Active teaching methods which considers students as the center in primary schools

Characteristics of categories of human knowledge. Peculiarities of the methodology of teaching in the primary school, focused on the student's individuality and capabilities, the role of this methodology in the personalization of the learning process.

Рубрика Педагогика
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 28.04.2018
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Active teaching methods which considers students as the center in primary schools

Duong Thi Linh

Master, Faculty of Education, University of Vinh


Active teaching methods which considers students as the centre in primary schools.

Duong Thi Linh, Master, Faculty of Education, University of Vinh

Teaching which focus on students is the ways we regard them as the center of teaching and learning activity, consider each individually with different characteristics and abilities - they are not only the subjects but also the purpose of this process, in order that we can personalize the process of learning with the help of modern device so that students' possibility can be developed the best which contribute a great part to build a quality standard of life for individuals, family and society.

Keywords: Active teaching methods, students, primary schools, Checked and assessed action.


Школьники как главная составляющая активных методов обучения в начальной школе.

Дуонг Тхи Линх, магистр, факультет педагогики, университет Винь.

Методика обучения, которая сосредоточена на школьниках как на центре системы обучения и учебной деятельности, рассматривает каждого ученика индивидуально, с различными особенностями и возможностями. Школьники являются не только предметами, но и целью этого процесса. В связи с этим появляется возможность персонализировать процесс обучения с помощью современных устройств, поэтому способности учеников могут развиваться лучше. Это внесет большой вклад в улучшение стандарта качества жизни для отдельных людей, семей и всего общества.

Ключевые слова: методы активного обучения, школьники, начальная школа, проверка и оценка действия.

1. Most recent issues

Teaching which take students as the center of activity, in fact, is to promote the most effectively students' action, help them get the knowledge independently with teachers' guide. This strategy does not allow teachers do students tasks to help them and teachers are also allowed to read then students just write down what they has just read or teachers teach- students just remember, it does not allow teachers «pour» knowledge from their brain to students' ones through their «language hopper». In other words, teachers do not bring students knowledge or notion but they have to discover themselves. In our country, there has been the germ of this method of teaching for a long time. These proverbs can prove this: «Better to learn from your friends than your teachers», «A young ox learns to plow from an older one», « learn one, know ten»…….

The term of promoting students' effectiveness to train creative workers has been set in education from 1960. The watchword « change the education process to self-educating» has been appeared in teachers training college and university since then. Professor Le Khan Bang mentioned the issue {1} «Take students as the center in term of macro and micro level, Teachers have to consider the learners' demand and wish, their physiological characteristics and thinking construction of each person». (Teaching which take students as the center, Page 14, Educational publisher, 1979).

Nevertheless, nowadays, the fact of teacher read then students just write down what they has just read or teachers teach- students just remember has appeared, learning is taken apart from practicing, learning without practicing is a majority problem is schools. So we need to change the content as well as the method of teaching to meet the rapidly developing era of industrialization and modernization in the current period. According to Phan Trong Ngo [2]: «Teaching method is like carpenter's tools, they are equal. Using them depends on the purpose and ability of teachers and learners, depends on specific teaching and learning situation: learners and educational environment (classes, teaching equipment and learning atmosphere,…..). In fact, no experienced teachers use a single method in their teaching activity. Teacher is likely a carpenter, to do an action in order to make a detail, e just need one tool but to have a completed item (house, table, chair, bed or cupboard….) he needs to combine many actions with different tools. Teaching art is the skill of combining different teaching methods in one lesson of teachers.» Phan Trong Ngo (2005) teaching and teaching methods in schools, Teachers training University publisher; p.184.

