Analysis of the correlations between styles of thinking and parameters necessary for solving psychodiagnostic tasks among students psychologists and practical psychologists
The empirical results of solving psychodiagnostic tasks by the psychologists with the experience of work over three years, and students-psychologists with different styles of thinking. The assessment of success while solving psychodiagnostic tasks.
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Analysis of the correlations between styles of thinking and parameters necessary for solving psychodiagnostic tasks among students psychologists and practical psychologists
This article deals with the empirical results of solving psychodiagnostic tasks by the psychologists with the experience of work over three years, and students-psychologists with different styles of thinking. The assessment of success while solving psychodiagnostic tasks by the representatives of the different thinking styles is carried out. The author analyzed specific character of solving psychodiagnostic tasks, and also made the comparative analysis of success among practical psychologists and students-psychologists taking into consideration their thinking styles. The linesfor further investigations in field of the research are set.
Keywords: professionally important qualities, process of students-psychologists' teaching, psychodiagnostic activity, compounds of psychodiagnostic activity, psychodiagnostic task solving, strategies of solving psychodiagnostic tasks, thinking styles. psychodiagnostic thinking student
The analysis of the psychologists' professionally important qualities allowed discovering a range of thinking particularities and personal traits, which let the subject to carry out psychodiagnostic activity. Among them we can name: high intellect; good development of the intentional, mnemic, thinking, imaginary characteristics; wholeness, criticism, flexibility, dialectic thinking; and also well-developed communicative and linguistic qualities, readiness for the contact, stress stability in the process of the communication, the skill to control the behavior, tact and delicacy, patience towards the other opinion and evaluations . It is necessary to note, that among the psychological factors of the success in psychodiagnostic activity we also can distinguish: diagnostic thinking; thinking characteristics (objectivity, wholeness, flexibility, typology, creativity, dialogue - orientation); personality style particularities, including, the style of thinking [5, 6, 7]. Professionally important qualities are the dynamic entities and have different impact at different stages of the professional development. All them should be taken into consideration while professional training of the specialists during their high school education.
A number of the researchers pay attention at the insufficient level of the studentspsychologists' readiness to psychodiagnostic activity: skipping of the diagnostic stages, difficulties in correlation of the research results and data interpretation, insufficient psychometric skills, the violation of the ethic norms of the psychodiagnostics [2, 5, 7].
Under the conditions of the high professional education, the adequate model of studies of psychodiagnostic activity is the solution of psychodiagnostic tasks, taken from the real psychological practice. In order to discover possible zones of the growth, directions for developing students-psychologists, we studied process, content and result characteristics of solving psychodiagnostic tasks by practical psychologists and students-psychologists with the different thinking styles.
Methodological bases for our research are: theory of making psychological diagnosis by A.F. Anoufriev ; structure of the diagnostic tasks by Anoufriev ; criteria полноты of solving psychodiagnostic tasks by S.N. Kostromina ; classification and content aspects of the theory of the thinking styles by R. Bremson and А. harrisson , R. Sternberg ; functional approach to thinking styles by А.К. Belousova .
In the process of the research we wanted to answer to one question about correlations of styles of thinking with success in solving psychodiagnostic problems, besides, among practical psychologists and students studying psychology. To achieve our goals and determine the particularities of the impact of each style of thinking upon the success of solving psychodiagnostic tasks, it was decided to use two methods: questionnaire «Thinking styles», created by А.К. Belousova, and questionnaire of thinking styles by R.Bramson and А. harrisson, adapted by A.A. Alekseev, L.А. gromova. The questionnaire by А.К. Belousova gives the possibility to reveal four styles of thinking: initiative, critical, administrative, practical. The methodics, adapted by А.А. Аlekseev, L.А. gromova distinguish five main styles, among which: synthetic style; idealist style; pragmatic style; аnalytical style; realistic style. According to the style names the men are called accordingly Synthesizer, Idealist, Pragmatist, Analyst and Realist.
As it was mentioned before, psychodiagnostic activity is passing mainly at the mental level and it is hardly possible to reflect while doing it. For training those skills as an accurate method more and more researchers have recently chosen the taskbased method. In our research we also used the method of the assessment of the development of the components of the psychodiagnostic activity and particularities of solving psycho-diagnostic tasks among the representatives of the different thinking styles. We set up the markers of success for each component of psychodiagnostic activity, such as: the number of stages of the diagnostic process, consequence of stages of psychodiagnostic process, the number of the hypotheses proposed, hypotheses accuracy, adequacy of the chosen methods, a number of the methods, orientation towards problem solving, feedback.
We are coming now to the most significant correlations, discovered in our study.
