Characteristic of forming hypothesis solution in the political thinking process
The peculiarities of political thinking at the stage of hypothesis nomination. The cognitive personality components of the intellective activity of the political actor. A scheme that determines the sequence of the search of solving a political task.
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Characteristic of forming hypothesis solution in the political thinking process
У статті розглядаються особливості політичного мислення на етапі висування гіпотези. Йдеться про когнітивний, операційний та регулівно- особистісний компоненти мисленнєвої діяльності політичного актора. Ключові слова: політичне мислення, етапи процесу мислення, гіпотеза здогадка, компоненти політичного мислення.
The article deals with the peculiarities of political thinking at the stage of hypothesis nomination. It is about the cognitive, operational and regulatory personality components of the intellective activity of the political actor. Key words: political thinking, stages of the thinking process, conjecture hypothesis, components of political thinking.
Formulation of the problem. It is known that one of the substantial foundations of the existence of the political system is the condition and to what extent political consciousness and the political thinking of citizens which is most important are developed . The contradictory times of the society existence indicate political thinking prove to be at the same time as a goal and one of the sources of socio-political processes, and undergoes intense changes. Political thinking is a process that can be interrupted, degraded or revived, it has its own framework, its horizon . One of the stages of its run is a hypothesis formation to solve a task.
The analysis of recent studies and publications shows that researchers emphasize the connection between the formation of an idea and the natural processes of creative, productive activity (L. L. Gurova, 2005; N. V. Medvedeva, 2008; V. O. Molyako, 2008 etc.). In its structure, there are several components. The original idea, the appearance of the first images of the idea and, as a consequence, the emergence of a common desire; an intermediate idea is the transformation of the initial forms of the idea, which consists in thinking, bearing, forming, transforming - the development of the idea, its specification, and the final idea [5, p. 419].
Political thinking (like any other thinking) arises in situations of problems which the subject has no ready-made means to solve... the aim is to find ways of changing the conditions of the situation in order to meet the needs. Products of thinking, expressed in transforming the structure of the subject, represent mental reality models, acting in the epistemological terms as images of objects [6, p. 79].
The idea in the political task is constructed by means of various thinking components. This manifests itself in the domination of various hypotheses contents. It is an issue of the relation between (a) sub-subjects of political thinking; (b) the structural components of the problem situation; (c) their functional dependence. In this case, the hypothesis may be predominant either theoretical or practical, analytical or intuitive, creative or reproductive, value-correct or not, etc. That, in turn, determines the typology of qualitative changes in the process of finding a solution to political problems.
The purpose of the article is to reveal peculiarities at the stage of hypothesis nomination during the political actor's political thinking process.
Presenting main material. Considering the course of the formation of an idea in the context of the system-strategic approach, we investigated the cognitive, operational, regulatory-personal components [13, p. 39]. In the process of generating the initial solution of a political task, the cognitive component functions as a stream of associations, the creation and differentiation of structural and functional features of the object of knowledge. The condition and requirement of the task are distinguished. Due to the use of the intellectual, mental experience of the actor an idea-hypothesis has been formed, which is a system of intermediate and strategic goals, not being set directly, but are given (implicit) and require structuring (formulation) and sequential solution.
In a political task, the given properties are those axes that determine the orientation of the search process. The objects of politics are related to well- known socio-political facts. These include the various aspects of political life: traditions, constitution, rules (official and informal), social tendencies, social patterns (due to the type of political regime, ideology, political culture, socialization, consciousness, mentality, etc.). These are the social forms of political existence, which are “a reflection of some general structure of a given society, some of its usually abstract nature, which is not perceived in commonplace.” Such a “structural core” of society can be represented in the religious (M. Weber), religious-mythological (B. Malinovsky, G. Bateson), religious-political (republican Ancient Rome) [8, p. 37], scientific and other forms. The more aware and attracted to these discourses is the actor, the more he has the ability to navigate the task space and to predict the given relationships between the formulated condition and the requirement of the task. The study of the thinking of the military, diplomats, and intelligence officers suggests that political success is due to chance (since politics is an activity under uncertain and risky conditions), but it is not sudden. It is the result of directed, scrupulous activity of politicians (for example, regime changes through a revolution, a coup, a military action), which have remote and usually hidden goals, which may become known through sufficiently remote time .
