A brief history and structure of the Oxford University. Description of the architectural complex of its constituent buildings and infrastructure of the town. Principles of formation of its academic policy. The level of development of their science.
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Ministry of Education and Sport of Republic of Kazakhstan
Semipalatinsk State University name of Shakarim
Essay on the Theme:
Fulfilled by: Cabdollaeva U.
Oxford is renowned the world over, as the home of one of the oldest and most highly revered Universities in Europe. The city lies at the confluence of the Rivers Cherwell and Thames, or "Isis", as it is locally known, giving the opportunity for boating, punting and many pleasant riverside walks. Oxford is a compact city; its main streets radiate from Carfax Tower in the centre, with most of the colleges and University buildings all within easy walking distance. It was Mathew Arnold whose description lingers in the mind, and best sums up Oxford. "And that sweet City with her dreaming spires, she needs not June for beauty's heightening". Just outside the City on Boar's Hill is the best place to see an overall view of the "dreaming spires", a hauntingly beautiful and unforgettable sight.
The University Church of St. Mary the Virgin - First mentioned in the Domesday Book, one of the best views of Oxford is from the magnificent tower, which was built in the 13th century, the nave dates from the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Ashmolean Museum - Britain's oldest public museum, housing the University's collections of paintings, glass, silver, ceramics and artefacts from the ancient world.
Other Museums in Oxford - Museum of Modern Art, Museum of Oxford, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, the Bate Collection and the Pitt Rivers Museum.
The Radcliffe Camera (closed to the public) a rotunda, whose dome is a landmark in Oxford's centre, was designed by James Gibb (1737-49). Inspired by the Tower of the Winds in Athens, it is regarded as one of Europe's most beautiful buildings. It originally housed the Radcliffe Library, today the 16 sided room on the ground floor is a reading room for the Bodleian Library.
The Bodleian Library - 15th century Divinity School, 17th century Old Schools Quadrangle and Exhibition Room.
Carfax Tower - 16th century church tower and viewpoint.
Curioxity - Hands on science exhibits for all ages.
The Oxford Story - Ride through exhibition interpreting the fascinating 800 year history of Oxford University.
Sheldonian Theatre - The ceremonial hall of the University designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
University of Oxford Botanic Gardens - Opposite Magdalen College in Rose Lane is the oldest Botanic Gardens in Britain. Laid out in 1621 on the instructions of Henry, Earl of Danby, as a Physic Garden. Entrance is through the beautiful Italianate Gateway designed by Nicholas Stone, beautiful flowerbeds, trees and greenhouses filled with rare plants, collected over the centuries from around the world. The gardens are in a beautiful and peaceful setting, bounded on one side by the curve of the River Cherwell.
Nearby at Magdalen Bridge punts are available for hire on the Cherwell and the Thames, other boat houses are located at Bardwell Road and Folly Bridge, St. Aldates.
The famous Christ Church Meadow, painted by J.M.W. Turner, still exists and provides rural walkways in the heart of the city.
Today's Oxford, offers interesting shopping facilities, from the well-known high street names, modern shopping centres and malls to the interesting Victorian covered market in the High Street. From the University's shop, to many small specialists, offering old maps and prints, books, jewellery and local souvenirs you will find shopping interesting in Oxford.
When it comes to eating out, you will have no trouble finding just the right place. Oxford is well experienced in catering for customers from around the world, of all ages and all tastes. There is a wide choice from Coffee Houses through to gourmet Restaurants.
Entertainment in Oxford is as interesting as you would expect in this university city. The Apollo Theatre is the largest theatre, where visiting international touring companies present a mix of musicals, shows and rock and pop concerts. At Oxford Playhouse, leading international, national and local theatre companies make up a varied programme of high quality drama, dance, music and opera presented in this newly refurbished Georgian Theatre. There are other smaller theatres where you can see Drama and Comedy from the University's leading players. Classical music concerts are held in the Sheldonian Theatre, Christ Church Cathedral and other famous Oxford settings.
There exists an amiable dispute, about which college in Oxford is the oldest, and may be determined thus. - University College had the first benefactor and indirectly, founder and the first property. Balliol College first occupied a site it has never left. Merton College had the first statutes establishing a collegiate institution.
Map of Oxford dated 1644 The University Church in 1726
Oxford is a unique and historic institution. As the oldest English-speaking university in the world, it lays claim to eight centuries of continuous existence. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
In 1188, the historian, Gerald of Wales, gave a public reading to the assembled Oxford dons and in 1190 the arrival of Emo of Friesland, the first known overseas student, initiated the University's tradition of international scholarship. By 1201, the University was headed by a magister scolarum Oxonie, on whom the title of Chancellor was conferred in 1214, and in 1231 the masters were recognized as a universitas or corporation.
