Formation and development of higher extramural pedagogical education in Russia
Study of the system of higher education by correspondence as an integral part of the organization of teacher training, defining its role in enhancing the professional level and quality of the staff of a comprehensive school at all stages of development.
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Formation and development of higher extramural pedagogical education in Russia
post-graduate student Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Formation and justification of the relevance of the problem. The higher extramural pedagogical education is one of the main links in the system of training pedagogical personnel and an important factor in the system of continuing education, it performs objective social and professional functions. The system of higher extramural pedagogical education, as an integral part of organizing teacher training, plays an important role in raising the professional level and improving the quality of the staff of the secondary school at all stages of development. Unfortunately, the history of the functioning of higher extramural pedagogical education and its vast experience remain not fully understood and insufficiently developed in scientific historico- pedagogical literature. The organizational and pedagogical significance of the extramural preparation of pedagogical staff, the contribution to the solution of this problem of individual higher education institutions and pedagogical communities, including the specific of the organization of educational and methodological support for higher extramural pedagogical education, have not been fully revealed.
Analysis of recent research and publications. A significant contribution to the development of this problem was made by S. M. Arlazarova, L. V. Buraya, B. A. Gritsyuk, T. I. Kobzareva, V. V. Nesterenko etc. The scientific-methodological and organizational problems of this form of pedagogical education are reflected in the works by E. B. Zakharova, S. D. Kichkina, V. N. Lazareva, A. S. Markova etc.
The purpose of the article. The author sets the goal - to determine what are the prerequisites that determined the specifics of the formation and development of higher extramural education in Russia (on the example of the Moscow State Distance Learning Pedagogical Institute). Its resolving allows us to identify trends and prospects for the development of the system of training pedagogical personnel in the conditions of correspondence courses.
The main material of the study. The development of higherextramural teaching education was constantly under the attention of the state. Its significance is testified by government decrees: «On further improvement of higher and secondary special correspondence and evening education» (1964); «On measures to further improve higher education in the country» (1972); «On measures to improve the training and professional development of pedagogical personnel in the system of education and professional-technic education, improve their work and life» (1984), etc. education extramural pedagogical
The Moscow State Correspondence Pedagogical Institute (hereinafter - MSCPI) was established by the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on April 28, 1951, No. 6392-r signed by I. V. Stalin, and the subsequent decree of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of May 3, 1951 and the order of the Minister of Education of the RSFSR of May 18, 1951 on the basis of the Central Extramural Department of the oldest pedagogical university of Russia - Lenin Moscow State Pedagogical University . The main task was set before the pedagogical institute: to give to teachers the higher education through the system of extramural education; many teachers who worked in schools graduated from teaching institutions that did not give higher education.
The idea of creating an independent correspondence pedagogical institute belonged to his first director, and then to the rector (1951¬1961) Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences Aghababov Khachatur Artemyevich. Strong character and organizational talent helped the first rector of the institute, together with a team of teachers, to make the university one of the most prestigious in the country in terms of the content of pedagogical education. In the first 1951-1952 academic year, 5,290 part-time students were trained in the MSCPI. The training of future teachers was carried out at seven faculties (Russian language and literature, historical, geographical, physical and mathematical ones, natural sciences, preschool and defectology) . Later, the following faculties were opened: graphic arts, primary school teachers, music and pedagogy. In the 50-ies. the formation of MSCPI as an extramural pedagogical institute took place. At the sessions of the departments of the Institute the following number of questions were discussed: a number of fundamental issues related to the preparation of the teachers' work plans, the topics of tests, the development of practical tasks for the independent work of students during the intercessional period. During this period, an effective system of students' academic work begins to be created at individual departments of the Institute, so the first workshops with an assignment system during the intercessional period and compilations of control exercises appear. However, as noted in the certificate on the state of extramural education in the RSFSR for 1952, teachers who were part-time students, who at that time studied in pedagogical and teacher's institutes, experienced an acute shortage in the provision of textbooks and teaching aids .
