Competitive advantages of taxi companies

Theoretical foundations of starting a business startup. The required resources and stages of own creation startup. Analysis of macro and micro environment of taxi companies on the Russian and international market. Comparison analysis of aggregators.

Рубрика Маркетинг, реклама и торговля
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Язык английский
Дата добавления 01.07.2017
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The opportunity to evaluate the drive increase the clients' confidence to the company, and being satisfied with the quality of the services provided, he will advise this application to his comrades. Businesses can also use additional systems to encourage regular customers who will also be attractive, and this will increase the number of users.

Strength + Threats: Despite the high share of the taxi market, the emergence of new competitors can affect the position of companies, the decline in demand due to more attractive prices or new technologies. Also, regular training and professional development of drivers will help in future to avoid conflicts with customers, and hence negative feedback, which also affects demand. Aggregators are also subject to any government regulations that can significantly influence the work of the company, but to which one must be prepared and be able to prevent any consequences.

Weakness + Threats: The aggregators have difficulties with drivers, which are often the cause of negative customer feedback, as well as a lack of knowledge of all the special market. When new competitors appear that initially eliminate these problems, aggregators can lose most of their customers. Moreover, there is a threat of fraud, as the idea of ??aggregators is well known, and it is easy to copy. New competitors can lead to lower prices, and hence to lower revenues for the company, which may not be ready for this. In addition, state regulations about transport and transport companies can be ambiguously applicable to start-ups, as to business. In any case, aggregators must act by the laws of the country. Otherwise there may be conflicts that lead to fines and prohibitions on the part of the government. Such situations can adversely affect the reputation of the company and cause distrust among passengers.

Weakness + Opportunities: Seeing that the income of drivers depends on the number of orders received, application development and user growth can solve this problem. Also, the introduction of additional services and opportunities, such as communication with the operator, advanced training of drivers, contribute to solving problems related to communications, which have a significant influence on the degree of customer satisfaction. Usually drivers choose routes relative to not the time of the trip, but the cost of the trip, which is beneficial only to taxi drivers, while the management of companies is aimed at the customer first.

Thus, aggregators need to improve their services, creating new services that will significantly distinguish the company from others. Since the service is directly connected with customers, it is necessary to improve the system of selecting drivers to reduce the number of conflict situations associated with miscommunications or lack of contact at all. Moreover, yet, it is essential for any passenger that his problem can be solved not only with the help of an application, but also a telephone conversation, for this it is necessary to develop an operator service that will solve most problems of customers.

3.7 Main trends on the market

Every day more and more residents prefer to use taxis in everyday life and resort to mobile applications and Internet resources. Such services are gradually replacing the usual taxi companies, in which the order is made through dispatching services. There is a growing quantity of countries which are using taxi aggregators, for which their legislation is also provided. Since the government is interested in expanding the market and facilitating business in this area, various countries are adopting their reforms. For example, in Moscow, the government allowed travel on designated lanes, not only public transport but also taxis. Thus, the passenger will not spend time and money, being in a traffic jam, but with ease will get to the end point. Also, a small number of parking spaces for taxis with the ability to bring one customer, and pick up another one, are made of the parking lots.

Although in Russia and many other countries there is an economic crisis, and with it a decline in people's incomes, the taxi market continues to expand. The number of residents who refuse to own a vehicle for a taxi is increasing. Considering all the present opportunities for the development of startups in this market, the business of investing in such companies is considered quite promising. Before comparing companies on the services and services offered, it should be found out how these aggregators originally appeared, how they developed because initially, they were just ideas that turned into start-ups, and then into big company taxis.

3.8 The history of creation startup “Uber.”

The history of startup Uber started in 2008 in Paris, when two entrepreneurs Garret Kamp and Travis Kalanick could not pick up the taxi to get to the place. www.rbcplus.ru/news/590161b27a8aa957e3e0767f They faced a situation where a tourist cannot get from one point of the city to another. Very often the dispatcher line is busy, and it is difficult to make a call. When you need to specify the address and location, very often there are misunderstandings in the name of the street, the brand and the number of the car. If the taxi driver does not know English or if it is not local, communication difficulties occur, which only complicate the whole trip. When ordering a taxi through the dispatchers there is also a risk not to hear or understand the cost of the trip, or it may not be voiced at all. In this case, an awkward payment situation arises - it is not known how much average taxi costs in this city, whether it is customary to tip, and whether the driver will not deceive passanger to get more money for a short distance. All these factors have led to the idea of ??creating a service that allows you to easily get anywhere from one point to another, avoiding the above problems. Murtaza Haider, Ph.D. (September 28,2015) To Uber or not to Uber: that is a question, 23 p. After that, they were discussing the idea of joint business while waiting for taxi. Kalanick after few failed projects was looking for new business also as Kamp, who had just sold his startup StumbleUpon to eBay. All expenditures such as driver costs, cars, parking, and garage were on both business partners. By March of 2009 Kamp has developed the prototype of UberCab.

