Peculiarities of teaching English as a foreign language in the process of professional preparation of future specialists by means of independent learning
Learning a foreign language with a communicative purpose. Features of teaching English. Organization of the educational process at universities in Ukraine. The process of professional preparation of future specialists by means of independent learning.
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Peculiarities of teaching English as a foreign language in the process of professional preparation of future specialists by means of independent learning
Kobylianska Liliia, Matiichuk Kvitoslava
КОБИЛЯНСЬКА Лілія кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент кафедри педагогіки та соціальної роботи, Чернівецький національний університет імені Юрія Федьковича, вул. Коцюбинського, 2, Чернівці, 58012, Україна (laila 196625@rambler. ru)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6872-9266 ResearcherlD: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/D-9112-2016 МАТІЙЧУК Квітослава кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент, кафедри соціальних та філологічних дисциплін, Буковинський університет, вул. Дарвіна, 2, Чернівці, 58012, Україна (firstname.lastname@example.org)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3164-7937 ResearcherlD: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/D-8768-2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24919/2313-2094.6/38.121499 Бібліографічний опис статті: Kobylianska, L., Matiichuk, K. (2018). Peculiarities of teaching English as a foreign language in the process of professional preparation of future specialists by means of independent learning. Людинознавчі студії: зб. наук. праць ДДПУ імені Івана Франка. Серія «Педагогіка», 6/38, 193-207. doi: 10.24919/2313-2094.6/38.121499. independent learning language educational
Одержано: 8 листопада 2017 Подано до редакції: 15 лютого 2018
Прорецензовано: 5 січня 2018 Доступ он-лайн: 5 квітня 2018
ОСОБЛИВОСТІ НАВЧАННЯ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ ЯК ІНОЗЕМНОЇ В ПРОЦЕСІ ПРОФЕСІЙНОЇ ПІДГОТОВКИ МАЙБУТНІХ ФАХІВЦІВ ЗА ДОПОМОГОЮ САМОСТІЙНОГО НАВЧАННЯ
У той час як Україна перебуває на шляху інтеграції до Європи, головною особливістю організації навчальної діяльності студентів є самостійна робота. Самостійна робота студентів іноземною мовою повинна сприяти розвитку їхніх когнітивних здібностей, таких як спостереження, зацікавлення, логічне мислення, творча активність та розвиток необхідності постійної самоосвіти. Для успішного управління самостійною роботою необхідні такі передумови: психологічна готовність студентів; готовність викладача керувати і постійно оцінювати індивідуальну роботу; вміння студентів вибирати відповідні методи і методики самостійного навчання та оцінювати результати своєї роботи; навчальні матеріали для самостійного навчання, адаптовані до потреб курсу іноземною мовою; час для опрацювання завдань на самостійну роботу; усвідомлення та виправлення помилок.
Організація навчального процесу в університетах включає у себе розподіл самостійної роботи студентів на аудиторну та позааудиторну. Основна увага приділяється активним методам навчання, позаяк вони стимулюють інтелектуальні емоції студентів та заохочують активну психічну діяльність. Активні технології навчання можна класифікувати на імітаційні та неімітаційні. Неімітаційні форми і методи включають лекції з розв'язанням проблем, лабораторні роботи, семінари-дискусії, інформаційно-просвітницькі семінари, програмоване навчання, курсову роботу та дипломну роботу. Імітаційні технології включають симуляцію та імітаційну гру.
Ефективність вивчення іноземної мови пов'язана з формуванням когнітивних мотивів студентів. У створенні навчальної мотивації інтерес відіграє особливо важливу роль, оскільки він стає мотивом творчої активності та пошуку. Слід підкреслити, що важливою умовою пізнавальної діяльності людини у вивченні іноземної мови є наявність уваги. Для того, щоб контролювати увагу аудиторії, необхідно враховувати низку особливостей уваги: ступінь концентрації, розподіл уваги, наполегливість або відволікання.
