Creativity - prequisite for the development and quality of human life
The concept of "quality of life" is considered, which is studied by different sciences. It is brought that the conscious use of one's own potential and creativity gives a person the opportunity for self-realization and promotes her pleasure from life.
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Creativity - prequisite for the development and quality of human life
The notion of life quality has been observed in numerous fields of science including pedagogy. This discipline perceives human life in the light of continuous changes that are accompanied by the transformations of the man himself and the creation of various ways of interactions and balance between them and the surrounding world. Their direction depends on human vision of life and the role man accepts to play in it as well as the value that is ascribed by man to his life - here appears the question concerning the quality of life. From pedagogical point of view quality of life is indicated by satisfaction with good life achieved throughout the realization of the values that constitute the basis for any human pursuit and objectives. Nevertheless, in order to influence one's own life quality man must fulfil a necessary condition that is to be a creator not just a reproducer. In the paper herein there has undertaken an attempt to answer the question concerning the role of creative activity in the development of man and the quality of human life. It turns out that conscious application of one's own potential and creative activity enables the man to become self-realized and favours the satisfaction with life.
Keywords: creative activities, development, quality of life, human attitude, creative human, interaction, objectives and pursuits.
Я. Дашиковська. Творчість як умова розвитку і якості життя людини
Розглянуто поняття «якість життя», що вивчається різними галузями науки. Показано, що педагогіка розглядає людське життя через призму постійних змін у ньому, які супроводжуються перетвореннями людини і створенням різних способів взаємодії і балансу між людиною та оточуючим середовищем. Встановлено, що їхнє спрямування залежить від світогляду людини і тієї ролі, яку особистість приймає на себе, а також цінностей, які вона визначає у своєму житті: саме тут постає питання якості життя. З педагогічної точки зору якість життя визначається задоволенням від життя, що досягається через реалізацію цінностей, які становлять основу людських прагнень і цілей. Встановлено, щоби впливати на якість свого життя, людина повинна виконати одну умову - бути творцем, а не лише відтворювачем. Здійснено спробу дати відповідь на питання про роль творчості у формуванні особистості та її якості життя. Доведено, що свідоме застосування власного потенціалу і творчості дає змогу людині самореалізуватись і сприяє її задоволенню від життя.
Ключові слова: творчість, розвиток, якість життя, людське ставлення, творча особистість, взаємодія, цілі і прагнення.
Я. Дашиковская. Творчество как условие развития и качества человеческой жизни
Рассмотрено понятие «качество жизни», которое изучается разными отраслями науки, в т. ч. педагогикой. Показано, что эта дисциплина рассматривает человеческую жизнь под углом постоянных изменений в ней, которые сопровождаются преобразованиями в человеке и созданием различных способов взаимодействия и баланса между человеком и внешней средой. Установлено, что их направление зависит от мировоззрения человека и той роли, которую личность принимает на себя, а также ценностей, которые она определяет в своей жизни: именно здесь возникает вопрос о качестве жизни. С педагогической точки зрения качество жизни определяется удовлетворением от жизни, которое достигается благодаря реализации ценностей, которые составляют основу человеческих устремлений и целей. Однако чтобы влиять на качество своей жизни, человек должен выполнить одно условие - быть творцом, а не только воспроизводителем. Сделана попытка дать ответ на вопрос о роли творчества в формировании личности и качества ее жизни. Доведено, что сознательное использование собственного потенциала и творчества дает человеку возможность для самореализации и содействует ее удовольствию от жизни.
Ключевые слова: творчество, развитие, качество жизни, человеческое отношение, творческая личность, взаимодействие, цели и устремления.
