Professional training of future teachers of humanitarian disciplines in the context of modern educational paradigm
Humanisation of education - change of organizational forms, content, methods of teaching which is grounded on improving of educational process with the help of modern pedagogical technologies. Analysis of traditional system of professional training.
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In modern conditions of transformation of society in Ukraine into qualitatively new forms of existence, within the process of globalization and development, the problem of future teachers' training becomes really actual. Society needs competent teaching staff, which can organize mastering knowledge at high intellectual level, based on the ability to think logically, to argue their opinions, to have professional thinking. The need to improve professional-pedagogical training (and this is the subject of our research) is caused by the increasing demands for the level of cultural and special training of graduates . Besides changes of educational paradigm is reflected in a number of state documents.
As the goal of our research we can state the research of modern directions of renewing of education's paradigm and the pointing on the ways of increasing and improving of professional training, oriented on professional thinking of pedagogues.
Problems of improving of pedagogical training were researched by: О. Abdullina, A. Akimov, Yu. Babanskyy, V. Slastonin, R. Hmelyuk. General questions of development of thinking have been studied by P. Blonskyy, A. Brushlynskyy, L. Vygotsky, S. Rubinstein and others. One of the directions of improving of professional training is the development of thinking of future teachers. This direction was studied by B. Bryushynkin, V. Hrynov, H. Dmytrenko, E. Ivanov, V. Lozova. C. Marysyuk, I. Nicholas, V. Osa, V. Palamarchuk, Sukhomlinsky and others. Certain aspects of mastering knowledge with the help of logical statements were described by O. Ivin, P. Kopnin. Ways of development of logical thinking of teachers were studied by G. Lavreshina, O. Phedorenko, I. Khachimyzn and others. In modern conditions of increasing amount of information the rational construction of the educational process within educational establishment. We value personalities which have such features as developed general culture, consequence of thinking, logical thinking. We deal with the personality which has high logical culture and high level of professional thinking. Intensive ways of education which involves rational choosing of needed information among the whole amount of it, implies the high level of logical culture of thinking which is the necessary condition for the implementation of new methods of education. Future specialists have to act basing on certain rules: rational thinking, rational studying, research and resolving of the problem. Considering the demand of modern society we can state the research of different paradigms, ways and directions which are compete. Most of these directions are oriented on humanity and humanitarization (from paradigm of knowledge to the paradigm of personality's development). As it was stated, paradigm in science is the union of ideas, theories, methods and samples of development of different problems. This union is accepted by scientific community of certain epoch as the way or direction for the further development. In many research works humanitarization and humanization are not separated accurately. Though the humanization is the orientation on development of personality and humanitarization is the implementation of individual into the culture. These directions are tendencies of modern education. We consider and agree with the approach which states the humanization as the principle and the humanitarization as the method of its realization. Scientists consider humanization as the one of modern principles of modern pedagogics which orients direction of education's development on the humane relationships within the society.
Humanisation of education involves such change of organizational forms, content, methods of teaching which is grounded on:
1) Increasing of enjoyment, contentment of students due to the education which grounds on the interaction of economical and pedagogical mechanisms of stimulation of education and concrete educational activity;
2) Forming of humane relationships among students and pedagogical staff;
3) Improving of educational process with the help of modern pedagogical technologies;
4) Development of basis of social protection of youth's rules in conditions of modern economy.
First of all, during the professional training the principle of humanization is determined in the content of the subject: foundations of basis subjects are considered from the point of view of the interconnection of modern life and prospects of future development. It reveals the interaction of language and culture. The special attention is given to the interdisciplinary character of subjects.
One of such concepts is the personal-oriented education of future specialists which is based on the scientifically grounded organization of interaction. This interaction helps to construct optimal conditions for the development of such abilities: to interact, to determine own position, to realize, to work independently. Considering the importance of such pedagogical concept, we'd like to point on some theoretical foundations:
1. The main goal of education is the development of teacher's personality. This statement changes the place of subject of education at all stages of educational process and implies the subject's activity.
2. Orientation on the individual vector of development of personality is resulted in the changes of correlation of normative demands (for the educational's results (which are given in state standards of education)) and demand of self-determination, self-education, self-realization within educational- professional types of activity. Thus, the personal-oriented component of education is strengthened.
3. Guaranty of entire organization of educational process is the creative individuality of a teacher. So, modern pedagogical technologies have to be developed and implemented.
Personal-oriented approach means:
• Creation of condition for the development of all participants of educational process;
• Creation of operating stimulus for the subjects of teaching. Accent on attention to the development of professional thinking of future specialist; Providing of opportunity of self-realization in different types of activity;
• Implementation of modern pedagogical technologies of personality's development into the educational process. Providing of emotional comfort and social safety of education's subjects;
• Providing of monitoring of all education's subjects. This involves regular and operative diagnostics which is included into the system of reverse connection within the process of personality's development;
• Development of variable education which is directed on the widening of opportunities of self-determination and self-development of personality;
• Correction of social and professional self-determination of personality.
