Lexicology, its links with other branches of linguistics. Semiosis, types of signs, features of linguistic signs. The word as the basic unit of the language. Philological topology. Synonymy and its sources. Social, stylistic, regional variants of English.

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1. Lexicology, its links with other branches of linguistics

The term lexicology is of Greek origin / from lexis - word and logos - science. Lexicology is the part of linguistics, which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups. The term word denotes the main lexical unit of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the smallest unit of a language, which can stand alone as a complete utterance. The term word-group denotes a group of words which exists in the language as a ready-made unit, has the unity of meaning, the unity of syntactical function, e.g. the word-group as loose as a goose means clumsy and is used in a sentence as a predicative / He is as loose as a goose/. Lexicology can study the development of the vocabulary, the origin of words and word-groups, their semantic relations and the development of their sound form and meaning. In this case it is called historical lexicology. Another branch of lexicology is called descriptive and studies the vocabulary at a definite stage of its development. Lexicology is a branch of linguistics - the science of language. The literal meaning of the term lexicology is the science of the word. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims & methods of scientific research. Its basic task - being a study & systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development & its current use.

Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units & morphemes, which make up words. Distinction is made between GENERAL LEXICOLOGY & SPECIAL LEXICOLOGY. General lexicology is a part of General linguistics. It is concerned with the study of vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Special lexicology is the lexicology of a particular language (Russian, German, French, etc.). Lexicology is closely connected with other branches of linguistics: phonetics, for example, investigates the phonetic structure of language & is concerned with the study of the outer sound-form of the word. Grammar is the study of the grammatical structure of language. It is concerned with the various means of expressing grammatical relations between words as well as with patterns after which words are combined into word-groups & sentences. There is also a close relationship between lexicology & stylistics, which is concerned with a study of a nature, functions & styles of languages. Lexicology - 'science of the word', a branch of linguistics, which basic task is a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use.

2. Semiosis, types of signs, basic features of linguistic signs


It takes places when we address smb., exchange information, present something to somebody showing our love and respect, when a painter paints his picture, when we nod or shake our head. All these processes are different, but they have the same structure from the point of view of semiosis.

It consists of 3 components: sign,interpreter or user,designatum ( what the sign means)

Many linguists: language is a system of signs (Sassure- first).He proposed the term semiology which was to be the science of signs with language as part of it. There are traffic, mathematic, shop signs.

Non-linguistic and linguistic signs. A road sign has 2 aspects: arises directly from the visual symbol itself- the signifier. 2)IS what the sign means- signification.

Linguistic signs resemble non- linguistic, because: the signifier, signification arbitrary and conventional. In linguistic signs the signifier is represented by the vocal or graphic component.

Language is a complex: House -it can be used in universal sense to cover a range of houses or a particular house. -> The elements of language are associated with whole groups of experience and not with a single experience. Semiotic, semiology- a general science of signs. It studies signs, sign phenomena, sign using. Law of the sign - one of the basic laws of semiotics which prescribes the direct correspondence of expression and content within a sign.

Trends in semiotics:1. bio-semiotics - natural sign produced by living organisms( ex.: animal signal system, etc.) 2. lingua-semiotics ( ex.: natural languages, artificial as well, diff. linguistic signs) 3. abstract semiotics - properties and relations between all sign's systems, sign in general. 4. ethno-semiotics sign - using behavior of people in connection with their culture. 5. cybernetic -, art - semiotics. types of human communication: vocal, non-vocal / visual - gestures, non-vocal / visual - writing.

3. Theory of nomination. Types of names

Nomination - 1) the process of denoting ('naming') things, the linguistic part of which consists in the act of connecting a certain denotatum/designatum with a sign/designator. Typology of ns.: a) according to the number of acts of n. a certain sign takes part in: - primary n.; - secondary nomination (q.v); b) according to various linguistic means employed in n.:- lexical n. - n. of a concept by means of lexical items as opposed to concepts expressed grammatically; - propositive n. - expression of concepts of propositional nature by means of propositions. 2) a name; a linguistic unit denoting an extralinguistic entity. Typology of names: According to the nature of extralinguistic entity denoted names/nominations can by subdivided into: names of classes vs. names of individual objects; names of objects vs. names of properties (qualities, features). Secondary nomination - the process and the result of derivational processes in the vocabulary, when an already existing name is used for the second time to denote another referent. Although we can speak of secondary (or multiple) use of one the same name in nomination acts. THEORY OF NOMINATION/The word, the phrase and the sentence are the basic nom.units of the lang., it means that they are united by nominative function, the ability to. The process of nomination is going names to things, objects, phenomena, qualities, actions. The process of semiosis- something serves as a sign. Nomination and semiosis are performed simultaneously. When we give name to an object we ascribe some meaning to it. Words are symbols, they represent objects. There are 2 steps of conceptualization: The formation of a concept or an image. Establishing a link between the conception and the linguistic sign. Nomination always presupposes idealization. 3 types of motivation of nomination: Phonetic - onomatopoeic words. Morphological - derivatives (teach - teacher). Semantic - direct & figurative meanings (foot of the mountain)