After redeemed startup StumbleUpon, Garret Kamp heads his company and spent the most time on control. That is the reason why he appointed Travis as director of incubator UberCab to observe the course of opening the company in San Francisco. In 2010 young entrepreneurs decided to test the service in New York and lastly, they realized their service. Uber began as a startup, due by raising finance from “business angel,” and in autumn entrepreneurs closed “angel” investment 1,25$million from First Round Capital. First company had difficulties with Metro Transit Authority and Public Utilities Commission - order to stop illegal actions without a license. After that, the company released an application for Android.

3.8.1 Expanding the activities and increasing rates

In 2011 Uber closed their investments at 11$million in the round from Benchmark Capital at a minimum company valuation of $ 49 million. In the same year they started their functioning in overcrowded New York and in succeeding half year, they opened Uber in Seattle, Boston, Chicago, and Washington at the same time developing an international program in Paris. On the conference, Leweb Kalanic announced, that Uber had engaged 37$ million from Menlo Ventures, Jeff Besos from Amazon and Goldman Sachs in round B Rogers B. The social costs of Uber //U. Chi. L. Rev. Dialogue. - 2015. - Т. 82. - С. 85.. Unfortunately, during the New Year's week Uber had to rise rate of costs, and as a result, their consumers were displeased with this news. That was the first time when company raises tariffs to earn more money at the season time.

In 2012 company elaborated the same service but economy - UberX - using hybrid autos. www.uber.com/en-TT/our-story/ They also started with marketing stock delivering ice cream on the van by request to declare the audience about the new features applications. During the career, Kalanic had various threats and violations due to lack of license or emerging competitors, such as Lyft. At this point of the collision with the competitor, Uber was estimated at $ 3.7 billion, so it was not so difficult to eliminate any difficulties.

In September 2013 in California Ridesharing services begin their activity for cheaper tariffs for drivers to purchase a car. For more safety of its drivers, the company also issued personal drivers' insurance, which allows protecting its employees in the event of accidents or any incidents. Since Uber is an American company, first of all, it is based in the US, after in Europe and Russia. Not so long ago, the CEO announced the expansion of the territory of Uber in India. This taxi aggregator is constantly improving, developing new services related to the transportation of people - the study of drones, or UberPool, allowing you to select fellow travelers, thereby reducing the cost of travel per person.

3.9 The history of creation startup “Gett Taxi.”

The founder of the Gett company is the Israeli businessman Shahar Weisser. The motive for creating an application for taxi order was the desire to make a taxi as convenient and accessible to everyone as a private car so that people would like to use such a service. In the process of creating for Shahar, the chain of participants was important: drivers, passengers, and the city. He wanted everyone to benefit and stay in profit. The driver spends less time on the road from one client to another, thereby driving more passengers and earning more. Passengers spend a little time waiting for a taxi, and for him, such a service does not become something unattainable, and the city becomes freer from traffic jams. www.the-village.ru/village/business/interview/153633-gettaxi First, the start-up was developed in Israel and London, later it embraced Moscow and other cities of Russia, and in the plans to work in New York.

The key idea of Shahar is to create such a service that not only allows the convenient and convenient use of a taxi but which, oddly enough, will gradually supplant personal transport. After all, in Europe and the United States is very well developed public transportation and the subway, so the taxi rides wealthy people for whom their time is valuable. It is this principle that Shahar builds his business: the client needs a machine, he orders it, after 3 minutes he sits down, travels a short distance, pays money and goes about his business. The client does not need to think about anything that saves his time. He also notes that his service is distinguished by the improvement of the taxi work itself - to minimize waiting time, to minimize the "idle" traffic of cars by combining taxis. McKinsey business diving,-case Gett, 2016

The entrepreneur by the time he entered the Russian market, had already a success in Israel and London, knew what factors must be paid special attention. So, in Moscow Shahar faced the problem of selecting professional drivers for whom he created courses and training. During these courses, taxi driver was learning the basic rules of corporate ethics. Also, they had to answer questions about the knowledge of the city, the Russian language and "service's questions," which consisted in solving conflict situations from real practice.