Synthetic style of thinking among students is positively connected with a number of the proposed hypothesesand their accuracy to the symptoms, negatively - with the accuracy of the methods, the skill of giving the feedback and success at the problem solving. Among the psychologists the synthetic style is connected only to the necessity of finding out solution. All the students -Synthesizers are not good at solving the tasks, despite the logic consequence of the diagnostic study. They often skip the stage of the preliminary hypotheses, suggest excess methodic instrument which is not adequate to the symptoms, they often replace the diagnosis by neutral descriptions and client's problem statement. Psychologists-Synthesizers, on the contrary, have high efficiency in problem solving. The scheme of the diagnostics is reduced, the stage of the diagnostic methods is often skipped, they orientate mainly towards the conversation with the client. The specialist has the the aim of finding out resources, problem solving and reflects it at most in the feedback with the client, however, they can avoid giving support to the client.
Ideal style of thinking among students-psychologists has negative correlations withhalf of the parameters of problem solving: the quantity and consequence of the diagnostic stages, the number and accuracy of the methods, orientation towards problem solving and the skill to ask the questions to the client. The positive correlation is discovered only with category search for resources». Students-Idealists, as well as the psychologists - Idealists, are able more or less successfully solve the diagnostic tasks, they propose a lot of preliminary hypotheses, including those which are not accurate to the symptoms, they seldom occur to diagnostic methods, but if they use them, then they are always accurate and efficient. however, the psychologists- Idealists are more directed towards the search of the problems and decisions than the students with idealistic style of thinking, they more often ignore the communication with the client. Besides, the students often admit the violation of the ethic rules and replace the diagnosis by unprofessional statements and pieces of advice.
Pragmatic style of thinking among students-psychologists is positively correlated with the categories «problem search» and «client support», negatively with the category «resources search ». Pragmatic style of thinking is negatively correlated with success in problem solving, the number of stages, quantity and accuracy of the hypotheses, quantity and accuracy of the methods, with the skill to give the feedback, to ask questions and give the support to the client. Positive correlation was reveled with the index of the stages consequences and the number of neutral descriptions. Among the respondents with the pragmatic style of thinking the common trait is reduced scheme of the diagnostic search (1-2 stages), with the frequent skip of the hypotheses and methods. Students-Pragmatists are concentrated upon problem search and versions of its solution, they do not forget about recommendations and client's support, but very often with the violation of the professional ethics. Psychologists - Pragmatists, on the contrary, they focus their attention upon looking for the theoretical bases of the problem, recommendations, feedback; they do not support the client.
Analytic style of thinking among students positively connected to success at problem solving, accuracy of the proposed hypotheses, number and accuracy of the methods, orientation towards problem solving. Negative correlations are revealed with the categories «neutral descriptions», «unprofessional statements», «questions to the client» (r = -0,25, р ? 0,01), «client's support» and feedback parameters. The working psychologists demonstrate positive correlation with the search of the resources. The psychologists and students with marked analytical style of thinking solve psychodiagnostic tasks in the most efficient way. In the scheme of the diagnostic process they skip 1-2 stages, put forward hypotheses and suggested methods are always accurate and lead to the accurate psychological diagnosis. Analysts do not admit the violation of the professional ethics, they fix upon the resources search and problem solving, however analysts-students frequently skip the stage of the recommendations and do not support the client.
The realistic style of thinking among studentsis positively connected with a number of stages of the diagnostic process, feedback, the skill to support the client, the number of the questions and unprofessional statements. The negative correlations are discovered with the number and accuracy of the methods. The working psychologists with marked realistic style of thinking, on the contrary, have the well-developed technical and logic components - positive links are found with success, orientation on the problem search, number and accuracy of the methods, number of question asked to the client. Negative correlations exist with the categories of the problem search and resources search. The students and the practical psychologists with the realistic style of thinking successfully decide the diagnostic tasks. The representatives of this style better then the other respondents are able to apply technical components of the diagnostics (methodic instruments), the few hypotheses are practically always transformed into correct psychological diagnosis. The differences are concluded in the deontological components of the psychodiagnostic activity: students-realists efficiently build their communication with the client, ask questions, give support, give problem solutions and clients' resources, and reflect them in the feedback. Psychologists-Realists are concentrated upon finding the problem and solutions, they seldom give the feedback and support the clients.
Those who possess marked initiative style of thinking seem to be few and unsuccessful in solving diagnostic tasks (students as well as working psychologists). The negative correlations exist with the general index of the success, number and consequence of diagnostic stages, number, and accuracy of the methods, number and accuracy of the hypotheses.
Students with dominating initiative style of thinking suffer from big difficulties in solving diagnostic tasks, the majority of the decisions are brought together to the neutral description of the tasks at everyday, unprofessional level. Psychologists with the initiative style of thinking are concentrated upon problem finding and other disturbances, they put forward accurate hypotheses, however they skip diagnostic stage, and they do not give the feedback, support and recommendations.
