History of a petroleum industry of the second half XIX and the XX-th century beginnings as a source for a museum collection

Gathering of materials about a petroleum industry in a museum creates favorable conditions for their protection. The assemblage of materials is stored In a museum about the factory "Brothers Nobel". The oil extracted by brothers Nobel in 1894-1903.

Рубрика Производство и технологии
Вид статья
Язык английский
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History of a petroleum industry of the second half XIX and the XX-th century beginnings as a source for a museum collection

Emin Melikov

The post-graduate student of a museum of history

Azerbaijan NAS

Gathering of materials about a petroleum industry in a museum creates favorable conditions for their protection and conservation, and also for their propagation. It is possible to tell, that all these materials refer to the XIX-XX-th centuries. The information on extent of demand for oil outflows from these materials. In the sixties XIX centuries with growth of manufacture of white oil demand for a petroleum industry has increased. Russia has shown: during these periods materials about oil are stored in the capacity of a source in a museum of history of Azerbaijan. In January, 1890 the Minister of the State Property about the lands, peasants at the disposal (5; S.80) has asserted, that the plot of the ground share confiscated from peasants of village Binagadi of a city of Baku is stored in the Museum (1; inv. N194, 16 17). In the plot new sections for an oil recovery have been specified. Here delivery of the ground areas to petroindustrialists is presented. At an oil recovery used a horse. From those times have remained horse, cow, buffalo skins. One skin could keep more than 25 poods of oil. Along the edges of a skin metal links were embroidered, links have been connected by two metal arches. The photo refers to the end of XIX century.

In a well lowered a skin or the bucket which has been preliminary tied up to a horse, then them lifted upwards. In such a way oil was extracted from a well. In a museum it is stored two factal buckets of that period (3; inv. N: et 4347). Undoubtedly in a petroleum industry also oil was extracted by means of buckets. In the buckets stored in the capacity of an exhibit in a museum was located about 20 litres of oil. From 70 years of the XX-th century in works on digging of wells for an oil recovery used mainly shock rod, tower installations for use sludgers, the information on special branches has been specified. Plot sizes were equal 69 х 84,3 see In a history museum the plot of a part of pasteurages of a city of Baku, had on territory Darnaqul and Kishli (1 is stored; inv. N 323 (1754) 3). In the plot the territory in 96 dessiatina (1 dessiatina = 1 0925) is specified.

And the cross-hatched part in 1780 sq. km has been provided for oil manufacture. This plot has been made for delivery of territories in rent. About founders of the plot it has not been given out any information. Sizes of the deed 50 х 63,3 see. Both plots have been published in printery.

In 70-years 19 centuries inflow of the foreign capital to Azerbaijan has begun. In 1874 to Baku there has arrived Swedish student Nobel. In 1879 inBaku the base of the factory belonging to brothers Nobel, 3 million having a fixed capital manat has been laid. The assemblage of materials is stored In a museum about the factory «Brothers Nobel». The book is stored In a museum «Brothers Nobel to the petroindustrial factory» (1879-1904) (1; inv. N 290 (1755) 2). In the book it is told about factory activity, about acquisition of lands, rich with oil deposits, about an oil recovery. In the table the quantity of the oil extracted by brothers Nobel in 1894-1903 has been specified.

Besides these collections among museum pieces also are stored silver a tablet, belonging to the factory «Brothers Nobel» (2; inv.; 713). On a surface of a silver plate have been represented Robert and Louis Nobel. Among images there is a record of "the Society of brothers Nobel», devoted to extraction of 1 billion poods of oil in 1879-1906 ». In the bottom part the schematic card representing Apsheron and Caspian sea is given out. In the left part tablets the vessel image «Zoroastr», builted in 1877 in Sweden the factory «Brothers Nobel» has been given out. This vessel was the first vessel transporting oil for the first time on Caspian sea. A tablet has the quadrangular form. Its sizes 7 х10,2 see In a back part tablets oil wells are presented. At holes the woman with a burning torch at an altar, to the left of it - the caravan of camels which is getting out the Baku tower is represented. In the right part the temple pyrolater in Surahani has been represented. On both tablets images about a petroleum industry have been presented. The factory of brothers Nobel, making the big profit in a petroleum industry, also achieved technics development. In 1878 between the Black city concerning the factory of brothers Nobel the first pipeline in length 9 km began to act. The factory of brothers Nobel began to propagandize for the first time steam-engines for digging of oil wells, at sludging to an oil recovery the electric power was used. And in Zikh the well with record length 2300 km has been dug through. Among museum collections the photo of group of workers and employees is stored in a workshop of the factory of brothers Nobel (1; inv/N 182 (1598) 2). Here principles of daily work of workers have been presented.

In the eighties 19 centuries have been sped up works on digging of oil wells and creation of new oil wells. The collections reflecting a petroleum industry of that period are stored in a museum. In a photo described oil deposits in Surahani in the end of 19 centuries it is visible, that the number of oil wells day by day increases (1; inv.N 228 (1773) 13).

