The means of professional training for using pedagogical technologies
Analysis of the requirements for the professional activity of the teacher, methodological approaches, which must be based on the scientific substantiation of the means of vocational training in the organization of independent learning activities.
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The means of professional training for using pedagogical technologies
On the modern stage of national educational system development, quality professional training of a future teacher stipulates mastering innovative pedagogical technologies. The article is focuses onthe need for independent educational activity, on the basis of requirements set for teacher vocational training and methodological approaches important.
Key words.-professional pedagogical training, pedagogical technologies, independent work of a student, means of professional training.
Якісна професійна підготовка майбутнього вчителя на сучасному етапі розвитку національної системи освіти передбачає володіння прийомами упровадження в освітній процес сучасних педагогічних технологій. На основі аналізу вимог до професійної діяльності вчителя, методологічних підходів, на які має спиратись наукове обґрунтування засобів професійної підготовки, було акцентовано увагу не необхідності організації самостійної навчальної діяльності.
Ключові слова: професійна педагогічна підготовка, педагогічні технології, самостійна робота студента, засоби професійної підготовки.
Качественная профессиональная подготовка будущего учителя- на современном этапе развития национальной системы образования определяет отдельным требованием владение приемами внедрения в образовательном процесс современных педагогических технологий. На основе анализа требований к профессиональной деятельности учителя, методологических подходов, на которые должно опираться научное обоснование средств профессиональной подготовки, было акцентировано внимание на необходимости организации самостоятельной учебной деятельности.
Ключевые слова: профессиональная педагогическая подготовка, педагогические технологии, самостоятельная работа студента, средства профессиональной подготовки.
The issues of professional training of a higher educational establishment graduate remains important owing to the development of pedagogical science. Modern tendencies to introducing pedagogical technologies are to solve traditional and new tasks in a more efficient way. Therefore the issue of defining the means of professional pedagogical training is becoming incredibly acute.
To various degrees, professional training in a higher educational establishment was considered in works of S. Arkhangelsky, S Goncharenko, V. Grynyova, I. Zyazyan, M. Evtukh, N. Nichkalo, O. Pyekhota, V. Slastyonin, V. Chaika. The analysis of the above listed pedagogical researches' results enables the author to concretize the issue about the necessity of creating an integral professional training system that is to match up with the existing one as well as to be based on systematic approach in defining aims and content, pragmatical and technological approaches in choosing realization means.
The article object is to define the means of future teachers' professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies in a higher educational establishment.
To provide forming of sufficient knowledge in personal pedagogical experience of modern pedagogical technologies was chosen as the subject of L. Lisina research [4, 5]. She analyzes various scientific and processual aspects of training teachers to use educational technologies in the system of post-graduation work. Her research doesn't fully cover the issue of providing professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies in a higher educational establishment.
In this research professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies is considered in quality result of specially organized pedagogical cooperation in higher educational system, while its specific features point at the importance of choosing adequate pedagogical approaches to realization. Specific features of learning activity, management of which has a socially determined, systematic, task-oriented character, should be taken into account.
During the research contradictions between the expected readiness of a graduate to use pedagogical technologies and the real absence of scientific approaches to providing a forming of subject skills system were a reason to specify the means of professional training. Carrying out the research, the author addressed the viewpoint of O. Dubasenyuk, T. Semenyuk, O. Antonova who think professional efficiency realizing through a system of specific skills has an important role in the process of training a future pedagogue.
Revelation of “professional efficiency” notion content points at similarity of the notion and readiness to use pedagogical technologies. In both cases it is expected to make up a model of skills, each will be a result of using in specifically determined types of activity with using an optimal complex of means to manage learning activities. professional training learning activities
The character of professional pedagogical activity that I. Dychkivs'ka reveals in the context of requirements for using professional duties with concretizing the category “expert-pedagogue who are fast at grasping and efficiently using both traditional and new approaches and methods” [1, p. 28] indicated the similarity between pedagogical activity character and professional pedagogical skills complex that make the content of professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies. Meanwhile there are reasons to consider general pedagogical and special skills separately.