In the 13th century, rioting between town and gown (students and townspeople) hastened the establishment of primitive halls of residence. These were succeeded by the first of Oxford's colleges, which began as medieval 'halls of residence' or endowed houses under the supervision of a Master. University, Balliol and Merton Colleges, established between 1249 and 1264, were the oldest.
Less than a century later, Oxford had achieved eminence above every other seat of learning, and won the praises of popes, kings and sages by virtue of its antiquity, curriculum, doctrine and privileges. In 1355, Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning; he also commented on the services rendered to the state by distinguished Oxford graduates.
Oxford early on became a centre for lively controversy, with scholars involved in religious and political disputes. John Wyclif, a 14th-century Master of Balliol, campaigned for a bible in the vernacular, against the wishes of the papacy. In 1530, Henry VIII forced the University to accept his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. During the Reformation in the 16th century, the Anglican churchmen Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley were tried for heresy and burnt at the stake in Oxford. The University was Royalist in the Civil War, and Charles I held a counter-Parliament in Convocation House.
In the late 17th century, the Oxford philosopher John Locke, suspected of treason, was forced to flee the country. The 18th century, when Oxford was said to have forsaken port for politics, was also an era of scientific discovery and religious revival. Edmund Halley, Professor of Geometry, predicted the return of the comet that bears his name; John and Charles Wesley's prayer meetings laid the foundations of the Methodist Society.
The University assumed a leading role in the Victorian era, especially in religious controversy. From 1811 onwards The Oxford Movement sought to revitalise the Catholic aspects of the Anglican Church. One of its leaders, John Henry Newman, became a Roman Catholic in 1845 and was later made a Cardinal. In 1860 the new University Museum was the site of a famous debate between Thomas Huxley, the champion of evolution, and Bishop Wilberforce.
From 1878, academic halls were established for women, who became members of the University in 1920. Since 1974, all but one of Oxford's 39 colleges have changed their statutes to admit both men and women. St Hilda's remains the only women's college.
In the years since the war, Oxford has added to its humanistic core a major new research capacity in the natural and applied sciences, including medicine. In so doing, it has enhanced and strengthened its traditional role as a focus for learning and a forum for intellectual debate.
Oxford is an independent and self-governing institution, consisting of the central University and the Colleges.
The Vice-Chancellor, who holds office for seven years, is effectively the 'Chief Executive' of the University. Three Pro-Vice-Chancellors have specific, functional responsibility for Academic Matters, Academic Services and University Collections, and Planning and Resource Allocation. The Chancellor, who is usually an eminent public figure elected for life, serves as the titular head of the University, presiding over all major ceremonies.
oxford university academic science
The principal policy-making body is the Council of the University, which has 26 members, including those elected by Congregation, representatives of the Colleges and two members from outside the University. Council is responsible for the academic policy and strategic direction of the University, and operates through four major committees: Educational Policy and Standards, General Purposes, Personnel, and Planning and Resource Allocation.
Final responsibility for legislative matters rests with Congregation, which comprises over 3600 members of the academic, senior research, library, museum and administrative staff.
Day-to-day decision-making in matters such as finance and planning is devolved to the University's five Academic Divisions - Humanities, Life and Environmental Sciences, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Medical Sciences and Social Sciences. Each division has a full-time divisional head and an elected divisional board. Continuing Education is the responsibility of a separate board.
The Colleges, though independent and self-governing, form a core element of the University, to which they are related in a federal system, not unlike the United States. In time, each college is granted a charter approved by the Privy Council, under which it is governed by a Head of House and a Governing Body comprising of a number of Fellows, most of whom also hold University posts. There are also six Permanent Private Halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations, and which still retain their religious character. Thirty colleges and all six halls admit students for both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Seven other colleges are for graduates only; one, All Souls, has fellows only, and one, Kellogg College, specialises in part-time graduate and continuing education.
Oxford's current academic community includes 78 Fellows of the Royal Society and 112 Fellows of the British Academy. A further 100 Emeritus and Honorary College Fellows are Fellows of the Royal Society and 145 Emeritus and Honorary College Fellows are also Fellows of the British Academy.
The University of Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class research departments (rated 5* or 5 in the RAE 2001) than any other UK university.
