Teaching the English grammar to young learners

Motivating learners to learn, role of motivation in terms of educational psychology. Difference between teaching grammar to young learners and adults. How to make material easier and more interesting, how to use punishments and rewards with learners.

Рубрика Педагогика
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 11.05.2016
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Institute of Extended Educational and Pre-University Training

Faculty of the Humanities and Sciences






Y.M. Datsko

an associate professor

of the English department



Форма № Н-6.01

Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка

Інститут післядипломної освіти та доуніверситетської підготовки

Гуманітарно-природничий факультет


з методики викладання іноземної мови

на тему "Викладання граматики англійської мови молодшим слухачам"

Слухачки 3 курсу групи АВ-32

спеціальності "Aнглійська мова і

література" Вельми І.В.

Керівник доцент кафедри англійської

філології Дацько Ю.М.

(посада, вчене звання, науковий ступінь, прізвище та ініціали)

Національна шкала_______________

Члени комісії ______________ Кам'янець В.М

(підпис) (прізвище та ініціали)

______________ Дацько Ю.М.

(підпис) (прізвище та ініціали)

Львів - 2015 рік



1. Theoretical part

1.1 The definition of grammar

1.2 Motivating learners to learn

1.3 Role of motivation in terms of educational psychology

1.4 Factors influencing motivation

1.5 Young learners

1.6 Difference between teaching grammar to young learners and adults

2. Practical part

2.1 Lesson 1 - Present Simple Affirmative

2.2 Lesson 2 - Present Simple Affirmative

2.3 Lesson 3 - Present Simple Negative

3. Interesting facts




I think that the topic of my course work is very important nowadays. First of all because more and more parents start to understand how it is important for their kids to know English and to start to learn it from young age. It is not only interesting and exciting activities and excellent prospects for the children. But the successful admission and training at a language school, then at the University, to build a successful career and recreation without language borders also.

It is scientifically proven that the most favorable years for studying the language - is the period from birth to six years. Despite this a lot of teachers and parents think that it is better to start to learn English from 4 or 5 years. And for sure if we talk about English grammar I agree with the second viewpoint.

In my course work I consider how teacher can motivate learners to learn English grammar, how to make material easier and more interesting, how to use punishments and rewards with young learners to get good resalt from them.

I describe the main difference between teaching English grammar to young learners and adults or teenagers. This work also contains material about what activities teacher can use to explain grammar to kids and not to make them tired and boring.

1. Theoretical part

1.1 The definition of grammar

According to Longman Dictionary of contemporary English grammar is: "The rules by which words change their forms and are combined into sentences, or the study or use of these rules." [1]

For many teachers, grammar is the backbone of all language learning. "Structure", as it is often called, is perceived as the core thread of the language syllabus and, indeed, the majority of school curricula and the majority of course books are designed according togrammatical criteria. The question is, if it is important to study grammar, if we need to know grammaticalrules if we want to speak any language.

The answer for this question is "No, we do not haveto study grammar". People around the world speak their first language without studying grammatical rules. Small children begin to speak without being aware of grammar.[2]

But if people want to use foreign language, grammar is necessary in a way of learning the language more quickly and efficiently. If people know grammatical rules and structures,they are able to understand things themselves.

Grammar is essential language skill and it is important for learning foreign language.

According to Scrivener, grammar is not just adry list of facts and rules. It is in our heads and it is a living resource that gives us the abilityto communicate our ideas and feelings and to understand what other people say or write to us [17].

There are two different ways of teaching new grammatical structure. The grammar can be covert or overt. There is a fundamental difference between teaching grammar through these two ways.

Covert/inductive grammar - in direct grammar teaching, teacher does not provide grammar rules. There is a text where new grammatical structure is introduced.

Children read the text and find out the new structure. Children's attention is not focused on the structure, but on the text. Children work with the text, they practice new language and the focus does not have to be on the grammar. Children play with the words, sentences and they can take the new grammar in incidentally.

Overt/deductive grammar - explanation of the new grammatical rules and structures to children.