To general pedagogical skills belong: skills to analyze different pedagogical concepts, pedagogical situations, individual and age differences, process and results of one's professional work; the ability to form objects, tasks of professional activity, to foresee prospective results, to model the content, forms and methods of pedagogical activity in possible pedagogical situations, pupil behavior models and ways of corrective influence: the ability to realize set tasks, to choose efficient forms, methods and approaches while working with different categories of pupils, to plan the ways of personal pedagogical work improvement; the ability to set good-natured relationships, to have tolerance; the ability to make optimal decisions aimed at both personal and pupils' development; the ability to evaluate results of own work and control activities, psychological health, behavior; skills characterizing the ability to be active in different work connected with pedagogical work.
To the group of special pedagogical skills belong: the ability to analyze scientific theories including adjoining subjects in order to define prospective ways of evolutional processes in pedagogy to find efficient ways o solving traditional pedagogical tasks, to foresee new pedagogical tasks by analyzing modern tendencies of society development, to evaluate prospective possibilities of correcting with traditional influential methods and stating the necessity of looking for new ones; the ability to carry out own theoretical and practical experiments about importing and using new pedagogical technologies to solve up-to-date pedagogical tasks, to independently evaluate new approaches, methods and pedagogical technologies; the ability to make modern approaches, methods, educational and upbringing technologies based on well-known approaches; the ability connected with pedagogical modeling leading to new pedagogical technologies.
Specified by requirements for professional pedagogical work, general pedagogical and special skills according to their characters define self-development principle, as well as active position and independence in professional pedagogical work. The conclusions were made after using pragmatic approach within which principal regularities of educational activity management, connection between its character and possible results. In this context the author relies on scientific approaches to considering a human being from a point of view of its unique character, openness to constant self-development, self-fulfillment (M. Batkhin, N. Buber, A. Maslow, A. Pechchei, K. Rodgers, V. Solovyev, E. Toffler, M. Highdagger), ideasofself-educa- tionalworktheory (V. Andreev, D. Bogoyavlens'ka, T. Brazhe, K. Vazin, S. Vershlovsky, E. Zeer, V. Zinchenko, N. Kuz'mina, I. Lerner, V. Lyaudis, A. Markova, O. Matyshkin, S. Rubinstein, M. Skatkin, I. Kharlamov, V. Shadrikov, V. Shubinsky),strategies of creating a personal life trajectory (V. Zen'kovsky, M. Kagan, A. Makarenko, V. Sukhomlyns'ky).
Heritage of pragmatic approach shows that means of providing professional training should foresee a complex variety of tasks for independent learning work. Independent learning work is “one of educational forms when a student without teacher's help can master educational material both in class and at home: it stimulates such qualities as self-organization and self-control, cognitive development, creative approach to set tasks, independent search and remembering information that improves quality of education” [3, p. 12].
Making an integral system of professional training, organizing independent work is an important condition of self-development to the scope of expected results: the ability to plan one's work (to set tasks and ways of realization); the ability to unite one's resources and direct them on fulfilling the set tasks; the ability to control one's work (skills of self-control and correction). Independent work is a main tool of professional achievement and self-improvement; its importance has grown because of the necessity to provide professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies. It is necessary in the process of forming a theoretical and methodological knowledge and practical skills system to coherently use theoretical knowledge that can be applied in untypical pedagogical situations.
Moreover, the necessity of providing active and independent work in mastering profession is also confirmed by studying theoretical and methodological basis of educational process organization from the point of view of considering functioning regularities described in systematic approach and differ from traditional subject-pragmatic scientific theories, pragmatic and technological approaches.
From the point of view of mastering theoretical knowledge system, it's fact-based supposition that result efficiency depends on the level of studying independence. In each case scientific theory defines individual time that is connected with level of difficulty.