4. Theory of reference. Referential functions of the word

Reference (referential content) - is derived from reality and depend on how the conceptual space (a given referential area) is covered by a lexical item. R. is referring - linkage of a linguistic unit with a non-linguistic entity to which it serves a name. This linkage can be of a different nature and is reflected in discrimination between specific referential functions /usage of words:- existential; - identifying; - non-referential (usage); - direct address to the communicant. Referent - 1) the object of thought correlated with a certain linguistic expression, the element of objective reality as reflected in our minds and viewed as the content regularly correlated with certain expression. 2) while r. would mean a discrete representative of a class of denotata, to which a mental referent would correspond on the level of conceptualisation. Referential meaning - 1) equivalent to denotation-1 - part of the word's semantics which involves the relationship between a linguistic unit (a lexical item) and the non-linguistic entities to which it refers; 2) type of meaning actualised by lexical items when they denote a single representative of a class of denotata/referents, its cognitive counterpart being a mental referent (a thought / a conceptualised image of a single referent) as opposed to concepts of a class.

Reference- the linkage of a linguistic unit with a non-linguistic entity to which it serves a name. The reference is that non-direct link which connects a name and the entity in the outer world. The word is a symbolic substitute for a certain referent. Referent shall function as a m function of the word. Different words perform this function differently: 1. Pronounce-He, his this, that, She, her- They indicate, point out, but there is no constant referent for them (different objects each time).Such words- deictic elements of the language, because they can be applied to any referent. Linguistics consider then to be signs indexes. 2. Proper names. Their reference is also unique, their content doesn't depend on the conditions of the action communication, it doesn't characterize an object. 3. Prepositions.They refer to relationship between objects, but the objects are each time different. 4. Verbs. They have meaning, but they are devoid of reference. Extensional meaning - referential applicability of a name; the scope of its reference. Generalization of meaning - extension of semantic capacity of a word, with the increase in referential applicability of the word. Intentional (component of) meaning - the core part of lexical meaning in Prof.Nikitin's semantic theory.

5. The word as the basic unit of the language. Paradigmatic & syntagmatic relations of words

Word - the basic unit of language, directly corresponds to the object of thought (referent) - which is a generalized reverberation of a certain 'slice', 'piece' of objective reality - and by immediately referring to it names the thing meant. Typology of words: Morphologically we distinguish between: - monomorphemic w. (root w.); - polymorphemic w. (derivatives, compounds, derivational compounds - q.v.). Semantically:- monosemantic w. - w., having only one lexical meaning and denoting, accordingly, one concept; - polysemantic w. - words having several meanings, i.e. w. having several meanings, thus denoting a whole set of related concepts grouped according to the national peculiarities of a given language. Syntactically:- categorematic w. (notional w., lexical w., content w.) - q.v.; - syncategorematic w. (form-w., structural, grammatical, syntactic, functional w.) - q.v.; Stylistically: - neutral w.; - elevated (bookish) w.; - colloquial w. (q.v.); - substandard w. Etymologically:- native w. - q.v.; - borrowed w. (borrowings) - q.v.; - hybrids - q.v.; - international w. (interonyms) - q.v.; - dictionary w. - evaluative w. - key-words; - object w.; - occasional w. Words: Root - derivatives.neutral - stylistically.arked.native - borrowed.transparent - opaque.full - forms (gram. elements)/ WORD - MEANING. Every word has two aspects: the outer aspect (its sound form) and the inner aspect (its meaning). Sound and meaning do not always constitute a constant unit even in the same language. E.g. the word temple may denote a part of a human head and a large church In such cases we have homonyms. One and the same word in different syntactical relations can develop different meanings, e.g. the verb treat in sentences:a) He treated my words as a joke. b) The book treats of poetry. In all these sentences the verb treat has different meanings and we can speak about polysemy. Syntagmatics - linear (simultaneous) relationship of words in speech as distinct from associative (non-simultaneous) relationship of words in language. Paradigmatics - 1) associative (non-simultaneous) relationship of words in language as distinct from linear (simultaneous) relationship of words in speech (syntagmatics); relation of units in absentia (e.g. synonymic, antonymic relationships); 2) an approach to language when the elements of its system are regarded as associated units joined by oppositional relationship.