As it is known, for the promotion of any start-up, a strong marketing campaign is necessary, thanks to which the audience of potential consumers is expanding. Surprisingly, the Israeli entrepreneur is of the opinion that for his service advertising is not needed, since customers themselves tell each other about this application, make posts in social networks and share impressions on their pages. This method helped Shahar advance in the New York market when Gett taxi only appeared - the mayor of Tel Aviv, who arrived in New York, preferred to meet with reporters at the company's office, thus contributing to the development of the service.

In Moscow, every Gett taxi driver gets about 33 orders on average, but it is almost impossible to accomplish this amount, even if the driver works only with this service. According to Shahar's forecasts, if the taxi driver will work full-time and make about 12-15 orders, his monthly salary will be 120,000. www.the-village.ru/village/business/interview/153633-gettaxi Moreover, the company thinks out various additional services for the clients such, as payment by a card, an accrual of points for trips, chargers, and Wi-Fi in cars. Not so long ago, a service was created that allows to make a business account, that is, a consumer who has his small company can go by taxi, and then at the end of the month to pay by credit card the amount that he got as a result.

Thus, for the Gett company to consolidate in the Russian market, it is necessary to improve its service both from the side of the driver and from the passenger side. Furthermore, to enter other markets, aggregator should take into consideration the legislative peculiarities of each country, and start from the capital markets, where the demand for a taxi is the highest.

3.10 The history of creation startup “Yandex Taxi”

Certainly, any project should have an idea, the reason why an entrepreneur wanted to start his startup. The founder of this startup was Lev Volozh, who also faced the problem of impossibility to call a taxi with the appropriate price and quality quickly. So, in 2011 the company "Yandex" launched the service "Yandex.Taxi", allowing you to quickly travel from one point of the city to another in a comfortable car with an official taxi driver. From the name, it is well seen, that this aggregator of Russian origin, and works only in large cities of Russia, recently in Armenia. However, despite the interest in the service on the part of drivers, the passengers remained unhappy with taxi drivers who did not know the road well, are delayed, and the cars themselves are untidy inside. In addition, at the same time, the Israeli competitor Gett Taxi appears on the market, which is much higher regarding the quality of the services provided.

Unlike its competitors, Yandex rents cars in taxis. The company concludes contracts with those parks that have at least 100 machines in their arsenal, gradually improving the conditions for them - a commission for cooperation was not charged, and the number of clients increased. For the aggregator it was important to cover as many taxis as possible to implement the service system of the service - next to each potential customer, there should be a machine. So, for the first year, Yandex attracted 10,000 drivers.

"Yandex.Taxi" was not interested in what was happening in taxis, he was rather an intermediary in this chain between a passenger and a taxi. However, with the advent of Gett taxi, which takes care of its customers and increases the qualifications of drivers, Yandex has become more likely to receive negative feedback from passengers. First, the aggregator only asked the owners of taxis to improve the selection of drivers, and then decided on the innovations that affected the success of the company. First, Yandex set a single tariff for all taxis, now half an hour trip cost 400 rubles and the customer could immediately see the price when placing an order, while in Gett 20 minutes of the trip there are 299 Rubles. Soon the price for the trip fell to 199 rubles for the first 10 minutes. Also, Yandex introduced a driver rating system that affects the receipt of the next order. When a customer orders a taxi, the request is sent first to those who are closest to everyone and who have higher ratings, if after 30 seconds no one has accepted the order, then it goes to those with a lower rating. Typically, 60% of orders are taken in the first 30 seconds.

With the development of the service and the growth of competition, Yandex constantly raised the requirements for drivers and owners of taxi park- exams, tests, "secret passenger" were conducted. Taxi drivers with low ratings received the minimum number of orders and, accordingly, the minimum payment that did not suit them. Nevertheless, Yandex does not have any problems with the number of drivers working in the company. Nowadays Yandex continues to improve its technologies and expand its borders, over the past year the aggregator has carried out 16.2 million trips, which is 460% more than last year. This result was due to the continuous improvement of the quality of service, lower prices, as well as entry into the market of CIS countries. Yandex Taxi continues to conduct an aggressive advertising campaign and attract new customers, thereby increasing its indicators.

3.11 Comparison analysis of aggregators - Gett, Yandex, Uber

On the following spreadsheet from [appendix 1], there is a comparison of the price category for three companies, Gett, Yandex, and Uber, taking into account those prices and additional services, which they are regulated. Also, there are various key characteristics, which have all three companies. As the author mentioned before, Uber has been created two years earlier than Yandex and Gett, which didn't affect the success of these two aggregates. Nevertheless, Uber works in much more cities all over the world, while Yandex in only on Russian and recently in Armenia. This rapidly developing in new cities, thereby increasing Uber's market share. Also, the popularity of service among consumers is growing, especially among those who are accustomed to using the application to order a taxi while traveling.

