeal Our own, extending it once more to those who bear on their conscience the gravest weight of public and acknowledged responsibilities. The Church by her very nature cannot remain indifferent to human suffering, even were it no more than anxiety and anguish. And this is the reason why We call upon the rulers of nations to face squarely the tremendous responsibilities they bear before the tribunal of history, and what is more before the judgment seat of God, and We entreat them not to fall victims to false and deceiving provocations» John XXIII. The Way of Peace, A radio addres. - 1961. - September 10..
How would pope Angello Roncalli see the order of the world? According to the holy pope, order is the condition and correlate of peace, order in the world, primarily peace among people. According to the encyclical «Pacem in Terris» God created the world and gave it the rules to ensure peace and order. This plan is present in the laws of nature, the principles of unity and cohesion. This harmonious plan was, however, affected by people, and thus the harmony of the world has been violated. There were also affected interpersonal relationships. Therefore they need to be restored. How? Through the rediscovery of principles of natural law that is out in every human heart, which is a reflection of God`s wisdom. «All created being reflects the infinite wisdom of God» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 5.. Shaping social life - especially moral principles - according to the hidden in every human`s heart right, is the road to peace.
The principle of natural law - as the foundation of peace - is rated as the most important principle of «Pacem in terris». According to John XXIII peace of mankind is based on the natural law John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 1-7., on each man`s universal, personal dignity John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 8-10. as well as on the respect for man`s rights John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 11-35.. These rights Roncalli also transfers the rights for right of nations John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 80-129.. Among them he mentions: the right to live and the right to a decent human standard of living John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 11., the right to use moral and cultural values John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 12-13., the right to worship God according to one`s conscience John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 14., the right to choose for themselves the kind of life which appeals to them John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 15-17., economic rights: right to be given the opportunity to work, decent working conditions, the right to economic activity, fair payment, the right to own private property John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 18-22., the right to meeting and association John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 23-24., to change the place of living John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 25., to take part in public life John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 26., to the legal protection of human person`s rights John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 27.. Since human rights are of attributive-imperative character, the rights rise duties. This link is inseparable - both at the level of individuals, countries and the international communities John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 28-33.. However, the dispute between fellowers of the school of legal positivism and the legal naturalness school is still alive, it seems that in today`s world one approach cannot exist in isolation from the other one. Failing to assess the superiority of natural law over statute law, it is sufficient for the purposes of this summary, to declare that the written law should be a mirror of the natural law, because only then it is possible to maintain harmony and peace. Legal regulations standing in opposition to the principles of natural law and the implementation of these regulations will always form the basis of behavior contrary to human nature. To support this thesis, it is sufficient to note that in extreme situations - eg. while war crimes trials, international tribunals often implemented approach closer to the natural law by rejecting defense requests based on the claims that «that was the right», «this was an order». Another example confirming, on one hand the need for coexistence and mutual respect between the written and natural law and on the other hand, the need to emphasize the fact that the written law should be the source of the natural law, is the fact that most of the current legal systems contain a general clause that prohibits the use of the universal right of the individual, provided that such use under the written law, would constitute a breach of the principles of social coexistence. And these principles of social coexistence are based on the natural law. This natural law, manifested in widely perceived and received principles should be respected by individuals in everyday life, but also by activists of the international political scene. It should also be the basis and foundation of government action.
Ensuring the rights of citizens is guaranteed by the country, whose existence - as a form of power - is a necessary dimension of social life. Of course in the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church it is not essential that a particular ruler is the anointed of God, but that every community needs to be managed and this mechanism was given by God to communities, which materializes in the natural law. «Human society can be neither well-ordered nor prosperous without the presence of those who, invested with legal authority, preserve its institutions and do all that is necessary to sponsor actively the interests of all its members. And they derive their authority from God, for, as St. Paul teaches, «there is no power but from God». In his commentary on this passage, St. John Chrysostom writes: «What are you saying? Is every ruler appointed by God? No, that is not what I mean, he says, for I am not now talking about individual rulers, but about authority as such. My contention is that the existence of a ruling authority - the fact that some should command and others obey, and that all things not come about as the result of blind chance - this is a provision of divine wisdom». God has created men social by nature, and a society cannot «hold together unless someone is in command to give effective direction and unity of purpose. Hence every civilized community must have a ruling authority, and this authority, no less than society itself, has its source in nature, and consequently has God for its author» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 46..