Probably there is no man that does not reflect on their life, does not make its assessment, does not have dreams, does not intend to set goals, because everyone wants to live “a good life”. For individuals the “good” life can mean different values and evaluation criteria, but for most, it comes down to the efforts to (comprehended as individual) achieve fulfilment and happiness. Human life is accompanied by learning and multiple changes during our lifetime, they also make the man. Their direction depends on what kind of vision of life and their role in it takes. The question arises about the meaning and quality of life. Similar reflections and experiences of human being are often accompanied by internal struggle of good and evil, and the drama of the situation lies in the fact that the above dilemma includes values that are demanding the implementation [29, p. 127]. Erich Fromm says: “The rush to life is inherent to everybody; the man cannot give up the desire of life, regardless their opinion on this subject. The choice between life and death is more apparent than real; man's real problem lies in the choice between a good life and a bad life”. It is often the dilemma between “to have” and “to be” [11, p. 23]. Understanding of the essence of humanity, vision of the “I” and personal “theory of life”, often determines the shape of life, influences the attitudes and objectives adopted by a person. If you believe that you can decide about your life that you can change and improve it is such faith itself that enables to perform such tasks. Martin Seligman, a founder of positive psychology (looking for the good life conditions) defines such a man as “the individual maximum” [26, p. 47]. In this light, the man is seen as the creator of the transformation of their personality, and thus changes in their own lives. They are not passive observers and participants in the changes in the world, but the initiators and authors of action by which they can independently and arbitrarily interfere in the events in their lives, effectively modify their course, directing towards some goals and values [14, p. 21]. The foundation of such an attitude of man is their focus on the development and operation. This thesis appears in psychology, but also a humanist pedagogy which assumes omni-human development through education. It is based on belief in the legitimacy of a gradual transition from the educational impact of man to their self-education, self-control and self-reflection.
The aim of this article is to find the answer to the fundamental questions: about the understanding of the nature of human development and, above all, about the role of creativity for the development and quality of life (and the conditions of its development of an active and creative attitude). It is assumed that an elementary task of man as a rational being is their vocation to development through the pursuit of self-development of personality, self-realization, and thus improve the quality of life.
Summary of the human development in pedagogical approach. Reflections on the man, the meaning and quality of life are the domains of numerous fields of science, especially philosophy and psychology, also appear in the science of education - pedagogy. Rank analysis from the perspective of human life in terms of teaching quality is enormous. This is evidenced by Wladyslaw Strozewski who in the context of the issues discussed not only assigns to pedagogy the realm of science, but also the most perfect art, which makes a human being the subject of consideration, and its aim is the human being formation. As the author states, pedagogy is “the most tragic of all arts. Its material, the noblest possible, is also the most unstable of all. Values updated in the man, are existentially more fragile, sooner than their subject and never can certainly say that root in it forever. The task of education can be summed up in the question, how to build a human in man. The idea of humanity also assumes that man is a being who face value and the realization of these values as if convicted, if you really want to be a man” [28, p. 56-57]. Words quoted by the author arise the question about the purpose of educational activities, which, as it seems, comes down to intellectual and emotional of the involvement of human in their own development. The essence of this commitment is the acceptance and recognition of such a life, it does so in the consciousness of human vocation to development, regarded as superior to the other task in life, but at the same time do not release the other tasks [30, p. 11].
On the basis of pedagogy the authors (inter alia Kazimierz Sosnicki, Stefan Kunowski, Bogdan Suchodolski, Bogdan Nawroczynski, Tadeusz Tomaszewski, Waldemar Furmanek) take the issue of personal human development in the context of the issue of the meaning and quality of life . For the most part, the authors emphasize the concept of human development rank for human life and a sense of self-satisfaction. They point to the role of values as an essential element of creating a person, as well as the activity, consciousness, freedom, responsibility and dignity, as the primary determinants of development. For purposes of these considerations, the concept of the development by T. Tomaszewski has been explored. According to the author, human development involves the constant creation of new opportunities and raising to a higher level of quality of life. In this concept, the development is not treated as a process that takes place through growth, but primarily by changing the organization of the developing world, by raising their level of organization and the consequent emergence of qualitatively new features compared to the initial stage (and the realization of man's the makings of birth, or opportunities and bring them to the maximum level). The content of the concept of “quality of life” is understood by the author as a guideline pattern (development-oriented). We can say that in terms of T. Tomaszewski, improving the quality of development is accompanied by improved quality of life. This thesis can be summarized in words of Augustyn Banka, which says that quality of life is the result of human development, which according to the author, this relationship is reciprocal, which means that the quality of development is a function of the sense of quality of life [2, p. 13].