Simple words consist of one root morpheme and an inflexion (in many cases the inflexion is zero), e.g. seldom, chairs, longer, asked. Derived words consist of one root morpheme, one or several affixes and an inlexion, e.g. deristricted, unemployed. Compound words consist of two or more root morphemes and an inflexion, e.g. baby-moons, wait-and-see (policy). Compound-derived words consist of two or more root morphemes, one or more affixes and an inflexion, e.g. middle-of-the-roaders, job-hopper.

6. Identity of unit problem

The identity-of-unit-problem establishes where one word ends and another begins on the dictionary level. Different or one word? Custom () Customs (). In the Longman dictionary - one word despite various. In the Cambridge dictionary there are free different entries (the case of custom is a homonym).Speaking about different types of relationship between expression and content. We should bear in mind one to one correspondence between them is very rare in natural human languages.For example: polycemy means singleness of form and multiplicity of content. It's an instance of the violation the law of the sign which prescribes the direct correspondence of expression of content. But it's not typical of the vocabulary of natural language. Other examples of the violation of the law of the sign. Homonymy and Synonymy. Identity of expression singleness of content. Difference of context variability of expression- hair - hare. But the law of the sign is not always violated, there are cases of smaller disagreement between expression and content. Variants of one and the same word.(phonetic, morphologic, semantic are discussed under the title of the identity-of-unit-problem) The expression plane or content plane of the word may vary. But these variations may not be significant enough to split the word up into different units.

7. Size-of-unit problem

Any language is peculiar and semiological system. In the written form of a language the flow of speech is neatly divided. In oral speech we do not make pauses after every word -> words get fused together. Some lexical items become small and even disappear altogether. The problem is how do we know what the word is (the boundaries, the separatability of a word) - the size- of- unit problem. These problems the singling out of words in speech.1. Is the article a word in the some sense as a noun? 2. Hyphens - in a merry-go- round 3. Compounds- classmates? 4. Abbreviations MPs- one word or two? The segmentation of the flow of speech into words can be achieved if speech is investigated as 3 levels:1. the feature level 2. semantic level 3. metasemiotic level. The feature level: in every language there are typical combinations of sounds which occur on word boundaries. The study of the phoneme clusters is called phonotactic. Vowels- never clusters. Consonants- clusters. - prevocalic splash - postvocalic checked, means. - intervocalic. There are some consonants that never cluster: spw, kf, chm.The rules of phonotactics can be applied to find the word boundaries. The semantic level; we deal with syntactic prosody, which serves to express syntactic relation between the utterances.Pauses are used to identity meaningful bits of information.On the first floor// there is a nursery. The metasemiotic level: speech become rather expressive, separate words give them special emphasize to make them sound more important.We are friends. Are we not? We should analyse the relationship between language units (phonemes, morphemes, words). All this help to find boundaries. From the point of view of lexicologist there are 3 types of word stress in English: 1.Unifying: music, future 2.Primary (secondary: gravitation, cooperation, melodrama) 3.Even (): broad- minded, blue-eyed

MULTISTRUCTURAL UNITS.1.) Loose compounds (. ) - stone wall. - speech sound. Being an analytical language English has a number of features: 1.) the word order is fixed, used as means of express of grammatical category. 2.) Prosody becomes an organizing factor in constructing speech. 3.) The number of inflections is reduced, because there is no morphological in case and gender. 2.) String compounds- complexes of the parts of speech type (. )- merry-go-round.- don't- tell- me- where - to- put- my- socks look ().- forget- me- not. They have no direct equivalent in Russian. lamp-shade () highway () flower bed () Sometimes the translation easy, sometimes difficult. -red-haired ) -bald -headed ().They are not distinguished from the traditional words.

8. Theory of meaning/Meaning

Theory of meaning/Meaning - the reverberation in the human consciousness of an object, a quality of extralinguistic reality (a phenomenon, a relationship, a quality, a process), which becomes a fact of language because of its constant indissoluble association with a definite linguistic expression

Meaning conveyed by a speaker is the speaker's communicative intent in using an expression, even if that use departs from the expression's meaning. Accordingly, any discussion of m. should distinguish speaker's m. from linguistic m. - See Sense. There exist a number of definitions of meaning:- a reciprocal relation between name and sense, which enables them to call up one another (St.Ullmann); - function in a context. Meaning, then, we use the whole complex of functions which a linguistic form may have (J.R.Firth); - a function of the descriptions at all levels (M.A.K.Halliday) and many others.

