Methodology of managing the quality of future specialists’ training for professional activities
The actual problem of optimizing the training of modern personnel in the system of university education. Development of strategy and tactics, to develop the methodology for managing educational activities, ensuring a positive dynamics of its quality.
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Methodology of managing the quality of future specialists' training for professional activities
Kondrashov Nikolay Mikolajovych,
PhD (Candidate of pedagogical sciences)
Methodologis Autotransport College Krivoy Rog
Formulation and justification of the relevance of the problem
The training of competitive personnel for various fields of the economy is associated with the implementation of the targeted program "Quality of Education", which presupposes the regulation of actions for its implementation (identification of weak and strong aspects of the higher school educational process, timely assistance and psychological support in overcoming bottlenecks in training students for professional activities); Their coordination (the making of management decisions and control of implementation) and correction (amendments to the decisions made, the definition of the main areas of optimization of training in improving the quality of the educational process).
Analysis of scientific literature and teaching practice testifies to the need for systematic work aimed at taking into account modern requirements for the professional training of future specialists, optimal use of all resources of higher education and management culture of the educational process to improve its quality.
Analysis of recent research and publications
The problems of improving the quality of education at all times attract the attention of scientists. A significant contribution to its solution was made by the works of E. Bondarevskaya, G. Elnikova, Yu. Konarzhevsky, V. Krayevsky, V. Lazarev, M. Potashnik, P. Tretyakov, T. Shamova, etc. The result of these studies was the substantiation of the main directions in increasing the quality of education, among which are:
the justification of the methodologicalbasis for improving the quality of higher education;
forecasting, designing, modeling of the professional image of a modern specialist capable of meeting the challenges of society and creatively fulfilling their professional functions;
timely psychological, pedagogical and methodological support of the required level of education quality;
specification of measures aimed at improving the quality of higher education;
development of crisis situations in pedagogical practice, an objective assessment of risks and conditions for ensuring the quality of education.
Despite the achievements in solving the problem of optimizing the work of higher school, a system of holistic and completed activities for the training of modern, competitive specialists in various spheres of economy; management, content, forms and methods of its implementation in the teaching and educational process; the most effective forms, methods and tools that provide a positive dynamics of the quality of education have not been theoretically justified yet.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate the methodological foundations for managing the process of improving the quality of training future specialists for professional activities in the system of university education.
The main material of the study
The problem of optimizing the training of modern personnel in the system of university education is associated with the search for ways to update the strategy and tactics, to develop the methodology for managing educational activities, ensuring a positive dynamics of its quality.
The conducted questionnaire among the students has shown that in the organization of their training there are shortcomings and miscalculations that negatively affect the quality of university education. To the question: "What helps and hinders you in the learning process?" students emphasize the need for a favorable emotional environment in the learning process. However, only 5.2% of teachers are always interested in creating a healthy psychological climate in the process of training, 13.4% of teachers are often interested, 52.6% of teachers are sometimes interested, 28.8% of teachers are never interested in that. The interest and activity of students' actions in training sessions are determined by an opportunity to ask a question, defend their judgments, and choose the ways to solve professional problems. The students note that 10.5% of teachers "always" provide an opportunity for students to ask questions; 34.3% of teachers "often" do that, 39.4% of teachers "sometimes" provide an opportunity for students to ask questions, and 15.8% of teachers "never" give such an opportunity. At the same time, 55% of teachers do not create the conditions for an exchange of views, the opportunity for students to defend their opinions, their original decisions, and do not give them the freedom to choose actions and ways to solve professional problems.
The students consider the quality of training, the success of their academic work in a close relation to the nature of the teacher's position, his desire to use a variety of tools that activate the actions of students, and the level of management culture. As the results of the questionnaire show, 13.2% of teachers by their actions always activate the students' position in the educational process; 42.1% of teachers often do that; 29.2% of teachers sometimes activate the students' position, and 15.5% of teachers never do that. It is alerting that 44.7% of teachers show no concern for activating the position of students in the educational process.