The Second Rector MSCPI in the period from 1961 to 1966 was the candidate of historical sciences Deza Valeryan Sergeevich, a participant of the Great Patriotic War. Under his leadership, the number of faculties reached ten: the music and pedagogical faculty was opened. In October 1962 an editorial and publishing department (hereinafter EPD) was organized at MSCPI, which was entrusted with the task of providing students with educational and methodical literature. According to the Decree of the Minister of Education of the RSFSR of December 3, 1963, No. 345 «On the procedure for the publication of educational and methodological literature for part¬time students of pedagogical institutes», reads: «Beginning October 1, 1963, to concentrate the publication of all educational and methodical literature for part-time students of pedagogical institutes (supervisory and coursework, methodical instructions, teaching aids, lecture courses, etc.), at the Moscow Correspondence Pedagogical Institute (MSCPI), stopping the publication of this literature in all other pedagogical institutes» [12, p. 147]. Already at the first stages of the EPD functioning, standard publications were developed for the intercessional work of part-time students, the preparation of a publication of manuals on special subjects began. Vice-rector for academic work in 1964-1973 S. M. Arlazarova in one of the reviews stressed that from 1966 to 1986, more than 1000 issues of teaching aids in the amount of more than 5 thousand printed sheets was published. The review listed the following classification of the MSCPI publications: 1 group - organizational and methodological documentation; 2 group - educational and methodological documentation, which organizes the intercessional work of the student; 3 group - educational and methodological manuals for the study of disciplines; methodical instructions to the courses; 4 group - textbooks; 5 group - training manuals on the most complex disciplines; 6th group - special seminars and special courses . Except the publication of textbooks and teaching aids in the EPD specialized literature was published specifically dealing with the preparation of future teachers in the system of extramural education. It should be noted that the educational and methodical literature published by EPD MSCPI intended for extramural and evening departments was in great demand in many pedagogical institutes of the RSFSR. In connection with the activation of independent work of part-time students during the intersessional period, the role of training and consulting points (hereinafter referred to as the TCP), their transformation into permanent institutions, significantly increases allowing to make the learning process continuous. With the MSCPI, there were seven TCPs (Bryansk, Vladimir, Kaluga, Ryazan, Tula, later classes began in the Moscow region and Kalinin). The system of lessons at the TCP was effective and encompassed a large number of students. In April 1966, as a result of studying the available experience, the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR issued the Regulations on Zonal Methodical Associations (hereinafter - ZMA). At that time seven ZMAs were created: Central, Gorky, Orenburg, Rostov, Irkutsk, Saratov, Novosibirsk. Each ZMA was headed by MSCPI. The main task of the ZMA was to make the most valuable issues in the work of various pedagogical institutes to be made available to the whole system of higher extramural pedagogical education.
In the period from 1966 to 1985, the rector of the Institute was Doctor of Historical Sciences Vinogradov Nikolai Savvatievich. During this period the Institute firmly established itself as the scientific and methodological center of the higher correspondence pedagogical education of the RSFSR. The 1970s can be considered a period of a more mature state of correspondence pedagogical education than the previous period. On the part of the MGPI, significant results were achieved in improving the educational process: high-grade staff was introduced, types of tests were reorganized, and their training character was improved; all faculties received a variety of educational and methodological documentation, including programmed training materials, workshops, collections of tests. Most of the disciplines were provided with stable textbooks, correspondence students received at their disposal a lot of popular science and other scientific literature, pedagogical practice was established, for which an effective instruction was developed. In addition, the level of planning of the educational process at extramural departments has significantly increased. In MSCPI was introduced a unified form of work programs with headings to guide the work of students during intersessional periods, with instructions for assignments and types of classes at the TCP .
Between 1985 and 1989, the rector of MSCPI was Nikitin Vladislav Alekseevich, Doctor of Philosophy. In 1987, day departments were opened for Muscovites at the faculties of the Russian language and literature, physics and mathematics, preschool education, primary classes. In the 80-ies in the activity of MGZPI it is possible to single out a number of basic directions, among which: 1) the selection and training of the staff of part-time students, in the first place from the number of teachers in rural schools; 2) professional development of young teachers with little work experience, not having a higher pedagogical education. Departments of the institute actively studied the time budget for the scientific organization of independent work of students. An extremely important direction in the work of the institute was the intensification of the educational process, the wide application of methods of working with students, which would activate their cognitive activity, prompted creativity and search activity .
