Proper organization of leisure time student - a manifestation of concern for the proper development of personality and success in school
The essence, place and role of rational time management in education, especially its proper use. The value, meaning and meaning of a student's free leisure time with benefits for physical, mental, moral and cognitive development, interpersonal relations.
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Proper organization of leisure time student - a manifestation of concern for the proper development of personality and success in school
B. Ziqba, A. Ziqba
Важливою частиною освіти є розумне управління часом і правильне його використання. Батьки й учителі повинні дбати про використання вільного часу студентом, щоб його проведення принесло відчутну користь для фізичного, розумового, морального, когнітивного розвитку та міжособистісних взаємин.
Ключові слова: освіта, виховання, студент, вільний час, здібності, прагнення особистості. education free time management
An important part of education is a sensible time management and proper use of leisure time. Parents and teachers should take care of the child's use of leisure time to his way of spending that time has brought tangible benefits to both the development of physical, mental, moral, cognitive, or a child relationships.
Keywords: education, upbringing, student, free time, abilities, aspirations, personality.
Free time and its rational use by the student is not only important task for both parents and teachers, but also for the student, because the interests, aspirations and creative use of leisure time depends on its child's personal and educational success.
Increasingly, we all complain about lack of time, bearing in mind free time devoted to ourselves, time that is left after the fulfillment of all duties, e.g. professional, school, household chores or caring responsibilities towards those who are left in our care. When speaking about lack of free time, we often emphasize our tiredness, dissatisfaction, needs, aspirations, frustrations because they do not allow us for proper rejuvenation of our powers and the accomplishment of our plans, which are reflected in the quality of our lives.
A well-known Polish educationalist Wincenty Okon defines the concept of `free time' as `time at individual's disposal after the fulfillment of obligatory duties: professional work, compulsory education at school or at home and the necessary household chores' [4: 45]. The author adds that `free time is reasonably spent on: 1) having a rest i.e. rejuvenation of mental and physical powers; 2) entertainment that gives pleasure; 3) social activities based on voluntary and selfless service; 4) development of interests and talents by acquiring knowledge and the amateur artistic, technical, scientific or sports activities [4: 45].
A turn of phrase is presented by Aleksander Kaminski, (according to Ciszkow- ski) who rephrases the concept as `time off from: work (among pupils and students from school or university classes), an additional gainful employment (among learners from homework), commuting to work (or school), meeting the basic needs of the body, taking domestic and family responsibilities' [1: 42]. Numerous Polish researches, who have dealt with the concept of free time (K.Czajkowski, T.Wujek, A.Kaminski, A.Zawadzka, Z.Dgbrowski, S.Czajka, M.Cwiakowski), emphasize the advantages of free time.
Therefore, what functions does free time perform?
Bozena Matyjas in the XXI Century Encyclopedia of Education points out the following functions:
`the function of rest and recreation'- which ensures rejuvenation of physical and mental skills;
`the function of fun and entertainment', which indicates not only leisure or recreational activities, but the basic condition and the way of experiencing contacts with the world, the attractive way to learn the social rules, being familiar with the nature or art, the development of interests and abilities through variety of activities, e.g. self-satisfied, hobbies which allow to develop intellect, will, many skills and personality. If they are guided correctly - they will surely arouse the child's need for self-improvement and self-development;
'the function of spending time collectively', because the time spent in the social environment, in the peer group is a source of strong incentives which have social attributes [3: 561].
I quote above-mentioned B.Matyjas who says that `the economic function of free time', is also highlighted today and it is linked with the establishment of entertainment and sport industry, which on the one hand meets the leisure needs of consumers but on the other hand - makes the highest sales. This phenomenon is connected with a new approach to the function of free time. Rejuvenated functions are marginalized and entertainment (social contentment ) and creative or performing functions (self-development, creative freedom) become more popular [3: 561].
