Optimization of educational process in learning сlinical nursing in surgery under conditions of credit-module system
Reforming of higher education. The main task of the clinical departments, and the Departments of General Surgery, is the formation of students' clinical thinking, sufficient volume of theoretical knowledge and practical skills required for nurse.
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Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
OPTIMIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN LEARNING СLINICAL NURSING IN SURGERY UNDER CONDITIONS OF CREDIT-MODULE SYSTEM
Khomko Oleh Yosiphovich,
Sydorchuk Ruslan Igorevich,
Sydorchuk Larysa Petrovna,
Petriyk Bohdan Vasilievich
The article deals with the optimization of educational process in learning Сlinical nursing in surgery under conditions of credit-module system. Reforming of higher education in accordance with international requirements, in particular, with the principles of the Bologna Declaration, should always maintain particular aspects of the national education system. This problem is many-sided. The main task of the clinical departments, in particular the Department of General Surgery, is the formation of students' clinical thinking, sufficient volume of theoretical knowledge and practical skills required for modern nurse.
Key words: .
Keywords: Bologna declaration, clinical nursing in surgery, credit-module system
1Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, PhD in surgery, Associate professor, Department of general surgery
2Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, Professor of surgery, Department of general surgery
3Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, Professor of cardiology, Department of Family Medicine
4Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, PhD in surgery, Associate professor, Department of general surgery
Introduction. The process of global integration involves all the spheres of life including higher education as well [1, с. 28-37]. Ukraine has determined the direction to join the world scientific and educational space, and due to these circumstances it has to implement enhancement of the educational system in the scope of contemporary requirements. Moreover, it is stipulated by the Bologna Declaration [2, с.42-57], [3, с.118-122].
Educational system as well as culture is a unique phenomenon. It has deep roots in the material and spiritual areas of the past and present. Therefore, in every country organization and implementation of the educational system possesses its own features. Due to these facts, while carrying out the reforms in the sphere of higher education according to the Bologna Declaration requirements the peculiarities of the national educational system should always be considered [4, с.201-224]. At the same time, certain unification, standardization of the requirements, content and quality of education should be followed. The latter is required to solve the problem of diploma recognition and students' mobility with the aim to improve the quality and authority of the European higher school in the world educational space [5, с.54-62].
The problem of training of highly qualified specialists is always topical, especially in the period of great reforms in practical health service [6, с.30-38]. Improvement of a student's training with the aim to ensure his competitive ability at the labour-market is know to be a strategic objective of the credit-module system, its leading idea [7, с.63-68]. Such an approach to a new model of organization of the educational process requires from the instructor to master the system of up-to-date methodological and pedagogical skills which is especially important in teaching clinical subjects, and Сlinical nursing in surgery in particular.
Main part. A logical question arises: "How to arouse student's interest, increase his motivation, and concentrate his efforts on qualitative training?" Every instructor of a higher educational medical establishment faces this problem. A clinical department is not an exception. And a certain lack of knowledge on basic subjects is obviously seen practically at first sight. In this case the necessity to review the previous theoretical material on various disciplines becomes obvious. In addition, a new topic should be studied. It may be rather difficult for many students due to the volume of the material to be learnt and shortage of time, and sometimes due to individual moral-volitional qualities.
It should be considered that third-year students (general physicians, pediatricians) just begin to study clinical subjects. Learning Сlinical nursing in surgery means introduction to clinical manifestation of surgical diseases. An unstable foundation is universally known to exclude the construction of a solid superstructure. These are the circumstances to explain importance of fundamental learning Сlinical nursing in surgery by the students of nursing faculties.
The use of instructional material compiled within the known systems of distance learning (for example, MOODLE) makes the situation a little bit better but does not solve the problem completely. Comparatively easy and quick access to the systematized and illustrated teaching material due to modern technical possibilities makes the students grow lazy. Gradually the student is not interested to work creatively, loosing ability to analyze the suggested material. Some students become uninterested in do-it-yourself work having hopes to mechanical remembering of test answers or to solve the task by means of a pad or cell phone.
