Pedagogical competency and professional readiness of educational manager in European higher school
Factors of influence on the formation of professional competences of education manager. Taking into account the new conditions of the educational process - an important condition for achieving the effectiveness of teaching in European higher school.
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Conatant filling up and updating of knowledge is a prerequisite for the high qualification and competence of the staff. The system of their training should take into account the conditions in which the future specialist will live and work. Changes that are part of our lives should be a signal for the appropriate adaptation of the system of training and training of people [1, c. 9]. In modern conditions, by the influence of global processes, there is a reassessment of spiritual, civic, and national values that determine the sociocultural and interethnic peculiarities of the world as a whole and of its individual regions. Changes that take place in the modern information society stimulate the processes of socio-cultural modernization in the system of higher education. Today, the European society needs not just educated people, but professionals who are able to set goals and plan resources and identify approaches to their solution. The system of professional education forms not only the ability to apply their professional knowledge, but also work competently when making a decision, organizing the work of other participants in the interaction.
Priorities for the development of vocational education are the formation of the European Higher Education Area, where «common goals will be implemented in all participating countries, providing mutual trust in higher education systems; where the recognition of qualifications will become a reality and students and graduates will be able to move freely within its borders; where the higher education will effectively contribute to the construction of inclusive societies based on democratic values and human rights; and where educational opportunities will provide the competencies and skills necessary for European civil society, innovation and employment ...»where support and protection of students and teachers in the realization of their right to academic freedom and their full participation in the management of educational organizations will be fundamental, support for educational institutions of higher education with the aim of increasing their efforts to promote intercultural understanding, critical thinking, political and religious tolerance, gender equality, democratic and civic values for the strengthening of European and world civil society [5; 7].
Analysis of recent research and publications. The analysis of scientific works in the field of pedagogy, psychology, philosophy, business management, public administration, management of education has been confirmed the relevance of the problem of improving the professional training of teachers and managers, and also native and foreign scientists(V. Berek, L. Vashchenko, D. Galitsina, S.Gorton, L. Danilenko, S. Demmke, G. Dmitrenko, A. Dubaseniuk, G. Yelnikova, L. Kalinina, L. Karamushka, N. Klokar, V. Kremen, O. Kuznetsov, L. Lukyanova, V. Lugovy, V. Mayboroda, V. Maslov, O. Melnikov, T. Moilanen, N. Nyzhnik, N. Nychkalo, V. Oliynyk, S. Pazinich, A. Pakharev, M. Piren, O. Ponomarev, D.Prasol, N. Protasov, O. Romanovsky, T. Sorochan, L. Tovazhnyansky, etc.). research the wide range of problems of professional development and professional competence of managers of the educational branch. At the same time, the issues of professional readiness of managers, in particular, managers of the educational industry, acquaintance with the experience of their preparation in European countries are remained relevant.
Purpose of the article: to substantiate the role of pedagogical competence in the structure of professional readiness of the education manager in the European higher education school.
Research results. The process of European integration involves the creation of a general European educational and scientific space based on the development of common criteria and standards of education and science in order to recognize the periods and terms of training of higher education professionals, which will facilitate cooperation between higher education institutions of Europe, mobility of teachers and students. Within the framework of the Bologna process, the European Higher Education Area defined by the geographical and institutional norms of the European Cultural Convention is being formed [10, p. 8].
In the process of restructuring social and educational systems there is a new understanding of the role of the teacher in the system of education. Researchers find out the relationship between the model of education management and the style of teacher's teaching activity. The materials of the Council of Europe have repeatedly emphasized that this problem is currently of relevance for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The leading idea of training such specialists is based on the need to take into account global globalization and integration processes of the development of the theory and practice of pedagogical education, the principles of multiculturalism, heterogeneity and polyethnism in conjunction with the tendencies of regionalization [4, p. 8].