So as relations between individuals and nations were based on respect for the rights and their defense, John XXIII indicates moral principles, according to which relations between people, and consequently international relations should take place. In particular, these principles should be respected and implemented by ruling authority, because «a ruling authority is indispensable to civil society. That is a fact which follows from the moral order itself. Such authority, therefore, cannot be misdirected against the moral order. It would immediately cease to exit, being deprived of its whole raison d`etre» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 83.. In the first place, as the foundation of social relations on all levels, the Pope mentions the truth. The essence of truth as the moral value also requiring respect for authority, mainly concerns the anthropological issues: the recognition of the full vision of human dignity and value of human beings. This is realized by postulate that man is cannot be reduced only to the vital, ludic, economic, or political dimension. According to Ronacalli, the truth deformation on this layerare ideologies. They emphasize one aspect of being a human, thereby reducing the essence of humanity. According to John XXIII liberalism does so by glorifying freedom and the weight of the individual while depreciating the community, while communism, looking at the man in the perspective of collectivist reductionism, when omitting individual freedom, including religious freedom. The Pope stressed how much damage was caused to people and humanity by these ideologies, stubbornly and blindly supported, contrary to the facts, contrary to scientific research findings as a tool convenient to the political dimension at a time. The truth, he was talking about, could be falsified also in different aspects of social life. Everyone has the right to the truth, as well as to his place in society. Everyone has the right to know the truth in matters that he is concerned of. Nobody wants to face hypocrisy, secrecy, confabulation both in the private, personal, family and socio-state. Untruth violates the human right to the truth. State governance, based on an error and lies, manipulation and dece it is especially dangerous and threatening for social quality of life. Then the man is reduced to an object, a means of achieving political or economic purposes. But the role of man in society is different - he has to be perceived as no means, a tool, or only the recipient, but as a creator of social life, the one living consciously and intentionally influencing social life. Man is not only the under authority, but has the right to control the authority, impactit, verify and assesse its activities. Therefore he can and should claim any information on issues concerning him, understanding the mechanisms of social, economic and political life, access to the most important, most essential, influencing him information. Truth - in terms of John XXIII - is not only truth in its religious dimension, as revealed by God. The truth for the Pope, is a healthy philosophical thought, healthy and fair research attitude, linked with an attitude of readiness to continuously revise and supplement the fallacious and uncertain thesis. Such research attitude, open to the truth, can be and should be a source of healthy change and social transformations. These transformations should concern all areas of life, because nothing is - according to the Pope - exempt from moral judgment which emerges from the natural law John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 80-85..
The second important for peace value is justice. John XXIII talks both about replacement justice, distributive, legal and social one John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 91-93.. The fact that there is a lack of justice, and even the sense of injustice threatens social peace what following popes wrote. John Paul II in his encyclical «Centesimus Annus» mentioned about the sense of unfair payment compared to the workload John Paul II. Centesimusannus. - N. 43., unsustainable and not fair development of nations in Europe John Paul II. Centesimusannus. - N. 27.. Benedict XVI in his first encyclical pointed to the state as the guardian of a just social order: «The just ordering of society and the State is a central responsibility of politics.
As Augustine once said, a State which is not governed according to justice would be just a bunch of thieves: «Remotaitaqueiustitia quid sunt regna nisi magna latrocinia?»” Benedict XVI. Deus caritas est. - N. 28. John Paul II recalled - quoting Pope Pius XII - in his second social encyclical that peace is the fruit of justice John Paul II. Solicitudo rei socialis. - N. 39., but also pointed out that the real development calls for a fair distribution of wealth between everyone, including the elderly and the unborn: «It demands an ever greater degree of rigorous respect for justice and consequently a fair distribution of the results of true development» John Paul II. Solicitudo rei socialis. - N. 26..
Justice-as a condition for peace-gives certain rights to individual nations, at the same time imposing duties on them. John XXIII says that the right of publicity requires protection of the others` reputation, the right to development and owners hip implies the defense of others` development as well as their possession: «And just as individual men may not pursue their own private interests in a way that is unfair and detrimental to others, so too it would be criminal in a State to aim at improving itself by the use of methods which involve other nations in injury and unjust oppression. There is a saying of St. Augustine which has particular relevance in this context: "Take away justice, and what are kingdoms but mighty bands of robbers"» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 92..