2. Promote positive for elementary students through the creation of learning activity

Scientists have identified human knowledge into 4 categories

· Event knowledge (science)

· Method knowledge

· Value knowledge

· Standard knowledge

Those 4 categories of knowledge are all necessary and they are the content of human's personality as well. Students need to be equipped all of 4 these categories at school. But in elementary school children, the knowledge method, which method primarily intellectual activity, cognitive activities have an important role. At primary school children learn primarily how to learn. Once you understand how to learn, to be able to dominate the other kinds of knowledge (of course to have the organization, guidance and control of the teacher). As a result, method of teaching in primary schools aim at forming action for students consistent with the characteristics of each subject. In the process of forming this action, the motor learning and educational purposes are also formed. At the elementary school students, people specially pay attention to form analysis action, modeling action, specifying action, assessment action for students. Analysis action is the action that students act upon on the subject which consists of concepts and make them concepts disclosed. As with sensible intuition can not find the concept: can not see the addition of tallies or not see the word «bа» with «falling tone» and initial sound as «b». That the teacher must organize activities for young cumulative tallies, the students discovered the relationship tallies with the addition. Having done so, the students discovered the origin of the concept. For example, the addition is not far away but the cumulative daily activities. When students get the concept firmly, they can do numbers of actions with to things, the phenomenon of the same nature of the concept.

Modeling action is action to help people expressing the logic of the concept of a physical and emotional way. We can say modeling is the logical expression of the concept in the form of space. In teaching people often use three types of model: Model objects similar to the real thing, the model arbitrary, symbolic model. Thanks to the model nearly identical to the real thing that students can follow the whole course of action, the position of the elements and the relationships between them. Flagship model has a higher abstraction models but visual objects is quite bold. For example, addition and subtraction can be modeled by straight lines. Arbitrary models completely conventional which is to express the logic of the concept. Those are the formula or symbols, such as mathematical formulas, symbols of chemical relationship graphs….

Concretize action is action that takes students to a specific situation which can help students perform the development of the concept of abstract generalization to the particular case multifold. Students use general relationship, abstractions as tools and means effectively to explain different phenomena in the specific circumstances are very different but have the same characteristics. In other words, this action helps elementary school students in particular and the general level students know how to apply methods for joint action to solve specific problems in the same field.

knowledge teaching individuality school

3. Checked and assessed action

In the process of implementing the actions specified above, when comprehend a concept, elementary students may commit errors in any actions. Errors in this process will lead to the holding not sure, holding wrong, not even grasp the concept. Therefore, the actions of young school and its results should be reviewed and tested regularly from the start until the final results to make sure children do the right thing and have the results (forming concepts) correctly. Checking and assessing is initially teachers work, but in the teaching process, we are to gradually form a self-assessment capability, self check in students. Meanwhile, check - assessment will become students' learning activity. Checking and assessing activity is essentially two different actions. Checking is that the entire process of reviewing the implementation of actions aimed at detecting learning errors acquired for timely adjustments and corrective actions to ensure the right result surely. The inspection was carried out in parallel with the actions specified above. Assessing action is also done by the students to compare the results that they have achieved after completing the action or learn with sample results outlined learning objectives.

In the process of teaching in primary school four actions mentioned above are formed in the learning process of students. Initially they are objects perceived (learning), then became methods, manipulation of school activities to occupy the intellectual, conceptual subjects.

In summary, the «student-based learning center» is an ideological mold, an educational perspective dominates all the elements of the teaching process: objectives, contents, methods and means of teaching … Teaching taking students as the center is essentially to maximize the positive role of the subject, independence and creativity of students to students to make knowledge, skill formation, technique. In elementary school, student-teaching center is essentially formed the academic act as analyzed above. Teachers are the designers, directors and constructions. Students are active subjects; hands-on learning, comprehension and application intertwined; study reached Essential knowledge, scientific knowledge, practical skills, scientific methods are also formed simultaneously. Design thinking teaching methods student center is the optimal method in the process of teaching, teaching quality assurance increasingly high results, meet social requirements.


1. Le Khanh Bang. Teaching taking students as the center. Education publisher, 1979

2. I.F. How to promote students' positiveness? Education publisher H 1983.

3. Ho Ngoc Рai. Wat is lesson? Education publisher H 1985.

4. Pham Minh Hac. Psychology. Education publisher H 1996.

5. Phan Trong Ngo. Teaching and teaching method at school. Pedagogy publisher, H 2005

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