From the point of view of concretized context of professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies, knowledge of methodological approach is essential as they can be fruitful in explaining functioning of an integral pedagogical system. As a result, there is a basis for explanation scientific theories used as different types of innovations. New possibilities of analyzing and traditional explaining of incomprehensible reason-result connections in pedagogical system functioning appear owing to use of systematic approach, therefore knowledge of the methodological approach must be a result of independent learning.
Knowledge of theory and history of technological approach development reveals ideology of making and introducing modern pedagogical technologies enabling formation of ideas about potential possibilities of innovative pedagogical activity that can be concretized in actions about designing and introducing new pedagogical technologies. Integrated knowledge of technological approach theory and ability on analytical-synthetical level forms a basis for independent explanations of uprising, improving and updating of educational technologies in retrospective view as well as foreseeing prospective directions of developing educational technologies.
From the point of view of systematic approach, the efficiency of educational system functioning is also defined by independence in managing own education and foreseeing prospects of personal growth. The conclusions were made according to regularities of complex system self-organization that can provide a prolonged time correction of result quality. This satisfies the requirements of Interstate quality management system standard “Qualitymanagementsystems. Requirements ГОСТ ISO 9001:2011”  about achieving set results together with constant control, quality improvement based on real data and their accordance with planned results. An attuned system of independent work is to create a sufficient base for providing constant control of own methodological methods about designing and introducing pedagogical technologies. Forafutureteacher, the state of professional training for designing and using pedagogical technologies should be changed. The procedure of forming a methodological complex should include self-organization of control and correction, thus in the future according to systematic approach requirements, correction (update) of theoretical knowledge and methodological skills complex of repeating, updating or creating educational technologies.
During the research, the author defined specific peculiarities of organizing professional training for designing and using educational technologies which concretize their results: a complex of skills to analyze forefront pedagogical experience critically accessing components; to analyze normative documents regulating choice of methods of fulfilling an educational process; to analyze conditions of using well-known pedagogical technologies; search-analytical work to reconstruct educational technologies in order to customize for the national education system; the ability to specify scientific-methodological basis for introducing new pedagogical technologies in changed or new conditions comparing to the original prototype.
The listed general pedagogical and special knowledge that must be formed during independent work enabled the author to concretize means of future teacher professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies using systematic, pragmatic and technological approaches among modern pedagogical technologies; a complex of analytical-synthetical actions about generalization of pedagogical technologies introduction.
Conclusions. Defining the means of professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies is closely connected with regularities of systematic, pragmatic and technological approaches in organizing professional training. The object field of the listed methodological approaches is one of the means, while the rest define an independent character of student's education and detailed results. The author defines such results as: activity and independence; criticism in learning new information; search-modifying character; permanency of evaluation and correction actions concerning the state of an individual complex of knowledge and skills which in complex make the context of the notion professional training in designing and using pedagogical technologies.
1. Dychkivs'ka І.М. Innovative pedagogical technologies. Kyiv: Academvydav, 2004. - 352 p. (ukr)
2. Dubasenyuk О.А., Semenyuk TV, Antonova O.E. Professional training of afuture teacher for pedagogical work. Zhytomyr. 2003. 193 p. (ukr) // Internet access: http://eprints.zu.edu.ua/8387/1/Антонова%20Професійна% 20nmroTOBKa.pdf
3. Zhernikova O.A. Didactic conditions of stimulating in dependent work of medical college students. Kharkiv, 2009. 219 p.(ukr)
4. Lisina L.O. Theoretical and methodological basis of training teachers for contrasting educational technologies in postgraduate pedagogical education. Kyiv, 2012. 39 p.
5. Quality management systems. Requirements ГОСТ ISO 9001:2011 (ukr) // Internet accesshttp://www.testexpert.ru/uploadedfiles/File/GOST_ ISO_9001-2011_RUS.pdf.
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