One of the significant advantages of Gett and Yandex is the opportunity to order a car not only through the application but also via a phone call, which is useful for those people who do not use the mobile service and are accustomed to ordering a taxi as before. Nevertheless, unfortunately, dialing up to company operators is very difficult and can take much longer than waiting for the machine through an order through the application. In addition, in the event of any incidents, the customer does not have the opportunity to call the company to solve the problem, because the operator cannot be reached via the taxi order number.

Also, for convenience, the cars are painted in yellow, meaning the color of the taxi with company's name, number, and links on it. However, Uber prefers not to allocate their cars, only recently one can see black cars with the company name as a distinctive feature. This difference from other cars allows not only to see your car at once but also in the case of acute need to take a taxi that is in its field of vision. At the same time, payment will be made on the counter, both through the application, which is beneficial for the client. Using any of these applications, the customer after the trip can give the driver an estimate for the trip, and all further clients can see this rate. In the case, if the rating is too low, a passenger might cancel the order and take it again to get a driver with a higher rating. By the way, in Uber there is a downside to the assessment - the driver can put a score on the passenger, and when the customer uses the application the next time, the driver will be able to choose whether to take this client or not, depending on the rating.

Despite the many advantages of these applications, such as availability, the speed of delivery, the ability to order a taxi anywhere in the city, the choice of a passenger often depends on the public opinion, the preferences of friends or his habit of using the same company. Since permanent customers are imperative for aggregators, they come up with various discounts and loyalty programs that allow you to pay off with accumulated points with an increase in the number of trips, reduce costs, or, for example, as in the Gett.

3.12 Analysis of the received data

As a result of the interview, data were obtained by which the analysis was carried out. Thanks to this information, it is easier to understand that the company needs to improve in the work of its service so that similar cases do not arise from other consumers. Also, based on the analysis, could be made conclusions about the operation of the aggregator, and give recommendations.

Since the company's management is aimed at attracting new customers through a marketing campaign, one of the first questions in the interview was: "Which taxi cab operators do you know?" Despite the fact that all three applications have existed on the market for more than five years, not all respondents in the response indicated these three companies. 100% of respondents mentioned Uber, 91% - Yandex and only 45.5% indicated Gett taxi, while among foreign respondents only one person heard about such service as Gett. Such indicators show that despite all the marketing campaign carried out by companies, brand recognition due to the recommendations of colleagues and friends may be stronger than outdoor advertising on cars and mobile applications. Most respondents found out about the existence of such aggregators precisely thanks to the feedback and advice of acquaintances. Moreover, at the end of each interview, the respondents said what kind of service they would advise, and as a rule, they call the one that originally recommended them, and they began to use it when they were in Moscow.

3.12.1 Preferences in choosing a service. Reasons for using the application

Speaking about what services respondents know, it is also worth noting which of them they prefer to use. For example, there was a person who only uses Uber on trips abroad or at home, despite the availability of other services. For him, ease of work and speed of service are important: «It is easier and quick …it is clean.» [Appendix 6] Also the opportunity to pay for the trip by card, and the lack of the need to communicate with the driver. Another respondent, a student from Moscow, also prefers to use Uber, since this was the first application he had learned about, and he was attracted by the small cost of traveling for short distances. He also noted that comfortable cars are always coming to Uber, clean. However, over time, the opinion about this service has worsened, in particular, because of the change of drivers who used to look more groomed, they all spoke Russian and were polite. [Appendix 12] Now many of them do not cause the client's desire to re-apply to this company, some of them are rude, some are too intrusive, or too fast drive, causing the passenger to be nervous. The story of another incident was shared by another respondent, a professor from France, who told how, in one of his visits to Moscow, a company taxi driver working for Yandex, asked the passenger to name the street and house number, since the navigator did not understand his words. [Appendix 14] Another respondent said that he prefers to use only Yandex taxi because of the most pleasant for him a contingent of drivers who came to him, unlike Gett and Uber. Such cases confirm how important it is to carefully select drivers, train them and conduct training, since they are the face of the company, and the further desire of the client to use this aggregator depends on them.

At the same time, despite the fact that in Europe, Uber is familiar to almost everyone, coming to Moscow for training, students enjoyed only Yandex taxis, since this service was recommended to them by their curators. «They advised us apps like Yandex taxi. They said that it is safe and it is also cheaper than when you stop taxi just on the road.» [Appendix 5] «When we got here, there was like a big introduction week and there told about this, like you should use this app Yandex Taxi.» [Appendix 8] Thus, it turns out that foreigners who come to Russia are more likely to use the online service that they will be advised, in particular, Yandex, despite the work of Uber. Another respondent who lives in France, while traveling to Russia, also uses Yandex, since this is the application his friends advised him to get home from the airport. [Appendix 14] Public opinion and user reviews have a strong influence on the reputation and demand for taxi services. Thus, it turns out that foreigners who come to Russia are more likely to use the online service that they will be advised, in particular, Yandex, despite the work of Uber.

