Effective exercises of forming lexical skills in english language
Mastering vocabulary - a process in which some words are remembered better, and for the assimilation of others it's necessary to perform special exercises. Improving the efficiency of foreign language teaching - the goal of an educational institution.
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At the present stage of education the development of educational institution is focused on improving the quality of the whole educational process and the effectiveness of foreign language teaching. Throughout the XX century, such science as the methodology and didactics, linguistics and psychology were focused on addressing the range of interrelated problems; the main one is the problem of learning a foreign language by students of different ages and levels of education.
One of the important methods of educational problems is the problem of learning vocabulary. Mastering vocabulary is a specific process, as some expressions and words are memorized better but for getting the others it is necessary to do special exercises which are aimed at improving the process of remembering.
Practice of students in mastering new words is realized with the help of exercises, directed on formation of lexical productive skill and its improvement. All exercises in connection with its structure can be divided into two categories: exercises that focused on memorizing the words, their semantics in unity with phonetic and grammatical form, which results in the selection of words from long-term memory, and exercises the purpose of which is to strengthen the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations of lexical units.
As the word (its form and meaning) is absorbed through situational relatedness and the need for expressing thoughts and feelings, initial training in the use of new vocabulary after the presentation is done in conditional speech exercises (exercises in imitation, substitution, transformation, reproduction), performed in conditions of a specially organized interaction. These exercises are accompanied by communicative unit.
Training in simulation allows students to create sensations through auditory and visual image of the word, which is associated with speech motor that provides durability memorization of formal characteristics of speech. No less important, according to Filatov V.M., is that there is an awareness of the importance and purpose of the words in their unity, on the one hand, and the Association of the word (the auditory image) with purpose and purpose . Wildcard exercises help to strengthen these ties and develop associative action of calling words.
According to communicative and practical purpose of teaching foreign languages in the high school the variety of exercises can be reduced to three language types:
1. Not communicative exercises - this type of exercises performed for the purpose of comprehension and the conscious assimilation of linguistic material (grammar, lexical, phonetic) in different types of speech activity. This includes the following exercises:
1) language or aspect:
a) grammar (for example: setting the verb in the correct form);
b) lexical (for example: substitution of suitable the meaning of the words, grouping words according to topics);
с) phonetic (for example: reading the number words, grouping words according to the way of pronouncing). This type of exercises at the relevant stage of learning material is used as a part of homework:
2) transformational exercises (for example: modification of the affirmative sentences into interrogative, active to passive form);
3) exercises in translation (this type of exercise is used as a control);
4) imitative, wildcard exercises - the principle of operation is that the pupil expands lexical unit in a given structure is, or make sentences from the words given in the different columns.
2. Speech exercises or communicative exercises.
The purpose of these exercises is the implementation of the communicative functions of foreign language and teaching communicative skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing).
Speech exercises - are always creative exercises. It's always speech thoughtful tasks of different levels. The main characteristic of exercises - are pragmatism and motivation (providing initiative, motivation of students).
Passov E.I and Kuznetsova E.E. organize these exercises into three groups :
1) exercises of rendering the content: a retelling, short selective essay, retelling -translation, dramatization and other types of exercises;
2 description exercises: the description of elementary images, feature stories, real objects; 3) exercises of expression, the expression of attitudes and evaluations: discussion, comments.
A special kind of exercises - exercises simulating communication, allowing working in a fast paced, simple psychologically by the method of execution. By nature, they can be verbal; in methodological orientation can be aspect. Examples: statement exercises, conditional conversation, students' questions, press conferences, interviews, exercises such as "contact me".
3. Conditional-speech exercises or conditionally communicative exercises.
The characteristic feature of this type of exercises is that it allows practicing language material in educational or conditional communication that simulates natural. educational vocabulary exercise
Conditional-speech exercises should be situational (any remark of the teacher and the student's answer must be relevant to the situation, relationship of the partners, their activities). They must ensure that the students focus on the purpose and content of the statements, not on the form, they characterized by the communicative value of the phrase, as they are learning. The teacher should avoid flimsy remarks of the type "Tell me, that you are doing the same thing: - I wear a coat in the winter. And in the winter I wear a coat". It should be borne in mind the efficiency of the exercises in time.
Types of conditional-speech exercises: imitative - student completely imitates teacher's remark; substitution - in these exercises a substitution of lexical units is taken in a receiving structure; transformation - the transformation of perceived forms (for example, transfer the passive voice to active); reproduction - selfperception suggests assimilated form.
According to the other type of classification lexical exercises can be distinguished: 1) By type of speech activity, which includes the word - reproductive and productive. 2) By mastering the words, i.e., on the stages of development of lexical skills. 3) In the direction of lexical exercises on certain aspects - phonetic, graphic, etc. 4) In the direction of exercises to create a certain type of speech communication. 5) How the exercise involves working with an isolated word, or the word in the phrase or sentence 6) By the type of operations conducted to study the Word (replacement, insertion, etc.). 7) Focus on vocabulary exercises to learn new words or to repeat words.
Non-contextual exercises can be as follows: learning; nomination of items; grouping words according to certain characteristics; the translation of individual words from one language to another.
Monologue speech exercises are: commenting on a series of paintings with the use of studied words; composing monologue to a series of drawings, film; to compare the content of two texts; record on topic; preparation of a report on the topic; explanation of events.
Dialogic exercises include: the use of studied vocabulary in the students' questions to the text; answer the teacher's questions in word or in combination; preparation of micro-dialogues of various types with the use of studied words; preparation of dialogues for typical situations; a series of questions to guess the conceived word. Ways to practice vocabulary items. “Listen and repeat” is important because we know that confidently pronouncing a word indicates that it will be stored well. Other simple activities include matching (words to definitions, synonyms to antonyms), fill in the blank, pictures representing the vocabulary item, “make up a sentence using _______,” and crossword puzzles . Total Physical Response (TPR) is an excellent way to introduce actions (that is, verbs). Games like “Simon Says” and n “Jeopardy” are adaptable to vocabulary learning. Asking students to invent dialogues or skits where they use as many vocabulary words as possible allows students to be creative and allows them to use the words in realistic contexts (be sure to give feedback to students) .
Any sentence can be called as lexical exercise where the learner focuses on teaching vocabulary. The system of lexical exercises involves the concept of teaching vocabulary. The system of lexical exercises - is the general description of the process of vocabulary teaching.
The basis for the formation lexical skills has certain laws, principles, and keeping them is a necessary condition for the efficiency of the learning process.
These include didactic principles such as: visibility, activity, durability, consistency, awareness, scientific, age-appropriate and methodical: communicative orientation of education, temporality, collective interaction, life orientation training.
There are also private methodological principles in the work on vocabulary: the gradual formation of skill, the adequacy of the exercises generated by the action, interaction exercises on the formation of lexical, grammatical, phonetic speech of the parties, taking into account the interactions of oral forms, testing of vocabulary with the development of reading and writing, the interaction of all kinds of speech activity.
1 Filatov V.M. Methods of teaching foreign languages in primary and secondary school. Textbook for students of pedagogical colleges. Rostov-on-don, 2004.
2 Passov E.I., Kuznetsova E.E. The problem of skills in teaching foreign languages. Textbook. Voronezh: SEI «Interlingua», 2002.
3 Nauchnaja biblioteka im. A.N. Ignatova.
4 Markelova D.M. A method of forming lexical skills at training English language // Molodoj uchenyj, 2016. №9.
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