The definition of strategic directions for the development of pedagogical education became the priority of the work of a special group of European experts «Improving the Education of Teachers and Instructors», which is formulated the requirements for the formation of a wide range of new competences of teachers that are conditioned by changes in political, social, cultural, technological and the economic life of a modern European society . European experts have identified new professional competencies of the teacher and education manager, whose primary influence on the formation of which are the following factors:
1. Social changes that necessitate the formation of such competences of the teacher: competence in the field of civic education of students: readiness for lifeina multicultural tolerant society, which provides equal opportunities for the personal and professional development of all citizens; formation of a lifestyle taking into account the requirements of maintaining a stable environment; promotion of gender equality in the family, at work, in public life; self-realization of a citizen of Europe and fulfillment of functions corresponding to such status; readiness to manage their own career development; competence in the field of development of the students' learning abilities, which are necessary for continuing education; motivation for obtaining knowledge beyond the framework of compulsory education; the ability to build an independent learning trajectory; ability to acquire new information; computer literacy; creativity and innovation; readiness to solve the problems; enterprise skills; communicative skills; the establishment of links between competencies that include the ability to make new curriculum and knowledge of the subject of specialization of the teacher.
2. The growing diversity of contingent of students and changes in the educational environment. Such changes require the teacher to take into account the new conditions for the implementation of the educational process: the ability to cooperate with students of different social, cultural and ethnic origin; conclusion of new initial programmes, participation in the organizational development of the school and in the development of new forms of assessment of students' knowledge; ability to work with parents of students and other social partners. The teacher must be able to integrate ICTs into the learning process and into professional practice.
3. Increasing level of professionalism of the teacher's activity. Such requirement includes: research character of professional activity, readiness to solve professional problems; responsible attitude to their professional development as a continuous process, the realization that with the end of the university education is not stopped, but only changes the form [2, p. 52-53].
4. Development, improvement and application of technologies aimed at improving the quality of higher education (pedagogical tests, procedures and means of computer control, self-control). Quality of education and quality control are the most important elements of the functioning and management of educational systems .
5. Mutual recognition and equivalence of periods of study, educational qualification levels and documents on obtaining educational qualifications (certificates and diplomas), and academic degrees and titles.
6. Activation of bilingualism and polylinguism are aimed at protecting linguistic diversity and promoting knowledge of languages in terms of cultural identity and social integration. In a multilingual society, citizens can better take advantage of the educational, professional and economic opportunities created in united Europe. The key to language skills is to create new skills, ensuring the competitiveness of a specialist in the labor market.
7. Strengthening university education in higher education and processes of integration of all higher education institutions into the system of leading universities in the country and in the world, which leads to the emergence of powerful university complexes, scientific and educational metropolises of state, continental and interregional importance; the university also combines into industrial complexes, resulting in the formation of scientific centers for scientific research and personal training of unique specialists for modern firms and enterprises; regular updating of the goals, content and technologies of vocational training in the high school, correcting of curriculum in the light of the achievements of scientific and technical and social progress and the requirements of world standards of education;
8. The issue of sustainable development has become a coherent component of modern education. The principles of sustainable development are considered as a universal and necessary element of everyday life, that's why they are included in all educational programmes and educational disciplines. This increases the need to strengthen the relationship between natural sciences and social sciences, to introduce interdisciplinary approaches, to introduce a system of advanced education: the introduction of integrated courses and lessons that promote the development of system thinking; introduction of courses on the development of critical thinking and argumentative discourse and an appropriate information culture; courses of human-centric orientation (development of the moral culture of the person with the involvement of the idea of responsible attitude to life); courses of socio-strategic direction (disclosing the main tendencies and threats of social development, modeling projects related to the images of the expected or desired future); courses aimed at the development of the integration culture of the individual - the ethics of tolerance, gender equality, multiculturalism; courses aimed at the developing the civil and legal culture of the individual
9. Orientation of the process of adult education, retraining of workers to meet the needs of the labor market. First of alladult education programmes focus on vulnerable groups: low-qualified workers, migrants and others. The European list of key competences in lifelong learning includes a list of skills, competence and knowledge that are considered necessary to work on a particular specialty, to obtain a citizen status and for social integration. The list includes the following eight key competences: communication in the mother tongue, communication in a foreign language, mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology, computer literacy, learning ability, social and civic competences, the foundations of initiative and enterprise, the basis of communication culture.
The particular attention in the educational systems of European countries is drawn to the possession of information and communication technologies. The attention is placed on the study of computers, methods of distance learning.
In addition, today we are talking about the managerial role of the teacher as a manager of education, the main qualification requirements of which are:
- the ability to set goals and determine the direction of work;
- the ability to think strategically, developing ideas and opportunities for achieving goals;
-the ability to make the most of human resources, motivating and developing personnel in order to ensure the greatest effectiveness of their work;
- the ability to learn and improve the work, to introduce changes based on experience and new ideas;
- the ability to ensure the effectiveness of the work process by achieving maximum results at a minimum cost .