Researchers point out that there is no absolutely unknown task for a subject - otherwise it will not be a problem for him. That is, there is no absolutely new task. Any task is certain to have the elements of the problem situation, which are related to the theoretical knowledge and practical skills of the actor solving the problem, since otherwise it will not be able to solve it (V. V. Znakov, 2014). However, in politics, situations that are so unusual may occur, such as war, when the experience of the actor's peaceful life is so remote and difficult to mediate with the objectivity of the present situation (theoretical, abstract, and real) that the urgent need to solve an objective problem and, at the same time, the inability to construct subjective adequate tasks, lack of direct practical skills for solving them can result in their physical death.
In politics, there are no so-called axioms like mathematics and physics, language, and music. The type of political culture and the level of civilization of a society, its system of education predetermine discourses shaping the actor's experience and their ability to generate assumptions, determine the limits of the materiality of the goals and means of policy. The constitution and other laws are known that nominally regulate the socio-political activity of actors. However, the traditions of a society, the political system determine the specifics of their reading and embodiment. It is about the paradigm and ideological development of the actor and their psychological readiness to act in one way or another (written and unwritten rules, “proverbs and sayings”). Possible ways in politics, there is a value-motivational construct of personality (subjective, clan, ethnic, subcultural, aristocracy, etc.). The fact that the success of solving any problems depends on the motivation of the solver, is beyond doubt. In solving political problems (as opposed, for example, from technical, mathematical), the individual-personal component of thinking becomes of special significance.
Making assumptions is determined by the possibilities of using the actor's acquired experience. It is about such a “mobilization” [2, p. 196], which manifests itself first and foremost in a certain attitude of the actor to the problem, the scope of knowledge and the ability to use them (integration or simply transfer) in the new conditions. The ratio of subjective systems of meanings and personal meanings, subjective and objective values, and so on specify the dynamics of the development of cognitive motifs. The actor tries to find out the relevance of the actions applied to the data and the given relationship of the task. Thus, establishing contradictions between the condition and requirement, the given and that one which is looked forward to, etc.
One of the manifestations of the motivational sphere is an interest in the task. It should be noted that it was most manifested in the so-called profile political groups being researched, which correlates with the specialized knowledge of students-political scientists and deputies. At the same time, in the group of technical (mechanical and mathematical) orientation, the manifestation of interest was more varied - from total alienation to attempting rational development of the task space. Those particularly talented in mathematics tried to solve the problem, putting forward specific hy- potheses-formulas (“nothing special, a person is a man”). In all groups, the interest tended to decrease, when, after several attempts, it was not possible to formulate a relevant leading image. “Finding the way of solving a problem is facilitated in those cases, - noted G. S. Kostyuk, - if the subject can bring a new task to a certain category of those old, already familiar to them tasks and to use previously tested methods for their solution” [3, p. 382].
Taking into account the actor's political experience, it was possible to conditionally distinguish as tendencies two ways of research, which function simultaneously and successionally in the process of solving political problems namely, a normative (value) one and a descriptive (subject-contextual) one.
The normative of the search is that the actor applies a value-orientation system of coordinates. In particular, the ideological ones (communist, liberal, fascist, social-democratic, and other valuable dominants), the subcultural (ethnic, class, spiritual, etc.), and subjective ones. That is, the actions of the actor are determined by the rules of the so-called subcultural codes-algorithms (settings, stereotypes, patterns, myths), which they use and can form chains of statements, inferences that lead them to the desired result. Such normative nature determines the type of political consciousness. The statement of O. M. Pyatigorskyi claims that totalitarianism became possible, “because an executioner and a victim think in the same way,” moreover we will continue by adding that democracy is possible, when representatives of political power and citizens think the same.