In 1989, the effective work of the MGZPI was highly professional. By the Order of the State Education of the USSR of April 19, 1989, No. 350, it was decided to establish a Teaching and Methodological Association of Pedagogical Educational Institutions on the basis of MGZPI. Order of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR of May 05, 1989, No. 171 approved the Regulations on the Teaching and Methodological Association of Pedagogical Educational Institutions based on the MGZPI and 10 regional methodological centers that unite all the country's pedagogical universities . As noted V. N. Lazarev in his dissertation research, the creation of the Educational and Methodological Association (EMA), has become an organic development of the teacher training system without interrupting the work, continuation at the new organizational and scientific-methodological level the MSCPI's efforts to coordinate the activities of the teacher training universities. The activity of the EMA on the preparation of teachers on-the-job is aimed at simultaneously stabilizing the system and its development in accordance with a new understanding of the place and role of the extramural training of teachers in modern conditions .
Long-term effective work experience has allowed the faculty of MSCPI to demonstrate high mobility and receptivity to innovations that reflect the new social needs in the training of pedagogical personnel. This led to the renaming of the university. Order of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR from 06.05.1992 No. 183 Moscow State Correspondence Pedagogical Institute was renamed the Moscow State Open Pedagogical Institute. Three years later, by Order of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation of 10.01.1995 No. 10, the Moscow State Open Pedagogical Institute was renamed the Moscow State Open Pedagogical University . Having considered the appeal of the teaching staff and considering the application of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation to the Moscow State Open Pedagogical University was given the name of M. A. Sholokhov , according to the Moscow City Government Resolution No. 335 of May 16, 2000.
From 1989 to 2008 the rector of the reformed University was Doctor of Philology, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Member of the Writers' Union of Russia, Kruglov Yuri Georgievich. During the leadership of the university Yu.G. Kruglov pays much attention to higher pedagogical education. He participated in the development of new generations of curricula, programs, educational and methodological literature for pedagogical universities in Russia, actively participated in the cardinal renewal of pedagogical educational institutions. For a number of years he was the chairman of the Council of Rectors of Pedagogical Institutes of Higher Education of the Russian Federation. There was organized a Scientific and Methodological Council for the training of specialists on the job (distance learning) and andragogy that worked on the basis of MSOPU named after M.A. Sholokhov and it was headed by the Educational and Methodological Association of Pedagogical Institutes of the country. Under the direction of the rector Yu.G. Kruglov formed the educational complex «vocational school - university» .
State educational institution of higher professional education «Moscow State Open Pedagogical Sholokhov University» by the Order No. 1170 of the Federal Agency for Education, October 19, 2006 was renamed into the state educational institution of higher professional education «Moscow State Humanitarian University named after M. A. Sholokhov» .
This series of renames, was the cause of the search for the most exact correspondence of the name of the university to its functions and the desire for an effective solution of the entire range of problems put forward on the agenda by the doctrine of Russian education and, above all, the principle of advanced development of training of personnel and the growing demands of society for quality of teacher training. The university was one of the largest scientific centers of Russia on problems of pedagogical and humanitarian education. The University is given the right to conduct educational activities for training, advanced training and retraining of specialists at all levels of higher, postgraduate, additional and primary vocational education. The educational space of the university on the basis of 16 branches has been significantly enlarged . Since 2001, the University has been on the list of the best pedagogical and linguistic universities in Russia constantly taking a place in the top ten of more than 70 universities of this category (according to the data of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation) .