The reasons for this situation are in the lack of a clear strategy for improving the quality of the educational process, the methodology of vocational training, underestimation of the management of educational activities, an indistinct presentation of the criteria for the quality of students' training for professional activities and the lack of readiness of teachers to solve these issues.
Management methodology is a system of knowledge about the basis and structure of management theory, methodological approaches and principles of implementing the management process, reflecting the nature of management and self-management actions in the "teacher - student" system; system of activities to stimulate the improvement of the quality of vocational training, logic, methods and evaluation of the results achieved.
managing quality training
Methodological approaches as a basis for the methodology of managing the students' training for professional activities make it possible to change the strategy and tactics of implementing the "Quality Assurance Program" in the practice of higher education. The development of a strategy based on a set of methodological approaches is aimed at creating a system of work: setting goals and specific tasks, updating the content, coordinating actions, selecting the best technologies, step-by-step control, and analysis, evaluation of achievements, resources used, opportunities and threats of failure. The strategy is a model for managing the professional training of students, using all the resources available that provide a positive dynamics of the quality of the educational process. The objectives of the strategy for managing the professional training of students are to resolve contradictions and conflict situations in the educational process; seek for ways to successfully implement the "Quality Assurance Program", new areas of success, stability and preservation of achievements. Achieving the quality of education is impossible without predicting the nature and methodological basis of the management of the educational process.
The basis for the management of the educational process is the activity of individual and collective actors, between which powers and responsibilities are rationally distributed. The management structure combines in its content: a block of design activities (program of actions, forecasting, planning and means of achieving results, criteria and training quality mechanisms); a block of management implementation (psychological and pedagogical support and methodological support of vocational training); a block of monitoring and control (forms and methods, technology for assessing the results achieved).
The organization of specific activities, the specification of the goal, objectives and methods of their achievement necessitates the definition of the methodology of this process, the definition of a set of methodological approaches, the implementation of which ensures a change in the strategy and tactics of professional training of future specialists for professional activities. The category "approach" is widely used in university practice to indicate the teacher's orientation to "a certain set of concepts, ideas and methods of pedagogical activity" [3, p.83].
Orientation to an individual approach does not allow to build effective management of students' professional training, which necessitates a combination of methodological approaches, the definition of an ordered set of elements interconnected and forming some integral unity of their effectiveness [1, p.1102]. The cumulative implementation of approaches is a methodological resource for optimizing the quality management of students in the conditions of university education, the scientific and theoretical basis for creating variable management structures in the space of the existing educational paradigm.
The methodological basis for the professional training of future specialists includes various approaches before its organization, among which an important role is played by the person-oriented, activity-creative, competent, content-procedural, event-situational, technological, imitative-game approaches. The implementation of these approaches is aimed at further improving the methodological and theoretical basis for training future specialists for professional activities. The gist of the person - oriented approach to managing and organizing the training of future specialists for professional activities is to provide the conditions for the development of uniqueness, identity, individuality of their personality.
The activity-creative approach provides active activities, giving students the opportunity to acquire their own experience of educational achievements and professional success. Competent approach ensures the design and forecasting of successful training of future specialists, development of their professional competence and creativity. The substantive - procedural approach creates conditions for mastering the system of professional knowledge and skills and the implementation of their procedural aspect, the interaction of fundamental and practical knowledge, various modes of activity, ensures the unity of the information - content and procedural-organizational aspects of training, the activity of actions based on the freedom of their choice.
The event-situational approach simulates the development of events and situations that provide a new social and professional experience and its reflexes by future specialists. . The technological approach involves the use of various technologies aimed at optimizing the management of students' training for professional activities. The simulation-game approach practices imitational and game modeling of professional activity of future specialists in the process of training, search for various ways of performing tasks, their variability, accumulation of experience in imitating and playing activity.
The totality of methodological approaches in the process of managing the quality of students' training for professional activities makes it possible to remove the shortcomings that occur in the pedagogical practice of higher education.