The ideal would be the perception by human (homo construens - a building man) development as a direct result of their actions (focus on development), as the result, while the prize for the development is “development itself, which paradoxically - expanding the horizon - often does not satisfy nor silence the need, but rather enhances it, leaving the state of hunger and dissatisfaction both with themselves and with what so far has brought the very process of development” [30, p. 11]. As a rule, however, people in pursuit of goals, needs, goals, treat them as a priority, and perceive the development as of secondary importance. Therefore, the role of pedagogy comes down to preparation of the man while building their actual fate they move it toward the possibly optimal fate [5, p. 66], through self-development. This means the need to support people in overcoming all restrictions and difficulties and to create the conditions in which it will be possible to implement life activities in optimal direction (i.e. creating a situation resulting from negative mishap) [16, p.32], as well as help in discovering the real meaning by creating the conditions to experience the meaning and quality of life, in which it can meet the creative solving of crises and looking for the “strategy” and the purpose of life [33, p.45-48] and coordinating and synchronizing their different circumstances [5, p. 59]. This is not about the man's personal development in itself, but about the “quality”. Zygmunt M. Zimny makes the quality of the development depend on the quality of the biological, psychological, socio- psychological, social, human needs; size of the security and development needs; quality and level of performance of his physical and mental functions; the quality and quantity of available economic goods; and also the level of their availability and use . The author focuses the importance of internal and external determinants of the “quality” of human development, which is (as its agents) in relation to the quality of life.
The pedagogy of “quality” is examined through the prism of the values. In this context, life and human development are the supreme value, and determination of their quality boils down to the accurate evaluation (personal meanings broadcasting system). However, this requires a personal commitment on the part of man, thus filling life with activity, creativity, creativeness.
Role of creativity in individual development. Becoming, creative development throughout life is a specific characteristic of human existence. The essence of development is emotional and intellectual commitment to human change, which in turn leads to wisdom, self¬fulfilment, joy, it gives a sense of the meaning of life [27, p. 269]. For a man to be able to through self-development affect the shape and quality of their life, they must fulfil the essential condition: being its creator, not a recreator.
Proper activity is mentioned in a number of concepts as a key factor in human development . The only question is whether it is at this point about the same activity as the essence of human life, or the regulation of the body with the world, whether it is an activity through which he makes a conscious creative acts? It turns out that not every activity is involved in the development of such. Routine activity, the activity of the specific algorithm. This influence has activity as a result of which an entity exceeds the repertoire of their behaviour and current opportunities [3, p. 13].
Joseph Kozielecki considers this kind of activity as the right way to authentic life and fulfillment. According to the author, “the desirability of existence primarily generates a transgressive act, the act of crossing the boundaries of existing achievements and experiences, the act of creative and innovative, expanding the individual and social world. This act causes that human life (...) ceases to be absurd” [12, p. 97].
The basis of the activity perceived as a necessary condition for human development is creativity. At this point it should be noted that the concept of “creative activity” does not mean the same thing as the term “creative attitude”. While human activities can have an occasional nature, it will be human attitude or undertaking permanent and repeated problems in a creative way - unconventional, innovative and original. Creative activity is possible under certain conditions, and a multitude of positive determinants of activity leads to the formation of a creative attitude, which, according to Stanislaw Popek is “an active attitude to the world and life, expressing the need of knowing and conscious processing of existing the reality as well as of one's own «I»”. Creative attitude involves, inter alia, human openness to experience, spontaneous perception of reality, adequate perception of one's own “I”, requires freedom of emotional expression, sometimes the ability to take risks, as well as a high level of mobilization of mental processes (emotional and motivational features, cognitive, causative [13, p. 107]), enabling dynamic work [18, p. 82]. In this paper, the creativity is perceived in the context of human posture.