Vinogradov: the meaning of a word can be: 1. Nominative. 2. Nominative- derivative 3. Collegationally and collocationally conditioned. 4. Phraseologically bound. 1. Nominative is the basic meaning of a word, which refers to objects of extra linguistic reality in a direct way and reflects their actual relations. 2. Nominative-Derivative meaning comes into being when the word is stretched out semantically to cover new facts and extra linguistic phenomena. When the speaker uses the word metaphorically he extends it's content. The metaphorical use is based on certain similarities observed by the speaker. Sweet not only taste, but pleasant, attractive. Sweet face, voice, little baby. Metaphoric meanings are registered in dictionaries. 3. Collegiationally and collocationally conditioned meanings are not free, but bound.a. Collegationally conditioned meaning is determined by morphosyntactic combinability of words. Some meanings are realized only without a given morphosyntactic pattern (colligation) to tell- , . In passive constructions means to order/to direct. You must do what you're told. To carry- . In passive construction= to accept. The amendment to the bill was carried.b. Collocationally conditioned meaning is determined by lexical- phraseological combinality of words.There are meaning which depend on the word association with other words (collocation) A herd of cows, a flock of sheepCollocation is used here as a typical behaviour of a word in speech. Certain meanings belong only to a given collocation, q word is habitually associated with another word to form a natural sounding combinations. 4. Phraseologically bound meaning.Collocations should be distinguished from idioms and phraseological units. Idioms and phraseological units are devoid of referential meanings. The meanings of the individual words can't be summed together to produce the meaning of the idiomatic expression.to kick the bucket = to dieThis idiom is opaque ().To pass the buck = to pass the responsibility.This idiom is semiopaque.To see the light = to understand.This idiom is transparent.The word combimation is literal in meaning, because its degree of idiomatic is low it's called phraseological unit.

9. Lexical and grammatical meaning

Lexical meaning - the specific kind of 'content' produced (or engendered) by the reverberation of objective reality in the human consciousness which constitutes the inner (semantic) structure of linguistic units with respect to which their material form is the outer (or phonetic) structure (O. Akhmanova); the material meaning of a word, i.e. the meaning of the main material part of the word (as distinct from its formal, or grammatical part), which reflects the concept the given word expresses and the basic properties of the thing (phenomenon, property, state, etc.) the word denotes. Grammatical meaning - the meaning of the formal membership of a word expressed by the word's form, i.e. the meaning of relationship manifested not in the word itself but in the dependent element which is supplementary to its material part (inflexion, outer formative, functional affix - q.v.).Grammaticalization - the process and the result of diachronic semantic development of a lexical unit which essence is broadening of meaning (q.v.), via de-semantization (loss of lexical meaning) when a unit becomes to be used as a form (functional, structural, auxiliary) word, that is a grammatical marker of a grammatical category or a functional unit (e.g. development of shall/will, do, become, seem, etc.). A process whereby a free morpheme acquires the status of a bound form and starts functioning as an affix, either in the lexicon, or in grammar. Lexicalization - the process of appearance of new lexical items out of the units of levels different from lexemic level - from morphemes (no isms for me!), morphological forms (customs, colours, butcher's), syntactic units (forget-me-not, John what's his name).Semasiology (from Gr. semasia ("signification") + logos ("account")) - also semantics 1), the branch of linguistics which studies the semantics of linguistic units.- synchronic s. - studies the semantics of words on synchronic level, as well as synchronic semantic derivational processes; - diachronic s. - studies the semantic development (q.v.) of the word; - stylistic s. - studies the stylistic potential of the word semantics.

10. Denotation and signification

Signification - 1) one of the basic notions of semasiology (q.v.) referring to the virtual ability of linguistic signs to bear the information about their denotata in terms of their indispensable and ascribed properties. 2) significative meaning - type of lexical meaning, non-referential by its nature, which reflects the concept of property/feature as opposed to the concept of class, reflected in denotative meaning. Significative meaning is actualised primarily by verbs and adjectives, articles, morphemes.Denotation (denotational/denotative meaning) - 1) the part of lexical semantics which involves the relationship between a linguistic unit (a lexical item) and the non-linguistic entities to which it refers. It is thus equivalent to referential meaning-1; 2) the type of meaning which reflects the concept of a class and is actualised by lexical items in situations when they denote a class of referents/denotata, is supported by the generalising and classifying function of the articles; 3) the expression of the core/main/central/cognitive meaning, meaning proper of a linguistic unit in contrast to its connotation (q.v.). E.g. the denotation of dog is the animal characterized by certain features discriminating it from cats, whales, elephants, its connotation might include helper, friend, etc. Names of objects. Names of properties ( ).Verbs, adjectives, adverbs - don't have the extensional meaning, because they are non-referential. All common nouns can represent both a representative of a class & some class in general.