Researches look for ways and methods of revealing (during the educational process) of all potential opportunities and essential powers of personality. Firstly it has to be the cognitive opportunity for the student to develop himself within the development of social-historical progress in cognitive sphere.
Logics of construction of educational process deals with such important aspects: stating strategy of professional training, structuring of educational material, forming of positive motivation. Besides we have to consider the demand of constructing of teaching technology which has to be oriented on the implementation of student into the real process of optimal professional forming; necessity to consider the character of relationships of the participants of educational process.
Another aspect has to be taken into account and can be solved during the construction of innovative process of teaching which is considered to be the process of interconnected creativity of the pedagogue and the teacher. Thus it reveals the analysis of essence of such connections:
1. Teacher- educational material (modelling of structure of educational material, forms of its presentation, planning).
2. Student-educational material (conditions of understanding, mastering, gaining knowledge, transforming of knowledge into the instrument of further gaining and valuating of pedagogical phenomena within the professional activity).
3. Teacher-student, educational group.
4. Student-teacher, educational group (understanding of own position during the process of professional training, transforming of upbringing into selfupbringing).
For the providing of professional training there were marked basis directions of modernization of educational process:
- modernization of teaching humanitarian disciplines which is connected with democratization of educational structure):
- modernization which is connected with the educational content:
- modernization which is connected with improving of organizational forms and methods of teaching humanitarian disciplines. We can give the short characteristic of changes which had happened within each direction of modernization: democratization of educational structure. The law “On Education” strictly describes the structure of education in Ukraine and provides the social- pedagogical conditions of creation of democratic field for the self-realization of personality during the process of teaching. It provides the change of total standards and educational plans. Democratization of educational system resulted in various changes: educational programs and plans, system of textbooks. This provides the wide variety of opportunities: education at lyceum or gymnasium or at secondary school. This tendency is marked by the “Law about the Secondary School”. Considering conceptual factor of this problem we have to point on basis ways of its resolving:
- renewing of the content of education. Before this we dealt with the traditional teaching, which was characterized only by the informational component (knowledge, skills). Another model will involve the active component with the separation of three stages or levels of educational-cognitive activity of students (reproductive, research and scientific-research). There are research works which deal with the direction of rethinking of the content of disciplines for all types of schools; with the division of educational material according to the plans of education; with the maintaining of standard of teaching humanitarian disciplines:
- improving of organizational forms, methods of ways of teaching.
Realization of personal-oriented teaching humanitarian disciplines needs the improving of forms of organization. Nowadays there are different modern and actual forms of teaching: lectures, seminars, conferences, excursions, practical and independent works. Simultaneously practice of using technologies within the educational process has the tendency of transferring from frontal form of teaching to the group and individual one. We can spot that importance of computer's using is increasing at present time, providing the especial communication of pedagogue and student. Some peculiarities of modern world which determine the content of modern education have been marked by the social-economic conditions which
Dialectically unite processes of integration and differentiation of teaching humanitarian disciplines. But these circumstances have to be resulted in different changes in traditional professional training of future specialist. They have to be oriented on mastering technological knowledge, subject knowledge, subject skills also. During the process of mastering technological knowledge which are united with motivational and operative sides, students master certain approach to teaching humanitarian disciplines, they master their such style of pedagogical thinking which is oriented on the solution of complex of tasks. There is very actual aspect which has to be described. It the involvement of pedagogue into the pedagogical activity especially as the subject of culture within the innovative pedagogical activity, as the personality who deals with the pedagogical-cultural heritage. V. Grineva agrees with such point of view: “...The most important way of transferring cultural, mental, national and professional knowledge if the personality of a teacher as a subject of interpersonal communication, relationship” [2, p. 34].
V. Prokopchuk and V.Semichenko prove that lack of professional training is resulted in graduated who are weak within the process of realization of education, they feel difficulties during the work with the class, with parents. They are not able to use educational opportunities of the lesson, to use interdisciplinary connections, to realize the principle of interaction of teaching and upbringing. They feel the lack of pedagogical, logical culture and culture of logical thinking. B. Gershunsky says that these lacks are the results of professional training which does not form the readiness to act creatively within pedagogical activity, to act logically. Effectiveness of professional training depends on strict organization of educational work on understanding future professional activity of students. Improving of professional training needs the research of effective ways of forming systematic notions and determination of object of professional activity, professional thinking, skill of scientific research, organization and management, which have to be widely discussed within the students' environment.
Thus, traditional system of professional training has to react on contrary, opposite state of actual level of knowledge and skills of graduates which are usual for the traditional training and new demands which are caused by the cardinal changes of educational paradigm, processes which take place in modernization of teaching humanitarian disciplines. There are different ways for resolving of this situation and special training oriented on preparation future teacher for the using of modern educational technologies is one of these ways.