During the interpretation of the principle of justice in terms of resolving international tensions, Pope John also points to another principle that should be taken into account together with criterion of justice, ie. Justness. When it comes to confronting conflicting views: «There may be, and sometimes is, a clash of interests among States, each striving for its own development. When differences of this sort arise, they must be settled in a truly human way, not by armed force nor by deceit or trickery. There must be a mutual assessment of the arguments and feelings on both sides, a mature and objective investigation of the situation, and an equitable reconciliation of opposing views» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 93.. Applying the principle of justice and passing up on details of actions, according to it syndications is not easy - admits John XXIII ending his encyclical: «In this connection We think it opportune to point out how difficult it is to understand clearly the relation between the objective requirements of justice and concrete situations; to define, that is, correctly to what degree and in what form doctrinal principles and directives must be applied in the given state of human society» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 154.. Analysis of the over all content of the cite dencyclical causes us to treat the principle of fairness as a kind of alter ego of the principle of justice. Justice is an imperative act in such a way as to reflect the good of not only individuals, but also was present with in the good of society. In this second aspect, however, justice treated literally will not always prove sufficient criterion of conduct, while it will be necessary to appeal to the essence of humanity and the principles of natural law, ie. Fairness.
Love can be specified from the document of John XXIII as the third of the principles of protecting and conditioning the peace John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 146.. Today there may be raised a question of love as a political or economic category. But love - as Benedict XVI wrote in «Caritas in Veritate» - is an ethical category. If, however, ethics with elements of selflessness are eliminated from politics and economy, then they will be led by egoism. Pope Benedict XVI asks, in the encyclical cited above, whether anyone would want to live in a world in which the guiding principle of functioning and interpersonal relations is egoism. A world without love will follow only force, and such world will never be human, it will be threatened of bestiality. Love - as the pope from Germany wrote - introduces the new concept of social circulation marked by morality and transforms human relations, including the political, economic and civic ones: brotherhood, common good, solidarity: «In an increasingly globalized society, the common good and the effort to obtain it cannot fail to assume the dimensions of the whole human family, that is to say, the community of peoples and nations, in such a way as to shape the earthly city in unity and peace [globalized world] [.. ,]» Benedict XVI. Caritas in veritate. - N. 7..
The encyclical of Pope John XXIII introduces the concept of love as a guarantor of peace, by respecting the dignity of all people and their rights. Such a peace - in the opinion of the Pope-built on mutual respect is more durable than based on intimidation and fear. «And yet, unhappily, we often find the law of fear reigning supreme among nations and causing them to spend enormous sums on armaments. Their object is not aggression, so they say - and there is no reason for disbelieving them - but to deter others from aggression. Nevertheless, We are hopeful that, by establishing contact with one another and by a policy of negotiation, nations will come to a better recognition of the natural ties that bind them together as men. We are hopeful, too, that they will come to a fairer realization of one of the cardinal duties deriving from our common nature: namely, that love, not fear, must dominate the relationships between individuals and between nations» John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 129..
The social teaching of the Roman Catholic Churc had mits that love in its social dimension is a special characteristic. It is not just a matter of law, it cannot be ordered, there is no way to replace it with a just legal or social system. «State so just that it can eliminate the need for a service of love. Whoever wants to eliminate love is preparing to eliminate man as such. There will always be suffering which cries out for consolation and help. There will always be loneliness. There will always be situations of material need where help in the form of concrete love of neighbor is indispensable» Benedict XVI. Deus caritas est. - N. 28.. John XXIII even indicates specific forms of help offered by some countries to other ones - love motivated by active solidarity and love: building the third sector, breaking social and racial prejudices, eliminating dis parities between populations, farmland and capital, assistance to political refugees and immigrants, disarmament John XXIII. Pacem in terries. - N. 98-119.. The foundation of this social charity is a common dignity, equality in humanity and awareness of the great human family creation. When it in filtrates the mentality and is interiorized you can talk about social love: «Social and political charity is not exhausted in relationships between individuals but spreads into the network formed by these relationships, which is precisely the social and political community; it intervenes in this context seeking the greatest good for the community in its entirety». In so many aspects the neighbor to be loved is found «in society», such that to love him concretely, assist him in his needs or in his indigence may mean something different than it means on the mere level of relationships between individuals: to love another person on the social level means, depending on the situations, to make use of social mediations to improve his life or to remove social factors that cause his indigence. It is undoubtedly an act of love, the work of mercy by which one responds here and now to a real and impelling need of one`s neighbor, but it is an equally indispensable act of love to strive to organize and structure society so that one`s neighbor will not find himself in poverty, above all when this becomes a situation within which an immense number of people and entire populations must struggle, and when it takes on the proportions of a true worldwide social issue» The Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. - N. 208..