The main criterion for evaluating the activities of education managers is the level of educational institution's efficiency, its competitiveness. The competent and experienced manager who can analyze the business environment, set the right goals, develop an effective strategy and ensure its implementation. Therefore, when preparing the education manager it is worth noting that such specialist, as a rule, is included in various types of professional activities, including organizational and managerial, informational-analytical, diagnostic, innovative, methodological, educational and educational, etc.
In the number of priority measures aimed at improving the quality of training of education managers, are the following:
- nomination as one of the priority tasks of educational activity - formation of pedagogical culture and culture of tolerance;
- allocation in the content of the normative training courses of the module, which ensures the qualitative formation of the cultural basis, which creates conditions for the student to understand modern social transformations;
- creation of author's courses in the social and humanitarian profile aimed at developing the personal potential and professional skills of the student by mastering them basic professional knowledge and methods of practical activity within the framework of intercultural dialogue;
- integration in the classroom and out-of-school work of the content of social and humanitarian educational disciplines, which ensure the development of the humanistic outlook, the development of knowledge and the system of social values of person;
- creation of integration training courses and electives on issues of intercultural dialogue;
- the use of forms and methods of training aimed at developing students of the culture of mental activity, stimulating their needs in the creative style of life, determining the prospects of selfrealization.
In the conditions of globalization, mutual influence and expansion of international contacts, as well as the intensification of competition between countries in the training of educational staff in the field of education, it is important to develop such qualities as the ability to negotiate, persuade and influence the interlocutor, effectively plan their time, prevent and resolve conflicts, protect yourself from manipulations, carry out stress control, and so on. In addition to classroom classes with extensive use of interactive methods and different forms of training, forms of advanced training are used short-term training seminars and round tables (1-3 days); short-term probationary periods; mentoring (coaching); individual training with instructor .
As experience gained in European countries shows, teachers, educators are more motivated to learn, when advanced training programmes are promoted as a tool for informal education [6, p. 110].
Training should be considered and offered not as an additional burden, but as an opportunity to improve its professionalism, to get acquainted with interesting experiences and improve prospects of career growth.
Therefore, when organizing training for education managers, priority should be given to measures that allow to asquire and improvement of skills and knowledge critical for effective managerial activity; to make informal communication and practical interaction with colleagues, experts in the educational branch, scientists and politicians. And the interaction during the educational process between managers of different levels and rank creates conditions for the exchange of experience and dissemination of «best practice», and in the future creates the basis for more effective and productive interaction between the structures of the educational sphere.
Conclusions and perspectives of further research. Studying the experience of training managers in European countries shows that important conditions for achieving the effectiveness of educational activities are:
1. Consideration of social changes, which caused the need for the formation of professional competencies of the teacher and manager of education;
2. Considering the new conditions for the implementation of the educational process: the ability to cooperate with students of different social, cultural and ethnic origin; conclusion of new initial programmes, participation in the organizational development of the school and in the development of new forms of assessment of students' knowledge; ability to work with parents of students and other social partners.
3. Strengthening the relationship between natural sciences and social sciences, the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches, the introduction of a system of forward education (integrated courses that promote the development of system thinking, courses on the development of critical thinking and argumentative discourse), the formation of an appropriate information culture, the implementation of measures that allow you to acquire and improve knowledge and skills important for effective educational activities, informal communication and practical interaction.
Prospects for further research consider the study of educational technologies for the development of critical thinking and practical pedagogical interaction.
education professional european
1. Grinevich L.M. Higher Education of Ukraine: On the Way of Integration into the European Educational Space // Native School. - 2014. - N. - P. 8 - 12.
2. Desyatov T.M. Strategic directions of reformation of pedagogical education and models of modernization of education management in foreign countries // Bulletin of the University of Cherkasy: Series «Pedagogical sciences». - 2016 - No. 12. - P. 48-56.
3. Dubaseniuk O.A. Trends of the development of professional pedagogical education / Actual problems of vocational and pedagogical education and development strategies: Coll. sciences works / For co. Ed. O.A. Dubaseniuk, L.V. Kalinina, O.E. Antonova - Zhytomyr: Publishing House ZHDU, 2006. - P. 3-7.
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