Reasoning about what is most important to the customer when ordering a taxi, all respondents mentioned the speed of service, availability and the ability to order a car not only through the application. Most people, first of all, pay attention to the time of filing, which car is closest to all now and it will be necessary to wait for its arrival [Appendix 11]. Managers of companies also repeatedly noted that when creating their start-ups, it was important for them to create such a taxi service that did not require a long wait after the order was made. People who participated in the survey also noticed that if their typical application does not have free cars nearby and it takes too long to wait, they will prefer to choose the service from which the car will arrive fastest.

The next criteria are availability according to the price criterion. All consumer wants to get a high-quality service, at the same time, so that the price is not too high, compared with the market and other companies. The client does not want to overpay if he knows that he can receive the same service at a lower price. For a person to choose the most attractive price for themselves, the aggregators offer to choose the class of the car, on which, accordingly, the cost of the trip depends. 9 out of 11 people who took part in the interview, choose economy class cars precisely because of the favorable price. The rest prefer to choose a class of the car, from the comfort and above. [Appendix 11]

The third criterion of choice rather does not affect the selection of the consumer, since he initially uses the service that can be ordered through the application. Nevertheless, entrepreneurs are trying to surprise their client by adding new features to the application. So, for example, a person, having ordered a car, can track the driver's route, knowing where he is traveling. Besides this, it is possible to contact the driver by phone to clarify the address or its location. [Appendix 10] However, all of these three applications have one significant disc vantage associated with the taxi ordering system. The client does not have an alternative option to call for a car since there is no number for communication. Especially acute is this shortcoming in the event of any incidents - an incorrectly paid account, a conflict with the driver, an error in the address. [Appendix 15] Although, all these companies have the opportunity to order a taxi using the Internet site, which is sometimes more convenient for those users who do not use mobile applications. [Appendix 14] Thus, we see that the consumer is limited in the ways to order a taxi because, in the absence of access to the Internet, a person can not use the services of one of the aggregators in question.

3.12.2 Comparison of prices for taxis in Russia and other countries

As noted earlier, for respondents, one of the important criteria is the price of the trip. Pricing policy of companies initially expects the availability of service for the consumer of any social class - the minimum cost in Yandex and Gett taxi starts from 99 rubles for the first 5 minutes of travel, the average price for 15-20 minutes is about 250-300 rubles. [Appendix 2] Although, recently, during rush hours, taxi fares are overvalued by 2-3 times, and then the average cost of the trip starts from 600 rubles, and this is not profitable and not attractive to the user.

Due to sharp changes in the foreign exchange market, the use of online applications for foreigners is very beneficial, thanks to the value of the ruble. Also, if we compare the pricing policy in Russia and European countries, it should be noted that those respondents who use taxis abroad or know about the application work there prefer public transport. Because it is several times cheaper, and in comparison with the prices for Moscow Taxis, Uber and Gett are worth much more.

Respondents from other countries during the interview told that the price of a taxi in Moscow is several times less than in Europe and Asia. If in Russia for 18 km the cost of the trip will be approximately 8 Euro, then in Spain the same distance will be 12. [Appendix 13] In Japan, for example, 1 km of the route costs about 600-700 Yen, which is almost ten times higher than in Moscow. [Appendix 7] In Europe, public transportation is also well developed, the cost of which is accessible to any resident. Therefore, foreigners very rarely use a taxi, only if for a trip to the airport or the railway station. For citizens of Moscow, taxi prices are relatively low, thanks to the availability of various loyalty programs and bonuses. When traveling abroad, respondents from Russia also note the high cost of taxi services. So, the cost of a minivan in Uber starts from 60 euros, it is about 3700 rubles, which is 2.5 times higher than the cost of the same type of car in Moscow. One of the interview participants, however, prefers to use Uber in those cities where he is, despite the cost of a taxi. For him, this way of transportation is very convenient, especially when he does not know the neighborhood of the city very well or there are difficulties with public transport. [Appendix 12]

Since the majority of respondents used a local taxi abroad, the author asked questions about the cost of this service. For example, in Switzerland, the average cost of the trip is 30 Franks (1,700 rubles), although during the interview they talked about the situation when about 60 Franks were paid in Zurich for 20 minutes. In Europe, a local taxi is initially more expensive due to various restrictions on the part of the state and high prices for gasoline. Moreover, to recoup all costs, including for a license, the introductory fares for the trip are quite large. Therefore, demand among residents is not as high as in Russia.