An important aspect of education is the appropriate, constructive use of free time of children and young people, because habits and routines which the child will acquire in childhood can have enormous implications for grown-up preferences and choices about the ways of spending free time. After all, the way we spend free time is of great importance for physical, psychological, cognitive, moral development and prosocial behaviour.
Nowadays, the problem of free time has a great importance, because it is strongly associated with the sphere of increasing human freedom demands and democratization of social life. On the one hand, economic growth ensures greater availability of goods and services, but on the other hand - an increase of free time disposal which has become the hub of social life and resulted in the formation of the identity of individuals as well as defining a position in the social structure. The proper management of free time is associated with real necessities of life and the lack of social presumptions, which allow to organize free time in a more rational way.
Nowadays, time is a particularly valuable good, but sometimes it is wasted by the careless management and in many circumstances free time is just as important as work. Moreover, we can observe that there is a fashion for being busy, absorbed and overworked (compare with: A.Zamowska, A.Szwarc, 2001) [9: 31].
Generally children have more free time comparing with adolescents and adults. <...> Overall, children watch television, read, play games and prefer a passive recreation in free time. They minimally go for a walk, on excursions or do sports in their free time' [6: 76].
The problem of free time among children and adolescents is especially important, because educational institutions each year have decreasing amounts of money which should be spent for extracurricular activities. Working parents, who are devoted to their work sometimes forget that it is their duty to exercise control over children. On the other hand, the unemployed parents are not able to cover costs of free time activities of their children and often cannot advise them on how to organize free time rationally. For this reason, young people spend their free time in the most attractive way to them, but it is not always backed up with rational thinking which may bring different and unexpected effects including serious health problems or problems with the law (compare with Przybysz-Zaremba: 2008) [7: 263]. The young generation being at the stage of searching for their way of life is susceptible to various influences or experiments which are related to the activities of a hazardous nature, which may be an expression of opposition to the authority of adults or might be a way to deal with negative emotions such as: fear, frustration, a sense of uncertainty or rejection, lack of understanding, etc. Unhealthy behaviour may be an expression of solidarity with the peer group and an identification of the youth subculture and a desire for experiences, searching for entertainment - and at the same time not paying attention to the consequences (compare with Schlack, 1999) [8: 151].
These days it can be seen that a very popular way of spending free time at home is surfing the Internet and establishing and maintaining new acquaintances through a variety of messaging and social networking. In Poland the most popular portals among children and young people are `Our Class'and `Facebook' and among instant messaging: `Skype', `GG', the traditional e-mail. It can be said that this lively interest in above-mentioned portals is related with the need for acceptance, belonging or being a member of the group. It may be also a sign of loneliness of children who in the absence of their working parents try to fulfill the relationship with other people through the online contact. It is very worrying, because it can lead to alienation. Hence, the role of family to organize free time of their children is so important.
B.Matyjas indicates that the research conducted by M. Grochocinski show that `the way of the management of free time activities in the family is affected by the following factors: the educational level of parents, the material conditions of the family, the amount of remuneration, the standard of equipment in the flat, the budget of parents' free time and their pedagogical knowledge, knowledge of their children needs, the family patterns and free time attitudes formed at home, the budget of children's free time' [3: 563], but the author says that the study of these issues is a source of information about the values approved by the younger generation, about their system of values, aspirations, attitudes - it is extremely important from an educational point of view since knowledge of these facts can help children and young people to use their free time properly, which would be desirable from a social point of view.
Aspects of free time and its values. M.Przybysz-Zaremba quoting K.Czaj- kowski identifies four aspects of the child's free time: socio-economic, hygiene and health, pedagogical and psychological [7: 264].