11. Cognitive & pragmatic meaning of the word

Denotation (denotational/denotative meaning) - 1) the part of lexical semantics which involves the relationship between a linguistic unit (a lexical item) and the non-linguistic entities to which it refers. It is thus equivalent to referential meaning-1; 2) the type of meaning which reflects the concept of a class and is actualised by lexical items in situations when they denote a class of referents/denotata, is supported by the generalising and classifying function of the articles; 3) the expression of the core/main/central/cognitive meaning, meaning proper of a linguistic unit in contrast to its connotation (q.v.). E.g. the denotation of dog is the animal characterized by certain features discriminating it from cats, whales, elephants, its connotation might include helper, friend, etc.Cognition, - human cognition in relation to language; cognitive-linguistic processes and mechanisms of conceptualization, verbalization, nomination, reference, categorization, etc. Pragmatics - 1) according to Ch.Morris, one of the three dimensions of the sign (syntax, semantics, pragmatics), 'sign-user' relationships; 2) general study of language from the point of the user, its intentions, verbal behaviour, etc. Cognitive meaning represents the information about the world (the referent).Pragmatic component presents our subjunctive attitude towards the world and its elements (depends on our life experience).Both of them or only one of them is represented in the structure of lexical meaning.1) Most words are pragmatically neutral (only cognitive component in the structure of their meaning) chair, desk, pen - they are free from expressing subjunctive attitude to the referent.2) fascist - cognitive and pragmatic components3) sometimes cognitive components are switched off & pragmatic component plays the leading role () mother

Names of properties ( )Verbs, adjectives, adverbs - don't have the extensional meaning, because they are non-referential. Some linguists use the term connotational meaning instead of the term pragmatic meaning


semiotic - (sign) - dog

cognitive - an animal kept as a pet

used for hunting and guarding

pragmatic - devoted, friend - positive

wicked, bites, evil - negative

intentional - animal +

pet +

mammal +

used for hunting and guarding +

carnivorous +

extensional - different kinds of dogs (breeds)

significative - a dog is a man's friend

How long can a dog live?

Denotative - I have a dog. This dog lives with me for a long time.

Implicational - 1. rigid implication: 4 paws, a tail, barks

2. strong implication: runs fast. Bites

3. weak implication: can swim

4. negative implication: a speaking dog

12. Homonymy & polysemy. Polysemy Most of lex. Items in English are polysemantic

The alternative to it is quite unthinkable: it would mean that we would have to store in our brains a tremendous stock of words with separate names for any possible subject we might wish to talk about. It would also mean that there would be no metaphors & that language would be robbed of much of its expressiveness & flexibility. Ex.: - family - She lost both of her parents. - parent - Envy is the parent of all evils. Polysemy is a result of: 1. Shifts in application ( )Ex.: adj. red. red ink (is really red).red hair.red deer /red cabbage.red Indian///2. Specialization.Ex.: partner. Basic meaning; a type of relationship between 2 or more people.- business partner.- marriage partner.- partner in crime. 3. Metaphorical extension (a fundamental feature of any language)Ex.: leaf of a tree - leaf of a book.hands of a person - hands of a clock/

Homonymy.Homonyms can be of 3 kinds:1. Homonyms proper (the sound & the spelling are identical) 2. Homophones (the same sound form but different spelling).3. Homographs (the same spelling).Ex.: 1. bat - bat - flying animal ( ). - cricket bat ().2. flower - flour. sole - soul 3. tear [i?] - tear [?] One of the sources is its development from polysemy. At a certain point, variation within a word may bring to a stage when its semantic core is no longer elastic. It can't be stretched any further & as a result a new word comes into being.Homonymy differs from polysemy because there is no semantic bond () between homonyms; it has been lost & doesn't exist. Homonyms appear as a result of: 1. The phonetic convergence of 2 words of different pronunciation & meaning. Ex.: race > a) people derives from Old Norwegian ras b) running, from French race 2. The semantic divergence or loss of semantic bond between 2 words polysemantically related before.Ex.:pupil> a) scholar b) apple of an eye ()

lexicology linguistic language english

13. Componential analysis of meaning

Componential analysis of meaning - linguistic analysis of the semantic structure of a word (a monosemantic word or a lexico-semantic variant of a polysemantic unit) as constituted by a set of minimal elements of sense - semes. COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS Is linguistic analysis of the semantic structure of a word? It can be a monosemantic word or lexico-semantic variant of polysemantic word. The meaning of any word can be represented in a form of a structure, semantic components of the words' meaning form a hierarchy. Is an investigation of the structural organization & interrelations of the semantic components of the words' meaning?Lexical meaning is a complicated dynamic whole & its constituency is semes.A seme is a minimal unit of sense, an atom of lexical semantics distinguished on the basis of oppositions by method of componential analysis. A seme is not expressed in a word in any material unit but it's revealed & singled out through interrelations of the word with other words on a paradigmatic & syntagmatic levels.The sem. structure of a word can be represented graphically:Father = human - seme Adult - seme Male - seme Parent - seme