Table. Criteria and indicators of the quality of educational process
Motivation for Learning
Interest in learning activities, the need to acquire knowledge, the desire to expand and replenish the professional knowledge base, the need for selfeducation
The depth of knowledge and the availability of skills to operate them in practical situations
Student progress; activity of the cognitive position in the class; Preference for non-standard forms and methods of teaching; Variability and discussion, raising questions, attracting additional material; creativity and a set of actions in training sessions
Satisfaction of students with the teaching process
Attendance, absence without good reason, the number of students participating in discussions, polemics, debates, providing an original solution, a creative attitude
Satisfaction of teachers with the teaching process
Positive reflection and the desire for professional development
The quality management of students' training for professional activities in the scientific literature implies the relationship between goal and result, the measure of achieving the goals of operationally-assigned and predicted in the area of professional development of the personality of the future specialist. The quality of education as a phenomenon of the educational process has a design nature and is the subject of the design work of any management entity. The criteria for the quality of the educational process are: motivation of learning, satisfaction with learning activities, the depth of knowledge, skills and habits of work in applying knowledge to solve practical problems. For convenience, the use of these criteria can be presented in the form of Table.
Positive motivation is provided by the realization of the personality-oriented and activity-creative approaches in the management of the quality of students' training for professional activities. The attitude of students toward the educational process depends on the way the teacher focuses on the capabilities and abilities of students, organizes active learning activities with the help of elements of nonstandard, discussion, providing students with freedom of choice of forms, ways and means of cognitive activity. Even M. Montaigne noted the need, in accordance with the abilities of the trainee, to give him the opportunity to express himself, to develop in him a taste for things, forcing him to make a choice between them, to distinguish them, giving him the opportunity to independently find ways of solving the problem [4, p.123].
The depth of knowledge and the effectiveness of students' skills and habits of work are ensured by the implementation of substantive-procedural and competent approaches that are aimed at the unity of theory and practice, the rational use of acquired knowledge for solving practical problems by modeling problem situations and using various educational technologies. Event-situational and technological approaches activate the position of students and teachers in educational activities; ensure the satisfaction of all its participants. In their totality, methodological approaches construct conditions for activating the mechanism of psychological defense, creating an emotionally favorable climate by:
modeling of success situations in which the results of students' activities coincide with heir expectations (A. Belkin);
minimization of the risk of psychological trauma of the individual in the learning process; determination of the threshold of difficulties and ways to reduce their negative impact on the quality of educational work;
control the quality of mastering the educational material with the help of a "student activity map".
Conclusions and prospects for further researches of directions
Effective management of students' training for professional activities is possible when implementing the "Quality Assurance Program", the methodology of which requires a new strategy and tactics of its implementation on the basis of a set of methodological approaches. A set of methodological approaches (personal-oriented, activity-creative, competent, content-procedural, event-situational, technological and imitative - game), concretization of management actions of the teacher and a system of concrete measures when creating the necessary organizational and pedagogical conditions for their implementation positively affect the quality of future specialists' training for professional activities.
1. Bolchoi enthiklopedicheskiy slovar. (2002). [Large EncyclopedicDictionary]. / Ed. Prokhorov A.M., Ed. The second. - St. Petersburg.
2. Kondrashova, L.V. (2013). Soditiuno-situativniy podhod k organizatzii obusheniz v vishey shkole. [Event-situational approach to the organization of studies in higher education]. / L.V. Kondrashova // Modern education: new methods and technologies in the organization of the educational process. - Tomsk: TUSUR.
3. Stepanov, E.N. (2002). Pepdagogu o sovremennih podhodah I konzeptzizh vospitaniz. [To the teacher about modern approaches and concepts of education]. / E.N. Stepanov, L.M. Luzin. - Moscow: TC Sphere.
4. Hrestomatiz po istorii pedagogiki (1936). [Chrestomathy on the history of pedagogy]. / Comp. I.F. Svadkovsky. T.1. - Moscow.
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