The descriptiveness of the searches shows the orientation of the actor to the functional and structural features of the problem situation and the ability to put forward such assumptions which would be the most contextually logical (rather naturally determined) consequences.
From a procedural and operative point of view, the common thing in these areas is that the search process for hypotheses (the first phase) is carried out through the production of associations, images, concepts that spontaneously occur in the actor's consciousness. In general, the content of the hypotheses turned out to be the same, which was consisted of representations about the structural elements of the problem, their functioning and interconnections. However, in the normative direction, a tendency to expand the task space due to hypotheses-symbols (for example, slogans, social-value stereotypes) is singled out.
The intention in each individual case (depending on the complexity, novelty of the task, knowledge and experience) can be more or less capacious and specific in its content, and is formed by the subject more or less quickly, can be not very clear or be conscious, etc. Sometimes the first hypothesis about the use in a solution of a certain principle or structures can be successful, and the formation of the intention actually becomes the main goal of the problem, basically its solution [4, p. 146]. political actor hypothesis
The operational composition of political thinking is aimed at transforming the task situation by manipulating the isolated objects. As noted above, they have at least three orientations: structure, function, or mixed. Being selected through the analysis of the phenomenon which a task is composed of, with the help of synthesis, they integrate into new systems of relations leading to the discovery of new properties of the given and the sought after. This “basic relation of the task” (according to S. L. Rubinstein) determines the search by the actor precisely those (assigned but not given) properties and connections that make up the search of a specific task.
The transition from this state to the desired one is mediated by a number of intermediate states, which represent the problem situation at a certain stage of its solution [10; 12]. In this, analyzing allows to distinguish the range of objects, their components and connections. There is a dismemberment, separation of parts. Due to the synthesis, the elements are merged into a new whole. “Analysis is an invention, synthesis - execution, analysis is drawing up a plan, - synthesis is its implementation” [7, p. 140]. Throughout the sample [13, p. 45], the analysis operation proved to be significant in such factors as “systematic” (,687), “routine” (,339) and “rational” (,363). In the group GD [13, p. 39] it loaded the factors “systematic” (,389) and “populistic” (,790).
The analysis is transformed into an abstraction, thus distinguishing between general and partial. The operation of an abstraction loads the factor “systematic” (,872) throughout the sample. It functions as a “specific form of an analysis, the form which analysis acquires in the transition to abstract thinking in concepts” [9, p. 34]. Thus, in the GD group, the abstract operation is loaded by the factors “systematic” (,831) and “populistic” (,303). Moreover, in political analysis, the “commonplace” (,303) and “psychogram” (,537) are significant factors; in political forecasting is “systematic” (,510), “commonplace” (,410) and “psychogram” (,456); in making a political decision is “populistic” (,520) and “intuitiveness” (,347); in political management is “intuition” (,550) and “express solution” (385) (appendix 4). That is, a flowing stream of information related to a solvable political situation is subjected to analysis and differentiation.
In the GMS [13, p. 39] group, the abstracting operation was not significant, indicating the complexity, lack of specificity and the inaccuracy of the political thinking of ordinary actors. As a result, they failed to capture those properties, states of relations of the object of the task, which in themselves are not independent and significant. It is an inability to isolate ties and relationships in the task space, to select structural elements for those properties that are essential before and after the transformation of the task situation. That is, those ties that would acquire relative independence in the search process within a complex system. At the same time, political thinking is full of formal and meaningful abstractions. They are encoded by political symbols - signs (colors, sounds, slogans, etc.), which are decorated in holistic designs. However, they appear to be unproductive in the search process of an average actor (which may be the basis for the existence of ideological beliefs, prejudices, stereotypes, etc.).