human, adult, male, parent - they are semes!///1) Componential analysis is very popular in linguistics; it shows heterogeneity, complexity of lexical meaning. 2) Componential analysis helps to differentiate between words (especially between synonyms) the difference between small & little lies in the presence of an additional seme (pleasant, nice) in the word little > not absolute synonyms. 3) Componential analysis helps to explain semantic derivation (metaphor, metonymy, etc.) 4) Componential analysis to create the so called language of semantic primitives - minimal units of sense. TYPOLOGY OF SEMES. Semes differ in many aspects: - the role they play & the place they occupy in their structure. - Interrelations between each other - Dependence of all the context - Participation in formation an actual meaning - The role they play in secondary nomination or in semantic. 1) Cognitive & pragmatic semes- dog cognitive semes - living being - animal - domestic - carnivorous () pragmatic semes - friend - devoted - understanding - silent

2) Central & peripheral.Central - belonging to the core of the word meaning (belong to the intention) Father - male, parent, human.- adult (peripheral).. 4) Categorial (hypersemes) & non-categorial(hyposemes) bathe - swim for pleasure or for the medical reasons. swim - through water5) Actual & potential.potential can be generated in some particular content

14. Semantic changes

Semantic change - changes of both synchronic and diachronic nature, which concerns the semantic content of the word. New meanings would appear by means of semantic shift (q.v.) and semantic transference (q.v.), which lead to the growth of polysemy. Causes for s.ch. can be both extralinguistic and linguistic. There are many causes of semantic change: 1) Historical causes. According to historical principle, everything develops changes, social institutions change in the course of time, the words also change.Ex.: car which goes back to Latin carfus which meant a four wheeled (vehicle) wagon, despite of the lack of resemblance. 2) Psychological causes. Taboos of various kinds. Words are replaced by other words, sometimes people do not realize that they use euphemisms. Ex.: lady's room instead of the lavatory. 3) Linguistic causes Tendency of a language to borrow a particular metaphorical development of a word from another language.

The nature of semantic change. Metaphor accounts for a very considerable proportions of semantic changes. Language is full of so-called fossilized (trite-, , ) metaphors, which no longer call up the image of an object from which they were borrowed.

Ex.: the leaf of a book; hands of a clock; a clock face; hands of a cabbage.

Metonymy is the tendency of certain words to occur in near proximity & mutually influence one another.Ex.:

He drinks 2 cups (tea, coffee) every morning.

He has eaten 2 plates (porridge) today.

15. Metaphorization

Metaphor - semantic transference (q.v.), figure of speech that implies comparison between two unlike entities, as distinguished from simile, an explicit comparison signalled by the words "like" or "as." The distinction is not simple. The metaphor makes a qualitative leap from a reasonable, perhaps prosaic comparison, to an identification or fusion of two objects, to make one new entity partaking of the characteristics of both. Many critics regard the making of ms. as a system of thought antedating or bypassing logic, a figure of speech in which two things are explicitly identified, although they are really only being compared. The remark, "This man is a pig" is understood, of course, to mean that the man resembles a pig. In analyzing ms. we use the terms tenor to denote the primary subject ("this man") and vehicle to designate the image introduced for comparison ("pig"). Some metaphors consist only of the vehicle while the tenor is left implicit, as if one were to say of the man, "That pig". Such ms. are variously described as implicit, submerged, truncated. - See Semantic changes; Figurative language. Typology of metaphors.:- cognitive/conceptual metaphor (q.v.); - dead m.; - moribund m.; - new n.; - original m.; - poetic m.; - stock m.; - sustained m. METAPHORIZATION - 1) THE PROCESS AND PRINCIPLE OF COGNIZING NEW ENTITIES THROUGH ALREADY ACQUIRED EMPIRICAL EXPERIENCE; 2) SEMANTIC PROCESS OF TRANSFERENCE OF NAMES ON THE BASIS OF 1). - SEE COGNITIVE METAPHOR; METAPHOR

Metaphor accounts for a very considerable proportions of semantic changes. Language is full of so-called fossilized (trite-, , ) metaphors, which no longer call up the image of an object from which they were borrowed. Ex.: the leaf of a book; hands of a clock; a clock face; hands of a cabbage.