Brothers Nobel besides propagation of a way of deep breakthrough of oil-wells have augmented oil extracting on Ramani fields. All it finds the reflex in 8 materials of a museum. The number of museum collections includes images of Ramani fields (1; inv. № 47 (1100) 7).

The Caucasian deputy on September, 9th, 1900 in Sabunchi, Balahani, Binagadi has signed the order about sale and tenancy of the oil earths. On the basis of the given order on November, 15th, 1900 these earths should be exposed at auction. The order of the Caucasian deputy from September, 9th, 1900 is stored in a museum collection (9; inv. № 210 (1640) 2). In the order the oil earths in Baku in Balahani, in Bibi-Ejbat, Binagadi and the works held by entity on sale of the earths rich oil-fields are described. According to SSBN as a result of breaking down and an arson of oil-fields in 1905 1994 tubular derricks have been damaged, and an oil recovery has compounded 919,4 thousand poods. After breaking down of oil-fields in Balahani the number of holes was diminished to 32 %, in Bibi-Ejbat - to 40 %, in Ramani - to 55 %, and in neighborhoods Baku daily extraction was diminished by 1/3 part - on 2000 million poods. XX-th century oil-wells are represented in the History Museum (1; inv. № 88(1757) 11). Also photographs of fires are stored in a museum on oil derricks (1; inv. № 396(1902) 59). In the beginning of 20 centuries oil-well flowings and oil-fields have been represented. In 3rd document the Baku Military Port (6 has been represented; inv. № 88 91757) 9) in 4th document the Bibi-Ejbat oil-field (1 is represented; inv. № 88(1757) 6), in 5th document the oil-well flowing in Balahani (1 is represented; inv. № 173(1583) 3), in 6th document burning oil derricks and burning fountains (1 have been described; inv. № 88(1757) 8). By means of these documents besides the specification statement of Baku of that time we can detect the historical specification statement of a city. Enterprise materials «Brothers Nobel» are stored in a museum. On January, 1st, 1913 the pay book № 673, ejected to Mamedov Gucejnkuli is stored in a museum (1; inv. № 202 (1623) 1). In the book the information on Mamedov Gusejnkuli and on its wages has been afforded. In a photograph of the beginning of the XX-th century fields in Balahani, Sabunchi, Ramani (1 have been represented; inv. № 269 (1723) 1). In a photograph wood tubular derricks and oil barns are visible. These materials play a special role as the historical document.

Geologic documents and society oil-fields «Brothers Nobel» and «Caspian sea - Black sea» are stored in quality of a rare source (1; inv. № 257 (1705) 1-8). Manuscripts of documents consist of 8 pages. In these documents depth of holes, features of the oil earths, the specification statement of breakthrough of holes is pointed. These documents have been prepared by the masters who are carrying out breakthrough of holes. In a museum collection it is possible to receive a trustworthy information about works on an oil recovery and increase of bulk of an oil recovery. The project № 44 about breakthrough of oil-wells is stored in a collection of a museum of History (1; inv. № 80 (1757) 6).

Depth, safety and oil recovery have been described. Under the plan the hole should be breached by the mechanical ambulance. Under the plan it is possible to learn features of the oil-wells used in the beginning of the XX-th century. On a photo it is represented workers. The photograph of working installation causes special concern (1; Inv. № 47(1107) 2). On a photo it is visible, that the petroleum industry for short term has reached tremendous successes. In other oilpainting the worker of the enterprise «Brothers Nobel» Mamedov Tair is represented. In a photograph of 1912 the worker in working clothes (1 has been represented; inv. № 278 (1733) 1). The photograph resembles a portrait. The certificate № 236, ejected by S.P.Pravorthovu the Baku department of the petroindustrial enterprise «Brothers Nobel» is stored on January, 27th, 1917 in a museum (1; inv № 174 (1585) 2). In the certificate it has been pointed, that S.P.Pravorthov since 1911 for 1917 worked as the turner in a machine shop of the enterprise which have been laied out in the Black City. Each collection stored in the Museum of History of Azerbaijan, is propagandized and advocated as a historical value on the basis of museum materials, learning of history of a petroleum industry, its propagation as the basic problem Azerbaijan history, is the basic requirement of the right. Thus, showing museum materials, we open new page in learning of history of a petroleum industry.

petroleum industry nobel


1. Text retrieval fund of a museum of History of Azerbaijan.

2. New historical Fund of the Museum of History of Azerbaijan.

3. Ethnographic Fund of the Museum of History of Azerbaijan.

4. Numismatical Fund of the Museum of History of Azerbaijan.

5. «Pre-revolutionary history of a petroleum industry of Azerbaijan» Ismayilov M., Ibragimov M., Baku, 1991.

6. Nuriyeva Z. «National bourgeoisie in the Azerbaijan industry» (the end XIX the XX-th century beginning), Baku, 1993.

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