The fourth principle exposed by John XXIII is the principle of freedom as the condition sine qua non of social order and peace; there can be no peace without respect for freedom. This principle applies to both individuals and particular countries and nations. «Furthermore, relations between States must be regulated by the principle of freedom. This means that no country has the right to take any action that would constitute an unjust oppression of other countries, or an unwarranted interference in their affairs. On the contrary, all should help to develop in others an increasing awareness of their duties, an adventurous and enterprising spirit, and the resolution to take the initiative for their own advancement in every field of endeavor» John XXIII Pacem in terries. - N. 120.. An important document containing the social doctrine of the Church defines freedom as follows: «Freedom is the highest sign in man of his being made in the divine image and, consequently, is a sign of the sublime dignity of every human person». But not everything that is considered to be freedom is in fact freedom: «The meaning of freedom must not be restricted, considering it from a purely individualistic perspective and reducing it to the arbitrary and uncontrolled exercise of one`s own personal autonomy». Each freedom finds its natural limitation in the freedom of others, and those limits should be respected each other and with respect. Freedom has also its natural social reference: «The understanding of freedom becomes deeper and broader when it is defended, even at the social level, in all of its various dimensions»The Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. - N. 199..
These four principles of social life represent tools to assess the problem of war, tensions and peace in the world in the social doctrine of the Catholic Church. They also determine the optics of the Catholic Church on the type of bonds between people and all nations. It is a «community of nations» Hoffner J. Christian Social Teaching. - Cologne, 1997. - P. 157. or even «family of nations» John Paul II. Homily at Holly Mass in Kubwa //Abuja (Nigeria), 23.03.1998.. Card. Joseph Hoffner - Archbishop of Cologne, chairman of the German Bishops` Conference and the winner of the Israeli badges «Righteous Among the Nations» for rescuing Jews during World War II, wrote: «Whereas the animal world is divided into numerous genera and species, which frequently fight mercilessly against one another, humans are not only a biological unity, but meta-physically united through the same human nature in spite of their differences in skin color and national characteristics. The inhumane limitation of Jiumanness` to one`s own tribe, one`s own race, one`s own nation, or one`s own class leads to bestiality. Because humans are not only «many», but «many of the same species», they form an original, preexisting unity in a spiritual-moral, legal, and ecbonomic respect, independently of their agreement and consent» Hoffner J. Christian Social Teaching. - Cologne, 1997. - P. 157..
This important for his social thought of the Catholic Churchscientist, stated already in the 80 sof the twentieth century that the processes of globalization change the mentality of people giving all experiencing a sense of common destiny, common values, communication and meeting: «In spite of all divisions, the consciousness of worldwide solidarity among all nations is becoming ever stronger» Hoffner J. Christian Social Teaching. - Cologne, 1997. - P. 158.. Such an experience of unity should naturally lead to building the communication and breaking the barriers: «Let the blockades be opened, let the wire entanglements be removed, let every nation be granted a free view into the life of every other, let the isolation of certain countries from the rest of the civilized world, which is so detrimental to peace, be abolished» Pius XII. The message for Christmas. - 1950 y..
The Roman Catholic social thought maturing over the centuries, today as the foundation of peace, adopts this common to all people equality in humanity which generates brother hood and solidarity Benedict XVI. Caritas in veritate. - N. 34.. Brother hood and solidarity of nations having a foundation in fraternal communications enable all people to build a relation of peace between all nations based on common values and common international law and institutions. The obstacle to unity maybe, for example. imperialist aspirations of some or ideologies of nationalism: «The centrality of the human person and the natural inclination of persons and peoples to establish relationships among themselves are the fundamental elements for building a true international community, the ordering of which must aim at guaranteeing the effective universal common good. Despite the widespread aspiration to build an authentic international community, the unity of the human family is not yet becoming a reality. This is due to obstacles originating in materialistic and nationalistic ideologies that contradict the values of the person integrally considered in all his various dimensions, material and spiritual, individual and community. In particular, any theory or form whatsoever of racism and racial discrimination is morally unacceptable» Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. - N. 433..
Social thought calculates common values to all people and the need for a common legal order guaranteeing the freedom of individuals and nations: «The coexistence among nations is based on the same values that should guide relations among human beings: truth, justice, active solidarity and freedom. The Church`s teaching, with regard to the constitutive principles of the international community, requires that relations among peoples and political communities be justly regulated according to the principles of reason, equity, law and negotiation, excluding recourse to violence and war, as well as to forms of discrimination, intimidation and deceit. International law becomes the guarantor of the international order. [...] The international community is a juridical community founded on the sovereignty of each member State, without bonds of subordination that deny or limit its independence. Understanding the international community in this way does not in any way mean relativizing or destroying the different and distinctive characteristics of each people, but encourages their expression. Valuing these different identities helps to overcome various forms of division that tend to separate peoples and fill them with a selfcentredness that has destabilizing effects» Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace // The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. - N. 433-434..
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