3.12.3 Negative customer's experience

Entrepreneurs, when launching their startup, emphasized the fact that their business is customer-oriented, to create comfortable conditions during the trip. Throughout the time when the consumer uses the services of taxi companies, there might be some situation that will adversely affect the reputation of the application. Despite the fact, that probably every passenger faced at shortcomings of service work at least once, just part of them perceive these situations as a problem.

Therefore, one of the key questions in the interview was "Did you have any problems while using the app?" The answers to it allows to know the consumer's opinion, understand what he is paying attention to, and what can affect his changes in preferences. As it was mentioned earlier, the respondents faced the impoliteness of drivers, too fast driving and ignorance of the city, which influenced the consumer's further preferences in choosing a taxi company. So, for example, in one of the interviews, it was said that in Yandex taxis very often the drivers were rude to the passenger, did not follow the route, and at times were too intrusive in their communication. [Appendix 15] Another respondent also pointed to changes in the contingent of Uber drivers for the worse, referring to their unpleasant appearance, which was not observed earlier, when the application just appeared on the market.

Despite the use of modern technologies in the work of applications, people are increasingly confronted with the problem of finding an ordered car. Drivers often arrive not to the place where the taxi was called, and the passenger has to look for the car, guided by the navigator and the cab driver's description. For visiting tourists, such situations cause inconvenience - a person does not know the city, the names of streets, and with the driver, there is a language barrier. Thus, a person is forced to waste time searching for a car, instead of ordering a taxi and on arrival immediately to sit down. Surprisingly, among the interviewed people, such situations happened not only with foreigners but also with residents.

Another negative experience of using the online service is associated with an incorrect route construction. Recently, taxi drivers have increasingly begun to choose the path to which they will need to spend more time, and accordingly, the passenger will pay more. It is worth noting that not all taxi drivers do this, but the number of negative reviews associated with this problem is increasing. So, for example, a respondent from France faced a situation where the driver, under the pretext of traffic jams, deliberately started moving the other way. In the end the cost of the trip was higher than it should be in reality: «There is a trip on the map, and I realize the driver take another trip and we go at the opposite of my way, and he turn around. So he took ma as a tourist…he said this is a traffic». [Appendix 6] It turns out that any passenger when ordering a taxi, is at risk to pay for the trip more than the price in fact. Such situations adversely affect the company's image, as a result of which the consumer would prefer to choose another service where such problems do not exist.

3.12.4 Wishes and recommendations of respondents

During the interview, the respondents also talked about some additional functions that they wanted to see in the aggregator's work. Many stressed the presence of a language barrier that occurs when communicating with the driver, because of ignorance of the English language, and sometimes Russian. Solving this problem can help reduce the number of negative reviews.

Other respondents also mentioned the existence of UberPool in Uber. Its essence lies in the fact that when ordering a taxi, a person can join other passengers, while the cost of traveling with a person will be minimal. In the author's opinion, such an opportunity will be in high demand among regular customers, for whom the price per trip is a decisive factor.

Inferences of the work

This study was conducted with the aim of studying and analyzing the taxi market and the three largest market players to identify their competitive advantages. In addition, it was necessary to find out the factors that the consumer pays attention to and what depends on his preferences in choosing an online application. In this paper, key concepts of the startup were considered, which is necessary for its creation and development. Also, an analysis was made of the Russian and international taxi market, during which key factors influencing the company's development were identified. Based on the results of the work done, there are the following recommendations to company's taxi aggregators:

· One of the key threats to the company is the emergence of a new competitor. There is always a risk that the new service will become more attractive to the consumer, and therefore he will give up the usual. For the emergence of new players in the market to minimize the demand for the company's services, it is necessary to continually improve the service, attract more customers and enhance their competitive advantages.

· The CEO of the company before entering the new market has to know the basic laws on the regulation of the taxi industry by the government. Any changes in the work of the service should not contradict the existing rules. Moreover, each market has its specifics, which must be taken into account before expanding the company. It is important to be confident in the relevance of the product and the increased need for it to the local population.

· Demand for taxi services directly depends on the solvency of the buyer. In the case of financial instability in the country and high prices, the demand for the service may fall. However, to prevent this as much as possible, the company needs to periodically change its pricing policy in such a way that the consumer does not refuse a taxi because of high prices. Therefore, it is very important that prices are attractive to the client, and at the same time they are at the level with the market.