1.2 Motivating learners to learn

First of all I think we should motivate children to learn English. Parents do it in wrong way very often. Like for example they say about u will need English for good work, u will be able work abroad, be manager and have a lot of money. Yes its good reason for sure, but I think we must put more affordable and attractive goal for the child. For example, you can watch interesting cartoons in English, read the latest stories that will not soon be translated.

Or u can have a trip abroad. Teenagers can understand what singing popular singer, watch an interview with a favorite actor, translation of international competitions, find friends on correspondence from the US and Europe, and so on. We must find something really interesting for student at this moment. When you select a target guided by current interests of the child, not the distant prospects.[3]

"You were not born a winner, and you were not born a loser. You are what you make yourself be."

Lou Holtz

From a pedagogical point of view motivating learners in education is considered to be one of the most important fields. Pupilґs success in the educational process is not determined only by his innate abilities but also by other stimuli. The task of the teacher is to support and develop these impulses. Motivation is one of these stimuli. Motivation helps to develop pupils positively. Suitable motivational activities of teachers can raise and maintain pupilґs interest in learning, particular subject or other learning activities. [5]

The word "motivation" comes from the Latin word "moveers" which means "to move".

Motivation is the energizing force that directs and controls our behaviour towards the achievement of our goals. It refers to those factors, which increase the vigour of an individuals' activity. It energizes the person, prompts and compels him to act and behave in particular way so as to satisfy his needs. In education, motivation is arousal of interest in learning and is required for effective management of the learning process. In pedagogical activities motivation has an irreplaceable and indispensable role. Motivated child explores the world, asks the questions, disarrange what he can only to discover how it is.

1.3 Role of motivation in terms of educational psychology

I agree with some theories that teachers use motivation to lead pupils to the chosen target. If teacher motivates pupils inappropriately, their relation to school and also to particular subjects has a negative effect on their positive relation to learning. It often causes pupilsґ lack of interest in given subject. Pupils in the beginning of their education look forward to school.

Pupils who are getting ready for school are motivated by the vision of school, where they will learn how to write, read, count, paint, find out many interesting things in particular subjects. But it may happen that due to the inappropriate motivating activities of some teachers the opposite can occur, a pupil is afraid of school.

Some teachers state that in teaching terms it is very important to divide the primary and secondary motivation.

Primary motivation is based on the natural pupilsґ needs. All children are naturally inquiring and try to learn everything new. If we set pupil a task or if he tries to learn something new, we get to know that energy inherent in every human inspires effort to perform the tasks and discover them. Secondary motivation encourages a pupil up to achieve something. Motivational factor in this respect is a good mark or teacher praise. Punishment or prohibition can also be good secondary motivational factors.

Teachers can very well affect secondary motivation either positively or negatively. In the learning process, both primary and secondary motivation motives shade into each other. Primary motivation works in close conjunction with secondary motivation in view of the fact that pupils in learning process have to learn also what does not arouse their natural interest.

In these cases it depends on the teacher and motivational activities that he choose, the way that he choose to achieve the goals so that the curriculum is meaningful for children.

I also agree with the opinion that it is important for teacher to be aware of the real function of motivation.

If he teaches young children he has to use immediate motivation, can take advantage of an interesting game, use an interesting pictures, praise or change activity.

This kind of motivation enables teacher to achieve the goals better and increase childrenґs interest in learning.

Other types of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Motivation in the context of the classroom is measured by a studentґs drive to participate in the learning process.

Although students may be equally motivated to perform a task, the sources of their motivation may differ. Some students are intrinsically motivated do learn because they are driven to understand through reflection and enjoy participating in learning activities.

Others are extrinsically motivated by enticements, rewards or teacher-defined objectives.

1.4 Factors influencing motivation

The teachers' task is to increase the motivation of learners that they already bring into the learning process. Motivational factors, which should always be in the spotlight when teachers prepare their lessons.

The first factor of influencing motivation is that fantasy lessons should be variable and enjoyable and teachers should:

· give sufficient space for pupilsґ activities, that should be funny

· direct learning so that it is related to pupilsґ real life

· use personal dimension

· give pupils opportunities for expressing themselves and their creativity

· give pupils opportunities to become enthusiastic about the subject

· be mindful of having a good relationship with pupils.