In the developed political thinking of deputies formal abstraction characterizes the level of its theoretical. It is about abstraction as a form which through specification moves to some certain one and reproduces its integrity. So, with the coordination, specification of the goals of activity (closest, promising and most distant), the politicians meant: “Sleeping area, ...social problems... kindergartens. infrastructure. leisure. the social stratum. the workers to a rather moderate middle class. hence, funding and organization of activities should be.”. The ability to abstraction as an individual-personality of an actor enables the thinking orientation of to the feature, whose isolation becomes the condition for solving the problem. Differentiation into general and partial allows the verification of partial results, intermediate guesses in the process of forming a plan.
Formal (empirical) abstractions are most common in everyday political thinking, and meaningful - in the theoretical, where the theoretical and practical components are difficult to interact. The notions, terms (“democracy, communism, freedom, happy future,” etc.) can be the product of various processes of abstraction and generalization.
In the process of direct perception, the generalization operation (,898) allows the actor to distinguish between the properties and the relation of objects of the task, regardless of the uncertainty of the conditions in which it occurs. However, in political practice, objective and subjective conditions influence the generalization, which leads to distortion of perception and interpretation of objects of a task situation. In such conditions, the preservation of the substantive content of the hypothesis in the political situation is a special task for the actor.
By comparing the properties of one or another group of elements (associated with a certain cognitive setting), the actor distinguishes their common characteristics, which potentially can become the content of the concept about this group of elements. Such an empirical generalization of properties is denoted by the term, which makes it possible to use concepts in a reduced form without direct reference to individual objects, to organize them in classification schemes. It's about a symbolism as a method (“all regionalists...”, “European traditions are closer to the mentality of Ukrainians...”, etc.).
Significantly less frequent is the indirect generalization by analyzing the data of the problem in order to distinguish the essential internal connections of the object of the task, which define it as an integral system (e. g., “the power discredited itself. complete unprofessional. participation in political events is necessary, however how long they will last. full chaos.”). That is, labeling them with a corresponding notion, the actor determines the source point of the object, and then, operating by them, constructs the partial features of the object in the integrity. As a result, the knowledge about the object is becoming more detailed, concretized and, possibly, complete (it refers to the ascent from the abstract to the concrete).
The importance of the operation of comparison in the thinking process is pointed out by many researchers, which is also revealed in our study. As a result of factor analysis it turned out that the comparison operation is essential in the systematic organization of political thinking (,738) and has a situational manifestation (,319) throughout the sample. The specification of its significance depends on the group and the task solved by the actor. In particular, in the group of politicians the comparison was significant in the factors “systematic” (,448), “populistic” (,560) and “standard” (,365). Moreover, when solving the Analysis-task [14, p. 85] the load was by the same factors, respectively (,566) and (,611). In the Forecasting-task, the “populist” was a loaded factor (,615). Moreover, in the factor “creativity”, the smaller the significance of the comparison operation, the greater the significance of creativity (,496). In solving the Decision making-task, the comparison operation was found to be significant in the “intuitive” factor (,794). In the Managing-task there was in the factors “populism” (,689) and “intuitiveness” (,334).
In the group of GMS, the comparison operation is significant in the factors “systematic” (,620), “intuitiveness” (,589), and its reduction led to the domination of “routine” in political thought (,311). Depending on the type of task being solved, the comparison operation was significant in the Analyzing task in the “systematic” (,906) factor; in the Forecast task - in the factors “routine” (,594) and “creativity” (,694); in the Making-a- decision task - in the factor “systematic” (,971). In the Administration task, the feedback was found, when the significance of the comparison reduced the systemicity of political thinking (,784) and caused its “routine” (,543) etc.
In the process of solving a political task, the hypothesis functions as a general scheme that determines the sequence of the search process. It exists as an internal action plan being made during this process of solving a political task. Therefore, controlling thinking activities become possible, where sequential (and sudden) thinking transformations of an object can be compared with the results obtained from what is stood, and what is given, which is reflected in the procedural, dynamic dimension of the conception formation.
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