· Considering that all three companies, first of all, are focused on the client, it is necessary to take into account his desires and needs. Since the impression of a trip depends not only on the operation of the application but also on the driver, the company needs to pay particular attention to the selection of taxi drivers. It is necessary to constantly improve the qualifications of drivers, encourage them to work, so that lack of motivation does not cause an adverse impression on the passenger from choosing this application.

· As business develops, aggregators need to develop the application itself, inventing new technologies that can further simplify the operation of the service. Also, the expansion of pre-wave services, such as UberPol, also contributes to increasing demand and interest on the part of the consumer, increasing his desire to use this application.

· In addition to positive feedback, there are negative ones that affect the image of the aggregator by losing potential passengers. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a system of contacting the support service, make the service available to work with clients and set the rules for resolving the requests. Such a system will reduce the number of conflicts, as a result of which the client not only will not use the application again but also will not advise his friends, mentioning his personal experience.

Conclusion

In conclusion of this paper, it should be noted that the original goal of the study, which is a comparative analysis of the competitive advantages of taxi cab operators, operating as mobile applications. In the course of the work, the theoretical foundations of the startup, the necessary tools for its creation and development, were studied; The market of taxis of the industry in Russia and abroad is analyzed; The history of the establishment and development of each start-up is investigated - Gett, Yandex, and Uber. Then, a guide was developed for semi-standardized interviews to identify the main consumer preferences in choosing an online taxi order application and their satisfaction with the service provided.

Based on the results of the interview, transcripts were prepared, by which the coding of the received information was carried out with the subsequent analysis of the obtained data. Based on the results of the work done, the main criteria influencing the choice of the consumer, which must be taken into account by the company, are compiled. Such factors are the speed of the machine feeding, availability. That is an effective pricing policy and the ratio of the price and quality of services rendered. Also, it was noted, what are the strengths of the company, which affects the choice in their favor.

It should be pointed out that the future research of this topic could deepen the knowledge in the field of development of start-ups related to the development of taxi industry. Also, conducting a similar study at a more in-depth level would help to identify new trends in the taxi market and its development in those countries where to date the service is not available. townsTaxi is an integral part of every person's life, living in the major cities and cities with a population over one million inhabitants. This service is unlikely to lose its relevance, but, on the contrary, will develop, transcending new trends and habits in people's lives.

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Appendix

Appendix 1 Comparison table of Gett, Yandex, Uber

Parameter

UBER

GETT

YANDEX

Year of foundation

2009

2011

2011

Countries and city's quantity

528 cities

4 countries; 158 cities (58 Russian)

2 countries; 57 cities (56 in Russia and 1 in Armenia)

Own park\ rent

Own park

Own park

Rent

Ordering a car

Online application

Online application\web site\phone

Online application\web site\phone

Time limit

5-7 minutes

5-7 minutes in Moscow, St. Petersburg;

4 minutes in London;

3 minutes in Israel

5-7 minutes

Classification of cars

UberX, UberSELECT, UberBLACK

Economy, Comfort, Business, VIP, Minivan, Kids

Economy, Comfort, Comfort+, Business, Minivan

Price

Table 3

Table 2

Table 1

Payment

Credit card, cash, PayPal, Promocodes

Credit card or cash, Promocode, corporate pay, bonus payment

Credit card or cash, Promocode

Other options

Opportunity to look for relatives and pay for them (family account)

Childseat, Wi-Fi and smartphone charges,

Special colored cars

No (the car color does not mentioned in app)

yes

yes

Rating and drivers

You can see the car model and driver: name,photo,number and rating of driver. After the trip you can value it

You can see the car model and driver: name,photo,number and rating of driver. After the trip you can value it

You can see the car model and driver: name,photo,number and rating of driver. After the trip you can value it