Creativity is the primary need for the development and self-realization, as well as an inherent component of human nature [7, p. 76]. Its hallmark is the ability to shape the person themselves, a higher quality and wider levels. It means progressive building of a human, ideal self-image and the pursuit of its realization in a lifetime . The creativity expresses subjective approach to the existence of a person, the desire to develop themselves in accordance with the accepted worldview, philosophy of life, approved system of values. It stimulates the process of self-realization, and often it is associated with the need to of sense  and quality of life. Creativity as a condition for human development means that they want to perform creative acts, eager to be at the same time the subject of creative activities [31, p. 267]. Being a creative person, homo creator (especially today - in the era of hedonism, consumption, “quick” and “easy” life - ed. JD) is an act of courage and means crossing borders in oneself and in the world [8, p. 79].
While identifying the creativity with human development, it should be assigned the name of the process that leads to the creation, development, appointment to the existence of a new process, product supply, features, value. We can say that the man is creative when it has (or seeks to obtain) some specific personality traits, some of them are: firmness, activity, strong motivation and enthusiasm to work, independence, broad interests, absorbency emotional, vitality, enthusiasm, constructive criticism [20, p.9]. The transition of man from the lowest level of activity through independence to creativity reveals their humanity.
Creativity and quality of life. Quality of life is determined by many factors, the most important of them are: biological-physical, personality and social-external. These factors are known as structural-objective subject to change, due to the political, social, cultural transformation etc. The second group consists of constellation-phenomenological determinants associated with how a man sets out their plans, tasks, the importance that they give to their actions and life. As a result of constant interaction of structural factors and constellation - phenomenological, the man creates scenarios, programs and styles of life, thus realize the potential of their own life - hence, these factors can be described as self-fulfilling [34, p. 104-105].
Man's striving for self-realization and quality of life, or maintaining it at its current level, is their natural need (gives value and meaning to life). It requires commitment and creative attitude as a causative factor of elementary personality transformations and shape of life.
Jadwiga Daszykowska assumes that the true value of human life and happiness and its high quality can be achieved primarily through the improvement and multi-dimensional development. In this pedagogical concept of human sense of life satisfaction is expressed in the possibility of self-creation, realization of the aspirations and goals in life in accordance with accepted values and expectations [9, p. 13]. In the light of the viewpoint presented above the basis of the quality of life is active, creative, as well as reflective and intentional attitudes, to make changes in oneself (in English: self-made), and within one's own lives. The author supports the idea that life reproducibility, stability, the stagnation in the colloquial sense denies the quality of life [4, p. 79].
This view is shared by the author of psychological concept of “flow” (eng. - flow theory) Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, who believes that the best moments in life do not happen in the moments of inertia and the rest, but when the mind and body are stretched to the final borders of a voluntary effort to accomplish something difficult and worthwhile. Such an attitude is the foundation for a feeling of control and awareness of participation in deciding on the content of one's own life, is - according to the author - the closest state of joy, satisfaction, happiness, and that can be achieved [6, p. 17].
It should be emphasized that assuming a creative attitude by a person depends not only on the tasks formulated by the person themselves and the personal vision of life [14, p.27-28], but it also includes social expectations, obligations arising from its position, or role. But it is not only external factors, but mainly personal dispositions of man (eventually the relationships between them), that determine the acceptance of work as a central activity, the implementation of which is possible at every stage of life.
The work seen in the context of lifelong development process is not reserved exclusively for artists, because it is seen as a kind of inspiration, which has an effect on mood, performance and daily life of all people. Mark Adamiec and Katarzyna Popiolek try to persuade us about it. They assume that the quality of life depends on the author's realization of his own life (authentic existence) for each person. The repertoire of the determinants of creativity is placed in the rightful place. According to the authors, the quality of life is entangled in value, it has a use for them and their results. They define quality of life as a set of conditions that allow a certain way of human life, which they determine through (axiological) concept of “generative value” such as: self-awareness (the ability to know and understand each other), the bond with the people (the ability to communicate, study and understanding of others, to enter into stable satisfying relationships with them), autonomy (being unique and individual, creating oneself instead of passive subjecting to internal and external forces), creativity (creating, giving something new, valuable for oneself and the world), developing (development and improvement), satisfaction (ability to find a basis for lasting self-esteem and life satisfaction) [1, p. 93-94]. According to this concept, creative man is not only “actor” of life, but above all its “author”.