Пам'ять також відіграє важливу роль в інтелектуальній та практичній діяльності людини. Найбільш відповідним типом пам'яті для вивчення іноземної мови з комунікативною метою є пам'ять з домінуючим слуховим компонентом. Найважливішими характеристиками пам'яті є тривалість, швидкість запам'ятовування, точність, швидкість відтворення та потужність. Навчання пам'яті повинно гармонійно вписуватися у систему освіти, і слід враховувати вплив таких факторів, як мотивація, емоції, ставлення до навчання, інтереси, особистість, рівень розвитку та стан здоров'я на продуктивність пам'яті.
Ключові слова: активні методи навчання, англійська мова, іноземна мова, студенти, пам'ять, мотивація.
KOBYLIANSKA Liliia PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, associate professor of Pedagogy and Social Work Department, Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Kotsiubynskyi str., 2, Chernivtsi, 58012, Ukraine (lailal96625@ rambler.ru)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-00Q2-6872-9266 ResearcherlD: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/D-9112-2016 MATIICHUKKvitoslava PhD of Pedagogical Sciences, associate professor of Social and Philological Disciplines Department, Bukovina University, Darvin str.,
2, Chernivtsi, 58000, Ukraine (kvitka0510@gmail. com)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3164-7937 ResearcherlD: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/D-8768-2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24919/2313-2094.6/38.121499 To cite this article: Kobylianska, L., Matiichuk, K. (2018). Peculiarities of teaching English as a foreign language in the process of professional preparation of future specialists by means of independent learning. Liudynoznavchi studii. Seriia «Pedahohika» Human Studies. Series of «Pedagogy», 6/38, 193-207. doi: 10.24919/ 2313-2094.6/38.121499 [in English].
Received: 8 November 2017 Accepted: 15 February 2018
Received in revised form: 5 January 2018 Available online: 5 April 2018
PECULIARITIES OF TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS BY MEANS OF INDEPENDENT LEARNING
Ukraine is on the way of integration to Europe and the main feature of the organization of students' learning activities is its focus on independent work. Independent work of students in a foreign language should facilitate the development of cognitive abilities of students such as observation, curiosity, logical thinking and creative activity and develop the need for constant self-education. To manage independent work successfully the following prerequisites are necessary: psychological readiness of students, the willingness of the teacher to guide and continuously evaluate the individual work, the ability of students to choose adequate methods and techniques for self-study and evaluate the results of their work, as well as training materials for self-study adapted to the needs of the course in a foreign language. Time must be given to students in the learning process for training independent tasks; awareness and correction of errors are required.
The organization of the educational process in the universities includes the division of independent work of students into in-class and out-of-class. The focus has been made on the active learning methods. Active learning methods stimulate students' intellectual emotions and encourage active mental activity. Active learning technologies are distinguished as imitational and non-imitational. The non-imitational forms and methods include problem solving lectures, laboratory works, seminar-discussions, outreach workshops, programmed teaching, course work and degree thesis. Imitational technologies include simulation or simulation game by playing different types of professional context of future operations in the learning process.
The effectiveness of language acquisition is associated with the formation of cognitive motives of students. In the creation of learning motivation interest plays a particularly important role as it becomes the motive of creative activity and search. It should be emphasized that an important condition for human cognitive activity in learning a foreign language is the presence of attention. In order to control the audience's attention, it is necessary to consider a number of its features: the degree of concentration, the distribution of attention, persistence or distraction (in the long-term focus on one subject).
Memory also plays an important role in the intellectual and practical human activity. The most suitable type of memory for learning a foreign language for communicative purpose is combined memory with the dominant auditory component. The most important features of memory are length, speed of memorizing, accuracy, speed of reproduction and capacity. Memory training should harmoniously fit into the educational system and should consider the impact of such factors as motivation, emotions, attitudes to learning, interests, personality, level of development and health status on the productivity of the memory.