The second factor of influencing motivation is an appreciation what means that:

· pupilsґ effort should be often appreciated in the form of marks, praises, encouragement etc

· success should be appreciated only when it is achieved.

The third factor of influencing motivation is the goals what means that teachers should:

· place demands on pupils so that they can achieve the goals

· set goals so that pupils do not lose the desire to reach the goals

· motivate pupils by unpleasant consequences if they do not learn

· assign individual targets and praise pupils when they accomplish them

· encourage pupils to take responsibility for their own learning

The fourth factor of influencing motivation is the success what means that:

· teachers should keep in mind that the level and pace of work have to be suitable for all pupils of different abilities

· each pupil should have such a work programme so that it corresponds with his abilities, current knowledge and experience.

And the last fifth factor of influencing motivation is the sense what means that:

· pupils should understand the personal benefits that learning brings

· pupils should be aware of the importance of learning for their success in life

Pupils' creativity, development of key competencies and motivation are in the educationa process positively affected by the factors mentioned above. [5]

1.5 Young learners

Children around the world begin to learn English at different ages. Different children have their differences, weaknesses, strengths, prefer different learning styles. So if we want to characterize the young learner, we have to focus on average child.

Scott and Ytreberg in their book Teaching English to children divide young learners into two groups, because there is a difference between what children of six can do and what children of eleven can do. Differences between these children are undouptedly large and the teacher has to be aware of the characteristics of particular age group of children, their needs and adapt to these aspects to his teaching style, methods and activities. Children under seven, specifically, the five to seven years old, belong to the first group. This group is also called "very young learners". The second group - young learners - are the eight to ten year olds or children between eight and twelve. [6]

As said before, pupils of different ages can do different things. There are some abilities that pupils can do at their own level.

Very young learners:

· learn through hearing real English, the same ways as they learn their native language;

· learn through actions, games, playing, they learn new words naturally;

· learn through sounds, playing with words and phrases, songs 22;

· like having fun and need not to be aware of learning a foreign language

· usually cannot read and write, so they need to learn new words through talk and games - are not able to understand grammatical rules, they need to hear lots of English, words and phrases so that their grammar will develop on its own.[6]

Children between seven and twelve:

· usually can read and write or are in process of learning it

· develop their ability to think - are becoming aware of the real worlds and the world of fantasy

· are able to plan and do the activity in the best way

· can work with others and learn from others

· are aware of the importance of reliability and responsibility for the whole class activities

· are able to make the most of reading books in English - can understand very simple explanation about how language works

· are able to experiment with language, working with language creatively

· can help teacher with organization of activities. [6]

Generally we can characterize all young children by these characteristics, they:

· are developing very quickly as individuals

· learn in variety of ways, by watching, listening, imitating, doing things

· are not able to understand grammatical rules and explanations about language

· try to make sense of situations by making use of non-verbal clues

· talk in their mother tongue about what they understand and do - this helps them learn

· can generally imitate the sounds they hear quite accurately and copy the way adults speak

· are naturally curious

· love to play and use their imagination

· are comfortable with routines and enjoy repetition

· have quite a short attention span and so need variety. [6]

Teachers of young learners tend to focus on vocabulary and pronunciation the most, and these are certainly important areas. However, it is important not to neglect grammar in the classroom. It is important that children develop all four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking), and grammar, along with vocabulary, will allow them to do this.

At the other end of the grammar spectrum, a huge population of communicative language teachers opposes the explicit teaching of grammar. They object to isolating grammar as a system within a system. In line with what Pinter assumes that teaching grammar in isolation can be a dry and boring activity. Grammar should be learnt intuitively through context and should be inferred through meaning and task.

However, it is important to keep in mind that children are often not able to think in abstract terms, and are still developing mental concepts. This means they may not be able to analyze language through a grammatical perspective. Try to avoid using metalanguage (e.g. passive verb, subject, object) and focus instead on what grammar can do to achieve communication. [2]

1.6 Difference between teaching grammar to young learners and adults

Despite the fact that grammar has the same for all basic concepts and rules howewer teaching grammar to young learners is different to teaching grammar to teenagers or adults. And materials we need to use at classes need to count this.