Irena Pufal-Struzik as a result of comparative studies on the role of creativity in making judgments about the quality of life of creative and uncreative people proves that being “creative” allows for a more explicit (rather than in the case of “uncreativity”) present their needs, projects on the hierarchy of values (e.g. dominates the consumerism), allows for self-realization, increases self-esteem, gives a sense of non-vanishing, also fulfils cathartic and defence functions, brings satisfaction - has clear implications for the quality of life (especially in his later period) [22, p. 98-102]. Similarly, A. and D. Davidson on the basis of their research argue that creative people are generally satisfied with their lives. Such individuals are characterized by: the fullness and joy of life, openness and friendly attitude towards other people, the belief in their own ability, perseverance in the pursuit of purpose, a sense of meaningfulness of their actions (despite the difficulties of life), the internal resistance to both satisfaction and success, as well as to failure .
According to the assumptions of modern pedagogy, creativity (recognized as one of the most important determinants of human development, both as an attitude of life - ed. JD) can be acquired [18, p. 79]. A significant role in this matter is assigned to humanistic and continuous education. In today's post-modern world there are many barriers to the creation of man (primarily of the modern mass culture and attitude to consumption). Therefore, we need “a good, humanistic education, criticism, having in itself axiological and ethical criteria, ability to judge, to find solutions for our own way in (the existing) maze” [17, p. 271]. Thus, the essential tasks of education should be to organize in a human being: an open mind, a strong internal motivation and cognitive curiosity, broad interests, independence in thought and action, a positive attitude towards yourself and your self-esteem and dignity, moderate criticism, a sense of meaning and value of life. In this regard, an important role is to be played not only a by school [23, p. 174-176], but most of all by a family [24, p. 92-100].
The pedagogical approach suggests that developing creativity will not be possible if it is not related to the sphere of noetic including that ensure the creation of man and the quality of his life. Transfer of knowledge about values and their importance in being and becoming the subject, starting their motivation to explore and implementing a fundamental (though not the only) is a condition for an active and creative attitude of man. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be said that the essential task of education is to form (“rebirth”), human quality and quality of life. New rebirth of man (in terms of intellectual, cultural and moral aspect) may be the answer to the question: how, gradually moving away from the current chaos, provide relative harmony in human interaction with the environment, coexistence with other people and provide the man with the internal governance? This harmony is a prerequisite to achieve a state of mental balance, contentment and joy of life” [15, p. 319].
Summary. The article presents the role of creative human attitude to the quality of their personal development and life. Interdisciplinary nature, as well as a wide range of issues does not allow to present it in a comprehensive and analytical way in the pages of the study. On the basis of undertaken considerations, however, we can draw conclusions for educational theory and practice. The first is the belief that creativity has connotations of human development. Creative people are more likely to multidimensional development, deeper experience of the world, other people and themselves.
Synonymous with creative attitude is not passivity, but human activity. It is thanks to the activity that a human being has a chance to make changes within their own personality and life. Openness, enthusiasm for action, a wealth of interests, emotional absorbency and other characteristics of creative people [20, p.9], allow them to build a satisfying and valuable in quality.
The basic foundation of education (taken in the family, school, etc.) in that respect are values, but not exclusively. The use of subjectivity and customization rules in the process of pedagogical impact upon a human being, taking into account the concept of multiple intelligences, multilateral learning, the use of a variety (especially active) forms of teaching and educational work, and the recruitment of educational practice and learning objectives caring for continuing education, offers a real chance to awaken their needs of self-development and creativity in life, even in the longer term. In this sense, educational activities can be summarized in E. Fromm's words, that the education is education for creativity constitutes education for life.
creativity development quality life
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