Keywords: active teaching methods, English, foreign language, students, memory, motivation.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests. The author declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Acknowledgments. Sincere thanks to staff pedagogical staff at Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, in particular Prof. Roman Petryshyn and Bukovina University, in particular Prof. Mykhaylo Manylich.
Funding. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Funding from Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University permitted this research completion.
Today, Ukraine is on the way of integration to Europe in all fields and spheres. The main feature of the organization of students' learning activities as required by the credit module system of the educational process is its focus on independent work. Properly organized self-study allows each student to penetrate deeply into the nature of science, to acquire a logical system of scientific knowledge with the professional skills to master thoroughly the chosen specialty, and to develop their cognitive abilities, inclinations, abilities and talents.
The need for the formation of self-study in education, beginning from the university, is mainly stimulated by modern requirements to all specialists. Modern specialists have to think creatively, be able to find information, knowledge and skills individually and in the right time and use them correctly. They must have a commitment to lifelong learning, flexibility to adapt to changing situations, think self-critically, see difficulties and find ways of rational overcome. To form such a specialist it is necessary for the student to be not a passive contemplative absorber of scientific information or a diligent performer but to become a creative converter of the information that is studied.
Fundamental changes in the further development of the theory and practice of independent work were held in 1993 after the approval of the «Regulations on the organization of educational process in higher educational institutions» by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (Order № 161 from 02.06.1993). For the first time in native practice in the governmental document it was underlined that independent work is the main means of mastering the learning material at the time free from obligatory classes. In addition, the content of such individual work in a particular subject is determined by the curriculum, teaching materials, teacher guidelines and tasks.
The organization of independent work as the educational system has the following main elements: objective (s), contents, forms, methods and means of activity; planning, monitoring, self-monitoring and evaluation of results; conditions of implementation. This is the process of organizing independent work on specific requirements (standards, rules, principles) and giving it the desired shape in order to achieve this goal in the best way. The organizational elements can be conditions which are divided into external (method of management, place of study, equipment) and internal (student's personality, level of knowledge, motivation, interest) and results.
1. Independent work of students in a foreign language
Independent work of students in a foreign language should facilitate the development of cognitive abilities of students such as observation, curiosity, logical thinking, creative activity; it should teach them to strive for this goal, and to develop the need for constant self-education. To manage independent work successfully the following prerequisites are necessary: psychological readiness of students, the willingness of the teacher to guide and continuously evaluate the individual work, the ability of students to choose adequate methods and techniques for self-study and evaluate the results of their work, and training materials for self-study, adapted to the needs of the course in a foreign language; time must be given to students in the learning process for training independent tasks; awareness and correction of errors are required.
This problem investigate foreign researches: P. Studer (Studer, 2015), A. Crosson, N. Lesaux (2013), J. Hart (2012) and Ukrainian pedagogues: K. Karpova (1988) and A. Yakovlieva (1959). K.I. Karpova (1988) identifies four types of independent work. The first type of self-study is the accumulation of factual material on the subject that is being studied by reading special literature. The second type is obtaining scientific information on the subject through reading primary sources and reference books. The third type is preparing for the interpretation of educational material through its selection, analysis and organization to prepare a paper for the seminar. The fourth type is the independent development of practical skills arising from the specific specialty.
The organization of the educational process in the universities includes the division of independent work of students into in-class and out-of-class which are two parts of the whole process of language acquisition. The inclass independent work has to be characterized by high activity of students. We support Guschina's opinion that «the activity of students in the classroom is influenced greatly by the following factors: a) targeted organization of training at every stage of classroom lessons; b) methodically justified use of visual aids and facilities; c) teacher's speech in the lesson; d) the level of creativity of the lesson; e) assigning specific tasks to students related to the communicative purpose of study at every stage of the lesson; f) interest of students in foreign language acquisition; g) assessment of not only knowledge but also skills of students; h) lively, reasonably fast pace of classes» (Gushchina, 1976, p. 15).