16. Word formation in English

Major types. Word-formation - the process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes according to certain patterns specific for the language (affixation, composition), or without any outward means of word formation (conversion, semantic derivation). Word formation ().Is a branch of science of the language, which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities, new words).It's a process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes. 2 major groups of word formation:1) Words formed as grammatical syntagmas, combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding (), prefixation, suffixation, conversion, and back derivation)2) Words, which are not grammatical syntagmas, which are not made up of full linguistic signs. Ex.: expressive symbolism, blending, clipping, rhyme & some others. Common for both groups is that a new word is based on synchronic relationship between morphemes. Different types of word formation:COMPOUNDING. Is joining together 2 or more stems.Types: 1) Without a connecting element headache, heartbreak 2) With a vowel or consonant as a linking element speedometer, craftsman 3) With a preposition or conjunction as a linking element- down-and-out ( , ) son-in-lawPREFIXATION.Prefixes are such particles that can be prefixed to full words. But are they not with independent existence.Native prefixes have developed out of independent words; there is a small number of them. a- be- mid- fore- mis-.Prefixes of foreign origin have come into the language ready-made. Some scholars: the system of English word formation was entirely upset by the Norman Conquest. Normans have paved the way for the non-Germanic trend the language has taken since that time. SUFFIXATION.A suffix is a derivative final element, which is or was productive in forming new words. It has semantic value, but doesn't occur as an independent speech use. The contact of English with foreign languages has led to the adoption of countless foreign words, which started to be used in word building.

> we have many hybrid types of derivatives.

A hybrid is a word different element of which are of etymologically different origin.

2 groups:1) A foreign word is combined with a native affix- - full - less - ness clearness, faithless, faithful

2) Foreign affixes are added to native words- - ance - al - ity - able

CONVERSION(zero derivation).A certain stem is used for the formation of a categorically different word without a derivative element being added. Bag - to bag Back - to back Bottle - to bottle This specific pattern is very productive in English

17. Word formation in English. Minor types


CLIPPING. Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts.Mathematics - maths Laboratory - lab

3 types:1) The first part is left (the commonest type)- advertisement - ad 2) The second part is left- telephone - phone 3) A middle part is left influenza - flu refrigerator - fridge. Accepted by the speakers of the language clipping can acquire grammatical categories (used in plural forms).BLENDING. Is blending part of two words to form one word (merging into one word) Smoke + fog = smog. Breakfast + lunch = brunch. Smoke + haze = smaze ()WORD MANUFACTURING. A word or word combination that appears or especially coined by some author. But it doesn't name a new object or doesn't express a new concept.--- SOUND INTERCHANGE. Sound interchange is the way of word building when some sounds are changed to form a new word. It is non-productive in Modern English; it was productive in Old English and can be met in other Indo-European languages. STRESS INTERCHANGE-Stress interchange can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable. SOUND IMITATION-t is the way of word building when imitating different sounds forms a word. There are some semantic groups of words formed by means of sound imitation.a) Sounds produced by human beings, such as: to whisper, to giggle, to mumble, to sneeze, to whistle etc.b) Sounds produced by animals, birds, insects, such as: to hiss, to buzz, to bark, to moo, to twitter etc.c) Sounds produced by nature and objects, such as: to splash, to rustle, to clatter, to bubble, to ding-dong, to tinkle etc.

18. Variation in lexicon. Philological topology

Phonetic Variations. 1.Modifications of the pronunciation of a word depending on the context or its position of a word depending on the context or its position of an utterance and the conjunction are reduced in these combinations.-now and that.-King and Queen. The conjunction is reduced in these combinations. 2. Accentual variation- different coexisting stress patterns of one and the same word.--Br. teritory Am. teritory ---Br. dictionary Am. Dictionary. 3.Emic variation- multiple pronunciation of one and the same word.-explain [i] [e] -begin [i] [e] Morphological variation. It takes place when different derivational morphemes are used without changing the words meaning: Academic, academicals. Morphologic, morphological Lexical Variation. Is determined by different registers--formal/ informal. spoken/ written. laboratory/ lab Semantic Variation. The majority of words in any language have more than one meaning. This is how the principle of language economy is manifested. Topology (philological t.) - the term from the domain of mathematics, refers to the study of continuity and variability, invariant and its variants, identity and differentiation. In lexicology p.t. studies the problems of synonymy, polysemy, homonymy, identity-of-unit problem. Allo-emic theory - treatment of all elements in language as being sets of variants ('allo'-terms) of some invariants ('eme'-terms). Invariants are morphemes, phonemes, lexemes, which belong to the systemic level (language) while allomorphs, allophones, allolexes are their positional variants respectively and belong to the level of actualization (speech).allonymic variation - realized in contextual pairs semantically co-ordinated like slow and careful; quick and impatient; 'emic' variation - a) a type of phonetic variation which occurs when there are multiple pronunciations for a single word: begin [bi'gin], [b 'gin]; explain [ik'splein], [ek'splein]; direct [dai'rekt], [di'rekt]; b) morphological variation with allomorphs of the same morpheme involved: irregular, innavigable, immovable, illegal.