Appendix 2. Yandex cost service

Tariffs

Economy

Comfort

Comfort+

Business

Minivan

Day-time

workday

08.00-20.59

99 R per 5 min. 2 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 9 R/km and 9 R/min

199 R per 5 min. 2 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 12 R/km and 12 R/min

After 25 min - 12 R/km and 8 R/min

199 R per 5 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 13 R/km and 13 R/min

299 R per 5 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 18 R/km and 18 R/min

199 R per 5 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 12 R/km and 12 R/min

Night-time Workday

21.00-07.59

99 R per 3 min. 2 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 9 R/km and 9 R/min

199 R per 3 min. 2 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 12 R/km and 12 R/min

After 25 min - 12 R/km and 8 R/min

199 R per 3 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 13 R/km and 13 R/min

299 R per 3 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 18 R/km and 18 R/min

199 R per 3 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 12 R/km and 12 R/min

Weekend

00.00-23.59

99 R per 5 min. 2 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 9 R/km and 9 R/min

199 R per 3 min. 2 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 12 R/km and 12 R/min

After 25 min - 12 R/km and 8 R/min

199 R per 3 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 13 R/km and 13 R/min

299 R per 3 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 18 R/km and 18 R/min

199 R per 3 min. 0 km

2 minutes for waiting

Then 12 R/km and 12 R/min

Addition

Supply out city - 15 R/km

Out of city - 15 R/km

Animal's transportation - 150 R

Transportation ski\snowboard - 100 R per 1 pair

Child seat - 100 R

Bike transportation - 100 R

Luggage - 100 R per 1

Non smoke driver

Supply out city - 20 R/km

Out of city - 20 R/km

Animal's transportation - 150 R

Transportation ski\snowboard - 100 R per 1 pair

Child seat - 100 R

Bike transportation - 100 R

Luggage - 100 R per 1

Non smoke driver

Supply out city - 20 R/km

Out of city - 20 R/km

Animal's transportation - 150 R

Transportation ski\snowboard - 100 R per 1 pair

Child seat - 100 R

Bike transportation - 100 R

Luggage - 100 R per 1

Non smoke driver

Supply out city - 35 R/km

Out of city - 35 R/km

Animal's transportation - 150 R

Transportation ski\snowboard - 100 R per 1 pair

Child seat - 100 R

Bike transportation - 100 R

Luggage - 100 R per 1

Non smoke driver

Supply out city - 20 R/km

Out of city - 20 R/km

Animal's transportation - 150 R

Transportation ski\snowboard - 100 R per 1 pair

Child seat - 100 R

Bike transportation - 100 R

Luggage - 100 R per 1

Non smoke driver

Appendix 3 Gett cost service

Addition

Economy+

Comfort

Business

Minivan

VIP

Price

99 R for 5 minutes then 15 R/min

3 min. free for waiting

50 R for fit then 18 R/min

3 min. free for waiting

299 R for 5 min then 30 R/min

5 min. for free waiting

299 R for 5 min then 27 R/min

5 min. for free waiting

599 R for 5 min then 46 R/min

Type of car

Ford Focus, Ford Galaxy, Hyundai Solaris

Skoda Oktavia, Ford Focus, Ford Galaxy

Audi A6, Mercedes E-class, BMW 5-Series

Volkswagen Caravelle/Multivan/Transporter,

Mercedes Vito/Viano/V-class,

Hyundai H-1

Audi A8, Mercedes S-class, BMW 7-Series

Transfer to\from the airport

Price started from 799 R

Price started from 799 R

Price started from 2210 R

Price started from 2190 R

Price started from 3120 R

Appendix 4 Uber cost service

Addition

Economy. UberX

Premium. UberSELECT

Special offers. Uber Black

UberPool

Uber Kids

Price

50 R for serve, minimum 99R, then 8 R/min and 8 R/km. After 15 km the cost 18 R/km

149 R for serve, minimum 249 R, then 14R/min and 10 R/km. After 15 km the cost 30 R/km

199 R for serve, minimum 299 R, then 20R/min and 15R/km. After 15 km the cost 55 R/km

Depends on the price. You can share your trip with other people.

50 R for serve, minimum 99 R, then 8 R/min and 8 R/km

Type of car

Hyundai Solaris, Kia RIO, Skoda Oktavia,

Audi, Mazda, Ford focus, BMW X, Toyota

Lexus, Land Rover, Mercedes, Ford Mondeo Possibility to transfer disabled people (minivan-Uber WAV)

The model of car depends on which previous passengers have chosen

The same models as passenger chose, but with child chairs

Transfer to\from the airport

TO SVO - from 700 till 1000R

TO DMD - from 800 till 1150 R

TO VKO - from 700 till 1000 R

TO SVO - from 1900 till 2500 R

TO DMD - from 2200 till 2800 R

TO VKO - from 1900 till 2500 R

TO SVO - from 2800 till 3500 R

TO DMD - from 3000 till 5000 R

TO VKO - from 1900 till 2500

Appendix 5 Interview transcript. Respondent 1

Okay, so, Ozgur, thank you for your help! First of all, I would like you to tell about yourself, like how age are you, where are you from and then I will continue with my questions.

-First I will start with introducing myself. Name? I'm from the Netherlands, I'm student economics and business economic from Kohlberg University, and I aim Moscow exchange program. I came to Moscow approximately at the end of august and I will stay here until the first week of January and then I go back. I like here a lot, I don't want to go back, but I have to, because my life calls me and I need some things to do.


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