A. Yakovlieva (1959) divided the communicative mastering of a foreign language into three main stages. In the first stage students master reproductive speech with the individual elements of productive speech. In the next stage reproductive speech develops into productive speech and basic means of language are creatively used by students to express their opinions. The third stage can be characterized by the complete ability of productive speech, which allows the creative use of language tools to express their thoughts. Foreign language becomes a reliable means of communication.
The central research questions in the present study are: Does independent work in English help students acquire the necessary level for their specialization? How can teachers increase students' motivation? What are the main ways to train memory while learning English as a second language?
As part of our study, we carried out observation of the educational process dealing with English classes for future specialists in Law, Economics, IT and Social Studies. The surveys took place between 2015 and 2017. Thus we studied the full range of professional practice in teaching English as a foreign language. Our results are based on a research method that is closely linked to practice in teaching English for students of different ages and different specializations.
Using active methods
Below, we focus on the active learning methods. Enhancing educational and cognitive activity of students, increasing their interest in learning foreign languages is the most important task of the teacher at the university. Active learning methods as a set of ways to organize and manage educational and cognitive activities of students, stimulate their intellectual emotions, encourage active mental activity, and as technologies of active learning they «base themselves not only on the processes of perception, memory, attention, but, first of all, on creative, productive thinking, behavior, communication» (Mashkina, 2005, p. 130). The use of creative technologies ensures the development of creative abilities of future specialists, which «is especially important in connection with the growth of the share of intellectual work and creative solutions in all spheres of professional activity» (Maksimuk & Levonyuk, 2017, p. 169). Active learning technologies are classified according to two criteria: the presence of the model (object or process of activity) and the availability of roles (the nature of communication of trainees) and therefore, they are distinguished as imitational and non-imitational (Vergasov, 1979).
Non-imitational technologies help increase learning through «selection of problem learning content, use of special procedures of lesson organization, use of technical means, providing dialogic interaction of a teacher and students» (Lezer, 1979, p. 131). The non-imitational forms and methods include problem solving lectures, laboratory works, seminar-discussions, outreach workshops, programmed teaching, doing coursework and degree thesis.
Imitational technologies include simulation or simulation game by playing different types of professional context of future operations in the learning process. The process of learning uses games, yet, imitational technologies are divided into games and non-games.
Non-game forms and methods are represented by a large group of specific situations. In professional work, situation is described by Chernylevsky (2002) as a set of interrelated facts, events and issues that characterize the specific process, period or event in the activities of the institution, requiring appropriate decisions, orders or other action.
We would like to distinguish a special form of using a lesson-game hereinafter. According to H. Isaieva (Isaieva, Lubina, & Kvitkovskaya, 1990), it is such a kind of lesson that most adequately meets the material for learning, with a set of game elements that meet the language training of students, their social and communicative experience and personal characteristics of students. The goal of the game in the classroom in a foreign language is learning foreign language communication in conditions close to the real situation. The teacher's task is to organize learning activities of students during the game so as to make the situation as natural as possible. Students should independently, but with support of prelearned material, express their own attitude to this issue or argue their point of view.
The organization of the game session consists of several stages: 1) selection and study of certain lexical and grammatical material; 2) its training according to different models; 3) performing a variety of communication problems, including models studied; 4) working on individual responses.
Game imitational technologies include simulation training, playing roles, game design and didactic game. In particular, «simulation training means the imitation of the situation of professional activity, and «model» is a technical device (desk, work with devices etc.)» (Petrova, 1990, p. 11).
We must admit that role playing is a way of specific situation analysis, based on relationship problems in the team and it helps to improve the style and methods of work with other people.
The goal of our game design was to develop educational projects in game conditions which reflect the reality as much as possible. This method combines individual and joint work of students. Experience gained shows that to create a common group project, everyone must have some knowledge of design technology and the ability to maintain interpersonal relationships to solve professional tasks.