Motivating and interesting material

Indeed, there are many different teaching methods which people today purport which do not focus on solely teaching grammar. There are many different ways of making grammar a little more interesting. A variety of different games can be designed in order to help with this. The Internet is a brilliant resource when it comes to this, and is indeed a blessing to many teachers.

Make it into a game. Games and problem-solving activities have a purpose beyond the production of correct speech, and are examples of the most preferable communicative activities. They go on to explain that grammar games help children not only gain knowledge but be able to apply and use that learning. Additionally, games have the advantage of allowing the students to practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structures extensively [13].

They can do this through repeated exposure to the target grammar and because students are often more motivated to play games than they are to do deskwork.

Plus, during the game, the students are focused on the activity and end up absorbing the grammar subconsciously.

While games are motivating for the students, probably the best reason, to use games is that the use of such activities both increases the cooperation and competition in the classroom [14].

Indeed games can be used to add excitement through competition or to create bonding between the students, and between the students and teacher. Learning a language requires constant effort and that can be tiring, but there are two good reasons why games should be included in the classroom:

· Games that are amusing and challenging are highly motivating.

· Games allow meaningful use of the language in context.

Using songs. Since the meaning is an important device in teaching grammar, it is important to contextualize any grammar point. Songs are one of the most enchanting and culturally rich resources that can easily be used in language classrooms [15].

Songs offer a change from routine classroom activities. They are precious resources to develop students' abilities in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. They can also be used to teach a variety of language items such as sentence patterns, vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythm, adjectives, and adverbs.

There are many advantages of using songs in the classroom. Through using contemporary popular songs, especially which are already familiar to children, the teacher can meet the challenges of the children needs in the classroom.

The best songs would be those that are either familiar to the children or those, though maybe not familiar, which have an international nature. Since there is not a strict teaching procedure, the teacher can mainly concentrate on what to teach rather than on how to teach. In order to make the songs more meaningful and more enjoyable, motions can be added to the song which parallel the words of the song. Since most children enjoy singing fun and nonsensical lyrics, using easy children songs will be useful. Furthermore, choosing lively action songs through which they can dance or act while singing will ensure a lively atmosphere [16].


5-7 years old children are not able to store the material in a long period of time. That's why lesson should not take more than 30-35 minutes.

Also we should change activities. The children quickly get tired of the same type of activities. It's recommend changing the type of activity every 10-20 minutes. For example: the first 15 minutes, see a cartoon, then 10 minutes to discuss it, and then 15 minutes of reading a story, during the next 10 minutes, the child may try to retell what he read. [3]

There are some examples of activities for young leaners: listening stories, speaking (telling stories), reading, writing, whole class work, group work, pair work, dialogues, work with stikers and pictures, plaing games, doing exercises, puzzles, singing songs, listening, learning songs, painting, drawing, watching cartoons.

Psychologist say that after two weeks people tend to remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see, 70% of what they say and 90% of what they say and do. This means that doing something and being involved actively make us remember the most important things.

"Tell me and I'll forget. Show me and I'll remember. Involve me and I'll understand."


Clear meanings

It's very important for young leaners to explain rules clearly and simple. Don't use a lot of terms and difficult rules. Some teachers think that with young leaners we should not use terms at all.

I was looking for material for my cours work on internet, and I found a lot of different information and now I want to give an example with English articles. Articles in English are complicated, and there are many rules for their use. However, we can make it easier for young leaners to explane then only general rules about the use of the articles; the logic of these rules can be transferred to most uses of the article. [8]

For example we can explane this topic in this simple way:

The definite article "the" can be used before both singular and plural nouns.

We say example "the box", "the boxes" and show pictures with one box or many boxes and explane that it can be one or more boxes.

The indefinite articles "a" we use before a consonant sound, "an" before a vowel sound.

We say example and show picture with one box, also use finger to show that it is one box, "a box" or "an apple".