The representatives of the critical style of thinking demonstrate positive correlations with all the components of the diagnostic activity: success, quantity and consequence of the stages of the diagnostic research, quantity and accuracy of the hypotheses, quantity of the methods and quantity of the questions to the client, feedback, orientation towards finding the problem and decisions. The negative correlations were found only with the neutral descriptions and unprofessional statements. critical style of thinking turned to be in our study one of the most productive ones for solving psychodiagnostic tasks among students as well as the working psychologists. The students and the psychologists with marked critical style of thinking solve diagnostic tasks very efficiently: all the stages of the diagnostic search are consistent, proposed hypotheses and methodic instruments are always adequate to the symptoms and as a result they give an accurate diagnosis. The respondents with the critical style of thinking are aimed at search of resources and decisions, this is reflected in feedback, recommendations and support, given to the client. however, students often ignore the feedback stage and do not give the support to the client.
The managerial style of thinking among psychologists positively correlates with success of the problem solving and accuracy of the hypotheses, negatively with the client's support. There few positive correlations of the students with this style of thinking with the number of the hypotheses and unprofessional statements, negative correlations were found with the other parameters of solving diagnostic tasks, including the integral rate of success. So, the well-developed traits of the managerial style of thinking among psychologists contribute to the efficient solution of the diagnostic task, but it is not the case with students. The respondents with the dominating managerial style of thinking have the average score of success in problem solving. The students and psychologists demonstrate high level of the development of logic, semiotic, technical component of psychodiagnostic activity; they concentrate upon the problem solving and decisions; however they completely omit the deontological component (the lack of the feedback and any communication with the subject).
Practical style of thinkingamong students directly proportional with success in solving tasks, number and consequence of stages, number of the methods and orientation towards problem search. The negative correlation is discovered with the number of the unprofessional statements. In the sample of working psychologists the positive correlations are shown with number and accuracy of the methods, number of stages, client's support and the number of the asked questions, negative correlations with the accuracy of the hypotheses. Psychologists with dominating practical style of thinking менее успешны в решении диагностических задач, часто пропускают этап гипотез и методик, they put accent upon the stage of giving recommendations and problem solving, client's support and feedback. The working psychologists' practical style of thinking is closely linked with technical and deontological compounds of the psychodiagnostic activity, which doesn't directly provide success in solving the psych diagnostic tasks. Students with dominating practical style of thinking possess high efficiency of solving diagnostic tasks, they are involved into problem search and solving the problem, the scheme of the diagnostic search is thoroughly observed by them, they use the methods best of all, and, as a rule, their unique preliminary hypothesis turns to be right. They almost never admit the ethic violation and a single mistake in their work is underestimation of the client's resources.
Thus, the results of the studies of success in solving the psychodiagnostic tasks, carried out using the sample of students and practical psychologists with different styles of thinking showed that students-psychologists in the process of solving psychodiagnostic problems hardly ever concentrate upon the category «search for resources», «search for solutions», «client's support», that reflects insufficient development of the deontological component of the psychodiagnostic activity. It is also confirmed by the fact that a great quantity of «unprofessional responses» in individual decisions made by students-psychologists in comparison with specialists. We'd like to underline, that the discovered significant differences in the process, content, result characteristics of the problem solving among students-psychologists and practical psychologists with different styles of thinking. The students, who do not have the dominating style of thinking, show a great difference in development of semiotic, logic, technical and deontological components.
Thus, the results of this research testify the insufficient development of the compound of the psychodiagnostic activity among students-psychologists. The difference in the success while solving psycho-diagnostic tasks by students-psychologists with the different styles of thinking let us make conclusions about unevenness of the development and significance of these or those compounds of psycho-diagnostic activity, and also about the success of the psychologists-representatives of the different concrete styles of thinking in different compounds of the psycho-diagnostic activity. consequently, planning the ways of creating and developing these components in the process of getting high professional education, it is reasonable to take into consideration the thinking styles of the students-psychologists.
For further development and improvement of the psycho-diagnostic skills among students-psychologists at the basis of the psychological service of South-Russian humanitarian Institute was elaborated and introduced experimental program. The results of this work are described and published .
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3. Anoufriev А.F. Psychological diagnosis. - М.: «Axe-89», 2006. - 192 p.
4. Achina А.V . Possibilities of elaborating compounds of psychodiagnostic activity among students-psychologists in the process of the experimental program.// Russian psychological journal. - 2012. - V . 9. - № 2. - P. 70-77.
5. Belousova А.К. Text writing for diagnostics of the thinking style.// collected works of articles. current problems of the psychological diagnostics. - Rostov-on-Don: SRSI, 2001. - p. 88-104.
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