In our opinion, to solve this problem is possible under conditions of certain changes in the tactics of teaching and learning. The student should not retell the material blindfold but analyze and compare separate fragments of the material studied. The student should reconsider the information obtained and after that he should try to set up association relations between the blocks of information working on the solution of a clinical task. Naturally, not every student due to his individual characteristics of intelligence and volitional qualities is able to get an excellent mark. It should not be achieved. In case at the end of the practical class the student gets his "honest good", the instructor, as one of the subjects of teaching/learning process can consider his task completed.
Realization of the tasks assigned in front of the student, that is, to acquire theoretical knowledge and abilities, and practical skills is implemented only in case of close interrelation and cooperation between the teacher and student. Sometimes, the students are not absolutely motivated to the process of education. Considering this undisputable fact everybody understands an increasing role of an instructor as an organizer and catalyst of the educational process. Although, the following contradiction may occur. On the one hand, it is the necessity to keep to generally accepted methodological standards of teaching (accurate division of the lesson into the stages - primary, basic and concluding; the use of the standard testing methods - questioning, tests, discussion of case histories, solving clinical situational tasks etc.), and on the other hand, the necessity to encourage interest of the students to learning.
The instructor who is interested in the final outcome of educational process has the right to introduce some improvisation. For example, to apply various kinds of testing, ask the material not at the beginning of the lesson but during solution of tests and clinical tasks starting from simple questions gradually coming to more complicated ones. To master practical skills better such as applying bandages and transportation splints, the use of various methods to stop bleeding, detection of blood groups and rhesus factor, reduce dislocations, analysis of laboratory findings and instrumental methods of examination, the use of some elements of a role play.
Every practical class is advisable to be accompanied by the work with patients. A constant training is necessary to prevent possible difficulties during questioning and objective examination of patients. The student should not be afraid of the patient! Under these conditions the student learns to make diagnosis correctly, to choose the optimal therapeutic tactics and to rely upon a successful solution of the problem.
Therefore, on completion of learning Сlinical nursing in surgery the student should be able to: nurse student education surgery
- demonstrate mastering moral-deontological and legal principles of a medical professional as well as the principles of professional subordination;
- use the main regulations of aseptic, antiseptics, pain relieving;
- master the skill to organize regime and care of surgical patients;
- carry out essential medical manipulations stipulated by the educational program on Сlinical nursing in surgery;
- conduct enquiry and objective examination of patients, analyze their results and draw conclusions;
- analyze laboratory findings and instrumental methods of examination.
Conclusions. Considering the mentioned above and approaching the requirements of the present times, the main task of a clinical department, and the Department of Сlinical nursing in surgery in particular, is to form clinical thinking of the students, to ensure them with an adequate volume of theoretical knowledge and practical skills necessary for a contemporary nurse.
1. [1, с.28-37]. В затекстовой ссылке: Высшее образование Украины и Болонский процесс // За ред. В.Г. Кременя. Тернополь, 2004. 325с .[на укр. языке].
2. [2, с.42-57]. В затекстовой ссылке: Модернизация висшего образования висшего образования Украины и Болонский процес. "Образование Украины", №60-61, 10.08.2004. [на укр. языке].
3. [Пидаев А.В., с.118-122]. В затекстовой ссылке: Пидаев А.В., Передерий В.Г. Болонский процесс в Европе. К., 2004. 247 с.
4. [4, с.201-224]. В затекстовой ссылке: Медицинское образование в Украине. К., 2005, 383 с. [на укр. языке]
5. [Товажнянский Л.Л., с.54-62]. Товажнянский Л.Л., В затекстовой ссылке: Товажнянский Л.Л., Сокол Е.І., Клименко Б.В. Болонский процесс: циклы, степени, кредиты. Харьков. Харків, 2004. [на укр. языке].
6. [6, с.30-38]. Проектирование кредитно-модульной системы организации учебного процесса /Методические рекомендации для слушателей ФПК кафедры психологии и педагогики НМУ. К., 2005. [на укр. языке].
7. [7, с.63-68]. В затекстовой ссылке: Инструкция о системе оценивания учебной деятельности студентов при кредитно-модульной системе организации учебного процесса. К., НМУ, 2005. 97 с. [на укр. языке].
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