Even this information can be difficult for young leaners that's why we shoud use interesting colored pictures or toys.


Young learners have a limited amount of language that they disposal.

And this makes unalyzing of language difficult for them. Also vocabulary needs to be kept simple and familiar so they can focus on the grammar they are learning.

It is obvious that knowing the grammar rules perfectly but without 26 having a wide range of vocabulary it will be almost impossible to communicate. It is known and interesting at the same time that young learners who are not aware of grammar rules can communicate more effectively than their older students who control themselves all the time and therefore make more mistakes while speaking. [10]

Here are a few suggestions for introducing and practising:

· "semantic relations - word groups according to meanings, synonyms, hyponyms, opposites

· situational relations - word sets associated with particular situation", e.g. animals, food, clothes etc.

· vocabulary presented in a structural and purposeful way

· offers expanding vocabulary. [11]

Personal attention

Teacher must quickly learn names to show individual attention and to be able to get the attention of those who are misbehaving. We shouldn't wait for quick results from the children. Every child is different, and his way of remembering too. Some results, we can expect only after 6-10 months. Remember how children begen to speak in native language, the same thing happens with the English. The only difference - is that all around only speak not in English.

Never compare children with each other, it is better to compare him with him in the past. So the child will not feel silly or uncomfortable rather imbued with the conviction that he can do anything. [3]

Punishments and rewards

As a rule teachers use the same kinds of revards and punishments. For examplesuch rewards as:

· Games at recess;

· Sit with a friend;

· Homework pass;

· Good marks.

For kids we also can use stikers, penciles, candies or other sweets and small presents.We can draw smiling faces, stars or use stamps to show your appreciation. Put up posters on the walls with the students names to keep record of their good work. And for sure they might not be able to understand "very good", "great" or "excellent" but they will surely get "bravo", "super" or "perfect". Thumbs up, clapping hands and a huge smile on a teacher's face will definitely help the kids realize that they did a great job and made you pleased. [4]

And such punishments as:

· call home to parents;

· no recess;

· bad marks;

· more exersises for homework.

As for me I think that punishments for young leaners is not so good and we should use it only in extreme cases and use more rewards even for small victories, because success is just the sum of these small "wins". You will see that the children will be diligent and attentive, so nice to get the praise! [3]

"In the end, the only people who fail are those who don't try."

David Wiskont

2. Practical part

In order to move from the theoretical to practical part, the examples of the grammar exercises with the explanation will be provided. The listed lessons and tasks will be suitable for pupils in the fifth forms to whom the rules are already familiar.

2.1 Lesson 1 - Present Simple Affirmative

Exercise 2.1


At the beginning of the lesson the chapter "Present simple affirmative" should be entitled.

Pupils should be set for listening to the song and the following task should be given - listening and thinking about the song. After listening they have to say what they think the song is about. I played the song and almost all the hands raised. After a teacher replies a type a few times, she should ask pupils to find the verbs in the song and underline them. In such way it is easier to realize where the ending "-s" has to be applied.

The goal of the lesson is to make pupils familiar with a new grammar in a funny way. Songs are very motivating for children and teaching through them is a great way of becoming pupils familiar with a grammatical structure.

2.2 Lesson 2 - Present Simple Affirmative

Exercise 2.2


In this part pupils could practice what they have learnt before. Pupils liked this activity very much. There were sentences with two verbs and they had to decide for the right one. They were going to the board one by one "throwing" the incorrect verbs into the trash. They were laughing all the time. After cleaning the sentences up we checked the work by revealing the correct sentences. Pupils were delighted and applauded themselves. During this 53 activity I found out, that pupils have no more problems with choosing the correct verb, they became already familiar with this grammar.

2.3 Lesson 3 - Present Simple Negative

Exercise 2.3


This lesson was devoted to the use of a negative in present simple tense. At the beginning of the lesson, we repeated the rule of formation of negative sentences. That was something what pupils already known. Pupils chose their representatives at the board who completed the sentences with the correct verb form and not. All the pupils checked the accuracy together in the form of debate. When I made sure that pupils are familiar with that, we could go on the next activity. motivate learner psychology educational

3. Interesting facts

When I was looking for material for my coursework, I always was stumbled on different varieties of interesting information about children. I mean for example some facts about how kids learn different languages and what ability they have. I found that some of them are really interesting and decided to include this in a new chapter of my work.