* socio-economic aspect - describes free time as a factor which will release the need of social contacts and experiences, because the child's need is to belong to a group and to organize collective fun and leisure. According to M. Kwilecka a child `should not spend his free time alone because it does not create the opportunity for socailization and comparing his own behaviour with actions and behaviour of others' [2: 77]. A man is important if he is a member of a group and thanks to contacts with others he experiences personal happiness, joy or contentment. School in a small amount follows economic reasons of education. However, the intellectual and physical effort, associated with the learning process, should be reasonably portioned as well as relaxation and rest, as psychophysical needs of the child's body require so. Hence, there is the need to extend the tasks of schools to organize free time of their students. They may be various extracurriculum classes organized for students in cooperation with county offices and non-governmental organizations [5: 260]. The economic aspect also includes the sphere of planning compulsory classes to take into account the need to have free time and to notice economic differences between compulsory classes and free time activities.
Hygiene and health aspect - suggests that free time is a necessary protection for the developing organism against overloaded school and homework duties- that is why free time serves as a preventive treatment to protect the health of children and adolescents. The aspect of hygiene and health is related with the issue of stress which develops the state of the nervous tension, causes anxiety and worries, makes it difficult to concentrate. That is why educators and psychologists put great emphasis on: psychophysical relaxation of the body, a large amount of fresh air, physical exercises, proper nutrition as well as pleasure, joy and fun which improve the physical and mental well-being [7: 264-265].
pedagogical aspect - describes free time as the possibility to create chances to initiate and organize activities by the youngest generation, organize activities which go beyond their daily duties and are free, separate elements of the day which can be independently planned and applied. The advantage of the pedagogical aspect `is a full investigation completed by the child to understand the need of self-education and constant improvement of the skills' [3: 561-562].
psychological aspect relates to the fact - that children's developing psyche requires new sensations and stimuli as children discover and awake their interests, talents. They also absorb new things and are sensitive to everything what is new. Education at schools and work is not enough for children as they crystallize their personal interests, preferences and needs. `As they grow-up, they crystallize personal interests and try independently to determine their interests and talents. During free time activities a crucial role play the following needs: entertainment, pleasure and satisfaction after a long educational or mental effort. Joyful entertainment brings children physical and psychological relaxation. Free time games, which are reasonably conducted, carry along educational and child-raising elements and contribute to the proper development' [3: 561].
Taking into consideration the above-mentioned aspects and looking at the pace of life, in which fell both adults and children, we cannot forget to give children proper family patterns and discover and develop their hidden or overt talents. The child must be given time to develop his interests and passions, as they give a possibility of self-development, but it is also a condition to educate a creative society that will create a better quality of life for future generations.
1. Ciczkowski W., Czas wolny, (w:) Elementame poj^cia pedagogiki spolecznej і pracy socjalnej, Lalak D., Pilch T. (red.), Warszawa 1999.
2. Kwilecka M., Bezposrednie funkcje rekreacji, Warszawa 2006.
3. Matyjas B., Czas wolny, (w:) Encyklopedia Pedagogiczna XXI Wieku, tom 1, Warszawa 2003.
4. Окоп W., Slownik pedagogiczny, Warszawa 1984.
5. Pielachowski J., Mocne і slabe strony wychowania w szkole. (Nie)przesmiewcze refleksje dlugoletniego praktyka, (w:), Wychowanie. Poj^cia, procesy, konteksty. Interdyscypliname uj^cie, Dudzikowa, M. Czerepaniak-Walczak M., (red.), tom 3, Gdansk 2007.
6. Przeclawski K., Czas wolny dzieci і mlodziezy, (w:) Encyklopedia Pedagogiczna, Pomykalo W. (red.), Warszawa 1993.
7. Przybysz-Zaremba M., Czas wolny mlodziezy w XXI wieku, (w:) Homo kreator czy homo ludens? Nowe formy aktywnosci і sp^dzania wolnego czasu, Muszynski W., Sokolowski M. (red.), Torun 2008, s. 263.
8. Schlack T., Malolat - program interwencyjno-edukacyjno-profilaktyczny dotycz^cy nieletnich osob naduzywaj^cych alkoholu, (w:) Socjoterapia, SawickaK. (red.), Warszawa 1999.
9. Zarnowska A., Szwarc A., Kobieta і kultura czasu wolnego, Warszawa 2001, s. 31.
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