Having analyzed the research works of scientists we can conclude that the effectiveness of language acquisition is associated with the formation of cognitive motives of students. From a specific motive, which gives students the impetus to study, it depends on how useful the acquired knowledge will be for the students and how students are supposed to acquire that knowledge. Consequently, the task of the teacher is «to find a means of penetration into the sphere of a student's motivation and methods of forming their attitude towards knowledge itself» (Chernilevskiy, 2002, p. 114). In the creation of learning motivation interest plays a particularly important role as it becomes the motive of creative activity and searching. In order to achieve this precise lesson planning, using various forms, methods and techniques of teaching is really helpful.
Scientists propose various classifications of motivation. Thus, E. Antonova (1979) divided motivation into two subgroups: passive motivation and active motivation. Passive motivation stimulates the student to a consistent speech activity. Active motivation forces students to discuss, think aloud, to argue, «to be angry». It is effective when the teacher knows the students perfectly well.
However, G. Slavina (1970) singled out internal and external motivation. External motivation presents activators that are not directly related to the activity itself (the desire to assert themselves, a desire for material reward, etc.). Internal motivation presents motives caused by scientific or cognitive activity. In our opinion among the different types of motivation (external, internal, cognitive etc.) solely learning motivation plays the most important role in the development of the personality because it retains its value throughout the human life.
It should be emphasized that an important condition for human cognitive activity in learning a foreign language is the presence of attention. The so-called «orientation reflex» appears first. It is summoned by the novelty of the subject and the situation and might fade with the disappearance of the novelty stimulus.
H. Makashova (1965) distinguishes between two types of attention: involuntary attention arising inadvertently and voluntary attention which deliberately directs the mental activity of the learner. Involuntary attention is caused by any new stimulus (loud knock, unfamiliar speech and so on). Voluntary attention as the highest degree of attention normally changes involuntary attention when the activator that causes it stops acting.
M. Danilov and B. Yesipov (1961) suggested the concept of dependence of attention concentration on the degree of interest in the subject and information. The level of interest (attention, expectation, search and action) corresponds to each level in the study process. In order to control the attention of the audience a number of characteristics of attention should be taken into consideration: the degree of concentration (ability to select an object or objects from among a number of others); the intensity and distribution of attention (necessary while performing multiple tasks); persistence or distraction (in the long focusing on one subject).
Karpov (1950) pointed out that foreign language classes require great efforts of will and attention and can be characterized by emotional inhibition when students' thinking activities are reduced to some extent in case it's necessary to use a foreign language means to express their views.
Motivation can be identified as the foundation and the core of personality structure. M. Soldatenko (2006) and L. Boichenko (2007) noted that it is one of the most important factors in the implementation of independent cognitive activity, management of training and cognitive activity of students. S. Isaieva (2006) believes that need is also one of the important motives in the process of mastering a foreign language. It means that if the need is to master a foreign language, it becomes the motivation for learning this language that encourages students to develop their educational activity.
We can conclude that the organization of the educational process and the methodological means and factors are based on the theoretical basis, on teachers' pedagogical intuition, but not always motivational resources of the student are taken into consideration. However, it is the character of the motivation that determines the efficiency of the means and the factors used by the teacher in the learning process. The unity of the learning motivation and learning activities is rather important. Motivation should be seen as «a process that directs, regulates and activates students' learning processes» (Levchenko, 2002, p. 272). The desire to learn can be stimulated by using the proper organization of the learning environment, the choice of methods, forms of representation of educational material, making a set of courses, special courses on specific topics, issues, levels of speech in the way that motivating appeal of freedom to alternative choice could correspond to expected values.