During this transformational process we firstly have to determine the notion of educational process, its content, characteristics, to reveal some components of technologies of teaching humanitarian disciplines. We have to mark peculiarities of correlation of didactic system and methodic system and technology of teaching also. Modern scientists make accent on the consideration of wide content, process and organizational spectrum of proposed modernization of educational paradigm which is opposite to traditional professional training of future teachers of humanitarian disciplines.
Modern education operatively recalls on practical demands; it involves new elements f knowledge, new material, new forms of organization of student's independent work. During last decade we can mark the strengthening of processes of differentiation of professional training of future teachers of humanitarian disciplines. Also we can mention the increasing processes of integration of this training basing on interdisciplinary approach which is reflected in new educational programs, plans, subjects and courses. Obviously the problem of union of differentiation and integration in the context of teaching humanitarian disciplines deals with modern innovative and informational technologies which are coherent within realization of forms, methods and ways of professional training of future specialists.
Rapid increasing of informational amount provides the necessity of its mobile and operative analysis and optimal working out. Correlation of this mass of material and frames of the educational process is resulted in the problem of creation of “basis education”. That's why systematic work on choosing didactic material, its modernization have to be the resource for the developing of innovative processes.
We consider that innovations in education are stated in such changes:
- changes in structure of teaching humanitarian disciplines;
- changes in educational plans and programs for the secondary and high school;
- changes in technologies of teaching, in educational equipment, in didactic textbooks;
- changes in organization of profile schools of new type and involvement of new forms and technologies of professional training of future teacher of humanitarian disciplines;
- changes in valuation of results of teaching humanitarian disciplines, especially with the help of professionally-oriented tests, implementation of new system of analyzing and systematization of students' achievements which has to be transparent for the student;
- changes in implementation of modern computer technologies and computer equipment for the secondary schools, lyceums, gymnasiums;
- changes in relationships “teacher-pupil” and “ pedagogue-student”.
Orientation on technological approach to teaching leads to the essential changes of different components and needs special training of future teacher which will be able to provide these changes basing. Forming of technological knowledge and skills of teachers of humanitarian disciplines, propaedeutic character of training, oriented on the using of innovative technologies of teaching at secondary school determine the modernization of tradition system of professional training. It provides the development and realization of innovative technologies of new type which are based on the essential changes in interconnections: teacher-students, teacher-student, student-student.
Methods of interconnection of student and pedagogue are characterized by the cycle determination and common construction. Educational process is not only the transfer of knowledge but it is reflected in the creation of such conditions which will be positive for the student's self-development and self-realization. These conditions will provide the intensification of active and productive creativity. This has to be the un-linear situation of open dialogue, straight and direct connection, transparent educational processes which take place within entire temporal world.
So, education becomes interactive in the conditions of transferring of knowledge, in the conditions of cooperation of pedagogue and student during their common creative pedagogical and cognitive activity. The teacher has to react on student's demands, to adopt to his or her personal peculiarities, to change the pedagogical influence depending on pedagogical situation or task.
Summing up different points of view on this problem of using selforganization within the educational system we can make the conclusion that certain ideas have to be implemented in various spheres of modern education:
• in process of education as the method of managing educational process and as the method of cognition and research of pedagogical process;
• in modernization of content of humanitarian disciplines which is necessary for the forming of worldwide, methodic and synergetic knowledge and skills;
• in modernization of education as the methodic way of realization of ideas of humanitarization and integration; as the method of development of personality and forming of its cultural values and professional thinking.
Experience of theoretical working out of problem, practical research of ways of improving of professional training allows make a conclusion: in conditions of modern social-pedagogical situation the paradigm of education has to be oriented on the reformation of professional training. It has to be directed on the forming of personality with the high level of pedagogical and logical culture, with the high level of professional thinking. This personality has to have the active and strong pedagogical position, wide scientific-pedagogical worldwide, high competence within humanitarian disciplines. Future specialist has to be creative and able to be independent and intelligent. Prospects of further research are in the determining of effective ways of modernization of professional training of future teachers of humanitarian disciplines.
1. Гершунский Б.С. Педагогическая прогностика: Методология, теорія, практика / Б.С. Гершунский. - К.: Высшая школа, 1986. - 200с.
2. Гриньова В.М. Формування педагогічної культури майбутнього вчителя (теоретичний та методичний аспекти) / В.М. Гриньова. - Х.: Основа, 1998. - 300с.
3. Прокопчук В.Є. Методична підготовка у професійній освіті майбутніх вчителів / В.Є. Прокопчук // Педагогіка і психологія. - 1996. - № 2. - С. 136-140.
4. Семиченко В.А. Психологія педагогічної діяльності: навчальний посібник [для ВНЗ] / В.А. Семичеченко. - К.: Вища школа, 2004. - 335с.
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