· The first interesting fact is that kids can tell apart languages from the birth. At the University of British Columbia during the experiment they found that till 9 months babies can distinguish the languages only by visual features. It means that they can "read" lips.

In the study, 179 infants were tested from English families at the age of 4, 6, 8 and 12 months.

Special devices were fixed views of the child while listening to a speech in their native language and in a foreign (in this case, Spanish).

Children between the ages of 8 months to 1 year read lips, when hear their own language and a foreign. Children aged 4-6 months when hear native language, looked into the eyes of the speaker, when hear Spanish, they immediately switched to his mouth.

· The second fact: since about two and a half to three and a half years in the child's speech comes an interesting stage, which experts call the earliest grammatical period. When kids start to understand that there are some links words in the sentences.

In this period prepositions, adverbs, numerals appier in the language of the children. Total children's vocabulary at this time reaches 600-900 words, and they say about 170 words per hour.

· Another example is about the articles by Charles Young (University of Pennsylvania, USA). In English, there are often a combination of the noun with the definite article "the", and the indefinite article "a". The children use both but they never use both together. It is not about copying "adult" words a child unconsciously understands that both the articles can not be placed near one noun. [12]



After examining material of my course work I can make some conclusions. First of all I agree with some teachers who think there is no place for explicit grammar instruction for very young learners, if only because they are not ready for it not in their first language and certainly not in their second one. It means they can learn second language like they did it with their native one. They don't need all those rules and definitions for examples.

There is one important thing that teachers should be aware. All the things that teachers do in their lessons using the language is grammar teaching. If teachers use English in their lessons as much as possible, they give children language examples. Children can benefit from what teacher says in lesson, they can notice and learn new language including grammar only by the way.

But however, that for older young learners (6-13 years old) there is a place for a focus on grammar: not the grammar of abstract rules, but fun grammar which works through examples, games, songs and activities that let learners subconsciously learn the grammar through an age-appropriate critical and creative analysis of language. So far, the usage of songs and games are clarified. The advantages and some key points are explained.

It is now more apparent that the teaching of grammar to young learners can be supported effectively by using such resources. According to the characteristics and the needs of the students, and the analysis of a classroom, several techniques can be integrated with such resources. And since teaching is a developing art, which requires innovative and creative ideas to enrich its effectiveness, we must not hesitate to use every kind of teaching resources that we think appropriate to assist our teaching of grammar to young learners.


1. Longman Dictionary of contemporary English, 2001, p. 619

2. Pinter, Teaching young language learners. Oxford University Press, 2006

3. http://englex.ru/english-for-kids-how-to-motivate-your-child/

4. https://www.englishclub.com/tefl-articles/young-learners-management.htm

5. Hanus, R., Chytilova, L., 2009

6. Slattery, M., Willis, J., 2006

7. https://www.academia.edu/7694429/TEACHING_GRAMMAR_TO_YOUNG_LEARNERS_A_Chapter_Report

8. http://shkolazhizni.ru/archive/0/n-10087/

9. Joan Kang Shin University of Maryland, Baltimore County

10. Cunningsworth, Alan. Choosing Your Coursebook. New York: Macmillan Heinemann ELT, 1995

11. https://is.muni.cz/th/105084/pedf_m/interactive_whiteboard_in_teaching_english_to_young_learners.pdf

12. http://www.pravda.ru/science/planet/humanbeing/13-04-2013/1151983-children-0/#sthash.9vYxSaHS.dpuf

13. Linvolucri & Davis, 1992

14. Celce-Murcia, M., & Hilles, S. Techniques and resources in teaching grammar, - Oxford, 1988

15. Murphy, 1992

16. Halliwell, 1992

17. Scrivener, 2003

18. Wright, A., Betteridge, D., & Buckby, M. Games for language learning. - Cambridge, 1984

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