The important role of memory in the intellectual and practical human activity
We can stress the important role of memory in the intellectual and practical human activity. Due to memorization the accumulation of experience occurs, and then recognition and simulation (playback) make it possible to use it in the future. The most commonly used classification of memory was done by Makashova (1965) and it depends on the channel of receiving information. She divided memory into visual, auditory, tactile, motor and combined. When learning a foreign language it should be taken into account that students with an advanced visual memory study the grammar and remember the words and parts of the text easily, but they acquire the spoken language with difficulty. The most suitable type of memory for learning a foreign language for communicative purpose is combined memory with the dominant auditory component. It should be noted that memory can be classified according to the principle of the second signal system participation into visualfigurative, verbal-abstract and intermediate type memory and by the following levels: a higher level for the reproducing memory; the identifying memory that allows recognizing an object or phenomenon accurately; and the facilitating memory which helps you learn the material (Makashova, 1965, pp. 4445). These levels of memory are observed in the sequence of educational material processing that consists of the introduction, the first and second revision and training exercises.
Memory is the mental property of the person which opens the possibility to accumulate experience. Memory means remembering, storage, recognition and reproduction of phenomena, processes and mental states. Remembering is possible due to the plasticity of the nervous system, the brain. The brain of every human being has the ability of plasticity, but the degree of plasticity in different people is different.
We must take into consideration the most important features of memory: length, speed of memorizing, accuracy, speed of reproduction and capacity.
The researchers argue that to get significant results in learning communication, one should choose the proper approach to the study of vocabulary, grammar and phonetics. For example, to master English vocabulary correctly one should correlate English words with the words of the native language, «pushing» from it. We must notice that the study of vocabulary on topics is of great importance since lexical material learned in a particular system can be remembered better and the process of forgetting occurs more slowly.
Remembering is divided into logical and mechanical. While working on foreign language vocabulary both types of memory are used. The distribution of words for a periodic repetition has great value for durable storage of material in the memory. It brings greater benefit than concentrated repetition. The control of vocabulary also plays an important role.
While teaching spelling the theoretical part of each of the topics can be learned by students independently in the classroom. After the theoretical part of the topic, students independently perform all the training exercises. The role of the teacher «is reduced to control» (Balinskaya, 1958, p. 141). It is proposed to divide the work over any grammatical topic into four stages: 1) to repeat the learned material in preparation for perception of the new material; 2) consolidation of new material by its frequent repetition in training exercises; 3) consolidation of the material and its expansion by doing semi spontaneous exercises; 4) transition to the spontaneous-situational speech, to the ability to use the learned material in life situations.
Observation of a language learning process shows that listening takes a special place in teaching a foreign language. It is considered as a process of perception and understanding of speech. Mechanisms which serve listening are working and long-term memory, probabilistic forecasting and comprehension.
We must emphasize again that an important condition for human cognitive activity in teaching a foreign language is the presence (absence) of attention. In order to control the audience's attention, you should consider a number of features of attention: the degree of concentration (ability to select an object or series of objects among others); the intensity, the distribution of attention (required when performing several tasks simultaneously); persistence or distraction (in the long-term focus on one subject).
F. Leser stated that the main principle of memory training is to «train not spontaneously established mechanisms of memory, not a mechanical memorization but the use of scientific methods of conscious and rational organization of memory processes» (Lezer, 1979, p. 46). However, we claim as the memory is an organic component of the human personality, memory training should harmoniously fit into the educational system and should consider the impact of such factors as motivation, emotions, attitudes to learning, interests, personality, level of development and health status on the productivity of the memory.
The results of our research reveal that independent work is focused on compliance with a number of requirements: didactic and psychological readiness of the student to perform different kinds of tasks; explaining the necessity of individual work in general and specific tasks to encourage positive motivation of students; specifying objectives of a subject or a topic; determining the content of tasks; development of tasks of different kinds of difficulty according to defined levels of learning; developing specific situations involving non-standard problem solving; providing students with detailed methodological recommendations on the tasks; developed evaluation system, algorithm of doing tasks, sample preparation performance; implementation of an individual approach to self-study; individualization of the self-study; a permanent feedback with students; developing accounting standards of student workload during independent work.
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