From 2009 to 2015 rector of MSGU named after M. A. Sholokhov was Doctor of Political Sciences Nechaev Vladimir Dmitrievich. Under his leadership, the Concept of Modern Humanitarian Education and the long-term Development Strategy of the University for the period until 2025 were developed at the MSHU named after M. A. Sholokhov. According to his initiative, the Center of Youth Policy was established on the basis of the University, and the process of introducing the principles of «patriotic upbringing» was included into the system of humanities education . As of October 1, 2010, 11160 students were studying at the university, including (full-time education - 3287, full-time and part-time form - 2903, correspondence form - 4970). The proportion of professors and teachers with academic degrees and (or) academic titles was 66.4%. The university consisted of 45 departments, 13 faculties with full-time, part-time and part-time forms of study, postgraduate and doctoral studies, as well as the Institute of Informatization of Education . On November 1, 2012, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation published the results of monitoring the activities of federal educational institutions of higher professional education. Based on the results of monitoring MSHU named after M. A. Sholokhov entered the list of universities, whose activities were recognized as effective .
February 2, 2015 on the site of Moscow State Humanitarian Sholokhov University was published an appeal of the Academic Council of the university addressed to the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation D.V. Livanov with a proposal to integrate MSHU named after Sholokhov with Moscow State Pedagogical University. «It seems important that Russia has a research university, whose mission would be active research, experimental and innovative activities in the field of education and technologies for working with young people. In addition, such a university should become a provider of unique educational programs in these areas, not only of the All-Russian, but of the international level, which would make it a conductor of Russia's «soft power» in other countries», the appeal says. Management of MSHU named after M. A. Sholokhov believes that it is most expedient to create such a university «on the basis of the integration of the Moscow Pedagogical State University and the Moscow State University named after M. A. Sholokhov» . The Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia from 26.02.2015 № 124 announces the reorganization of the federal state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education «Moscow Pedagogical State University» in the form of joining the federal state budget educational institution of higher professional education «Moscow State Humanitarian University named after M. A. Sholokhov» . Thus, the assignee of the Moscow State Humanitarian University named after M.A. Sholokhov is the Moscow State Pedagogical University.
Conclusions and prospect for further researches of direction. The conducted research showed that the formation and development of higher correspondence education in Russia is conditioned by such preconditions as: historical (the consequences of war and the change of political system, the need for a massive restoration of pedagogical resources, the need for a large number of pedagogical personnel bearing a new ideology); social and economical (the need for the staff of new qualifications for building the economy and ensuring the economic prosperity of the population), culturological (the need for professional personnel to address the problem of eliminating illiteracy and cultural transformations in the country) and organizational and pedagogical (the existence of previous experience of extramural forms of work in the retraining of teaching staff and a number of educational institutions). It is necessary to note the appearance of the university, whose mission was the training of teachers in the system of higher correspondence education (Moscow State Correspondence Pedagogical Institute in the RSFSR and its successors in modern Russia), and its main direction of scientific research was «the reform of higher continuous teacher education - distance and extramural education». The analysis of historical pedagogical studies and other scientific sources made it possible to establish that the extramural form of studying as an integrative component of the system of higher continuous pedagogical education effectively solved the following problems: 1) the accessibility of higher education to socially unprotected layers of the population; 2) education opportunities for those living and working in remote and inaccessible territories; 3) accelerated retraining of teachers; 4) quick payback of funds invested in a specialist (no problem of professional adaptation); 5) social and professional mobility, 6) realizing the factor of life success.
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3. Gritsyuk B. A. Perfection of the organization of correspondence education in pedagogical institutes: the author's abstract. dis. ... cand. ped. Sci. / B. A. Gritsuk. - Kiev, 1977. - 24 p.
4. Zakharova E. B. History of the development of educational and methodological support for higher correspondence education in the USSR: 50-80 years. XX century. Author's abstract. dis. ... cand. ped. Sc. / E. B. Zakharova. - M., 2003. - 22 p.
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Pedagogical Sholokhov University [Electronic resource] // Moscow Pedagogical State University: [site]. . URL:
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7. Kobzareva T. I. Development of higher correspondence education in the Ukrainian SSR (1928-1975). dis. ... cand. ped. Sci. / T. I. Kobzareva. - Kiev, 1977. - 26 p.
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