Amongst our academic community are:
The President of the Royal Society
The Chief Scientist at the Ministry of Defence
The Chairman of the Food Standards Agency
The Chief Executives of the Economic and Social Research Council and the Medical Research Council
A member of the Bank of England's Monetary Committee
The Director General of the Office of Fair Trading
The Vice-Chairman of the Thames Valley Police Authority
The Director of the Royal Institution
The Chairman of the British Association for the Advancement of Science
The Chairman of the National Radiological Protection Board
The President of the Royal College of Surgeons
The Deputy Chair of the British Council
In 2002, Oxford University claimed first place in the annual Times Good University Guide, which ranks universities according to the quality of teaching and research, as well as indicators including staffing levels, facilities spending and graduate destinations.
In the Financial Times 2002 MBA ranking, the Saпd Business School's one-year MBA course received the highest rating for value for money of all the international schools surveyed.
In 2002, Oxford University topped the annual league table of teacher training providers for the fifth successive year.
Oxford University was named the UK's most innovative University in the Launchit2001 competition, in recognition of the greatest achievements in innovation and enterprise across the broadest range of activity.
In the academic year 2000-2001, Oxford's overall research income from external sponsors rose by 10 per cent for the second successive year, reaching Ј142.4 million.
In the most recent national Teaching Quality Assessment exercises for 2000, Oxford was awarded top marks in six out of ten subjects assessed.
Oxford, Stanford and Yale Universities have recently become partners in a joint 'distance learning' venture, the Alliance for Lifelong Learning, which will provide on-line courses in the arts and sciences initially to their combined 500,000 alumni.
The University of Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class research departments (rated 5* or 5 in the RAE 2001) than any other UK university.
Oxford has recently received its fourth Queen's Anniversary Prize, in recognition of the Refugee Studies Centre's contribution to the study of forced migration and refugees.
Isis Innovation, the University's technology transfer company, files on average one new patent application a week and spins out a new company from University research every two months.
Oxford has spun out more companies than any other UK university. Our spin-out companies are collectively worth around Ј2 billion, and have helped produce some 30 multi-millionaires.
Oxford is the UK pioneer in developing a university intellectual property policy.
As one of the leading international universities, Oxford attracts scholars from all over the world to join its teaching and research staff and collaborates with institutions in around 80 countries. This includes good relationships with the Far East (including China), India, South Africa, the USA and Latin America. Over 130 nationalities are represented among our student body and almost a quarter of our students are from overseas.
The University has a small number of formal academic and research collaborative agreements with international universities (currently with Jagiellonian University, Krakow; Kyoto University; Leiden University; Tokyo University; Seoul National University; National Taiwan University; Australian National University and Peking University). In addition, Oxford and Princeton University recently announced a major collaboration to create new research partnerships, increase staff and student exchanges, and provide opportunities to share resources for cutting-edge academic ventures.
Oxford also has links with many European universities through SOCRATES (ERASMUS) exchange programmes; membership of the Coimbra Group of European universities; membership of the Europaeum, a group of leading universities promoting staff and student exchange, joint research, and conferences and summer schools in European Studies.
A range of scholarships offer support for international students, including specific schemes for Western Europe, Central/Eastern Europe, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Pakistan, the countries of the Arab League, and developing countries.
Each year, almost 200 students are supported by University scholarships funded fully or in part by outside donors and a further 100 receive bursaries funded by the University to assist with their costs.
The Clarendon Fund Bursaries, a major scheme supported by Oxford University Press, makes approximately 70 awards annually for overseas graduate students.
Additionally, the Rhodes Scholarships scheme enables students from nearly 20 countries to come to study in Oxford, with around 90 students taking up their places each October.
Malaysian students outside St Antony's College
The University of Oxford's total student population numbers just over 16,500 (students in residence, 2000-2001).
Almost a quarter of these students are from overseas.
More than 130 nationalities are represented among our student body.
Almost 5,000 students are engaged in postgraduate work. Of these, around 3,000 are working in the arts and humanities.
Every year more than 16,500 people take part in courses offered by the University's Department for Continuing Education.
Latest figures show that only 5.5 per cent of Oxford graduates were unemployed six months after graduation, compared with the national sector average of over 6 per cent.
Oxford has a higher number of first degree graduates (36%) entering further training than the national average (20%).
Our students and staff are currently involved in over 55 initiatives, including visits to more than 3,700 schools and colleges, to encourage the brightest and best students to apply to Oxford, whatever their background.
Throughout its history, Oxford has produced gifted men and women in every sphere of human endeavour who have studied or taught at the University. Among these are 5 kings, 40 Nobel prize-winners, 25 British Prime Ministers, 9 current holders of the Order of Merit, plus 3 Saints, 85 Archbishops and 18 Cardinals.
A few of these famous Oxonians, past and present, are listed here; the date shows the start, or a known date, of their time at Oxford.
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