19. Social, stylistic & regional variants of English

LOCAL VARIETIES OF ENGLISH ON THE BRITISH ISLES. On the British Isles there are some local varieties of English, which developed from Old English local dialects. There are six groups of them: Lowland /Scottish/, Northern, Western, Midland, Eastern, Southern. The local population uses these varieties in oral speech. Only the Scottish dialect has its own literature /R. Berns/.The American English is practically uniform all over the country, because of the constant transfer of people from one part of the country to the other. However, some peculiarities in New York dialect can be pointed out, such as: there is no distinction between / / and /a: / in words: ask, dance sand bad, both phonemes are possible. The combination ir in the words: bird, girl ear in the word learn is pronounced as /oi/ e.g. /boid/, /goil/, /loin/. In the words duty', tune /j/ is not pronounced /du:ti/, /tu:n/. BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH. British and American English are two main variants of English. Besides them there are: Canadian, Australian, Indian, New Zealand and other variants. They have some peculiarities in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, but they are easily used for communication between people living in these countries. The second period of American English history begins in the 19-th century. Immigrants continued to come from Europe to America. During the second period of American English history there appeared quite a number of words and word-groups which were formed in the language due to the new political system, liberation of America from the British colonialism, its independence. There are some differences between British and American English in the usage of prepositions, such as prepositions with dates, days of the week BE requires on / I start my holiday on Friday/, in American English there is no preposition / I start my vacation Friday/.

21. Synonymy and its sources. Classification

Typology of synonyms.A synonym - is a word of similar or identical meaning to one or more words in the same language. All languages contain synonyms but in English they exist in superabundance. They're no two absolutely identical words because connotations, ways of usage, frequency of an occurrence are different. Senses of synonyms are identical in respect of central semantic trades but differ in respect of minor semantic trades. Classification:1. Total synonyms 2. Ideographic synonyms. 3. Dialectical synonyms. 4. Contextual synonyms. 5. Stylistic synonyms.Synonymy - the coincidence in the essential meanings of linguistic elements which (at the same time) usually preserve their differences in connotations and stylistic characteristics. Synonyms - two or more words belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings, interchangeable in some contexts. Their distinctive features can be connotations, stylistic features, distributional or depending on valency. The difference between some synonyms can be marked for register subject-field, mode, and style (tenor) or their combinations. Typology of synonyms: - cognitive synonyms - s. which differ in respect of the varieties of discourse in which they appear; the distinction between such items lies not so much in their inner lexical meaning, but in the sphere of their actual application or usage, as besides the referential basis (referential meaning - q.v.) the actual meanings of the words as found in utterances reflect relations which hold between lexical items within the communicative space, i.e. the functional differentiation of discourse. - contextual/context-dependent synonyms - similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions, when the difference between the meanings of two words is contextually neutralized: e.g. buy and get; - dialectal synonyms - pertaining to different variant of language from dialectal stratification point of view; - functional synonyms - the term is not lexicological proper as it refers to different syntactic units capable of performing one and the same syntactic function (e.g. Subordinate Object Clause and Complex Object constructions are functional synonyms; - ideographic synonyms - differ in shades of meaning, i.e. between which a semantic different is statable; - stylistic synonyms- are distinguished stylistically, i.e. in all kinds of emotional, expressive and evaluative overtones without explicitly displaying semantic difference;

- referential synonyms - a vague term, concerns coreferential expressions, when one denotatum can be defined differently from different points of view and in different aspects: e.g. names Walter Scott and the author of 'Ivanhoe' are coreferential because they refer to one and the same denotatum - Sir Walter Scott; - terminological synonyms - two existing terms for one denotatum: e.g. borrowing and loan-word; concept and notion (the difference between them is not discriminated by some linguists); - total synonyms - can replace each other in any given context, without the slightest alteration in denotative or emotional meaning and connotations (e.g. noun and substantive, functional affix, flection and inflection); is a rare occasion.

22. Semantic contrasts. Antonyms & conversives

Enantiosemy. We should not mix homonymy & enantiosemy. It includes cases of the specific use of the word when the meaning of it depends on the intonation with which it is pronounced. Ex.: You are a beauty! ! A pretty business indeed! ! Awfully good Antonymy.Antonyms - words of opposite meaning. In an antonym pair only one member is marked (the use of marked member is more restricted) Ex.: big - small Antonymy is based on the opposition of features (). It is a kind of a way of word structuring. Three conditions for two features to be opposite:incompatible in things- Ex.: underage - unmarried)2. (similar, homogeneous features)Ex.: - (red - green)3. (2 features must cover associative area) Ex.: (alive - half dead - dead)

23. Terms. Archaisms. Neologisms

Term - a word or a word combination of a special (scientific, technical, etc.) language, which is created, borrowed, or adopted to exactly express the definite concepts specific for that science and name its special objects. A term is a definitional word, i.e. it is not only directly connected with a scientific definition but displays a relationship of one-to-one correspondence with it. Archaism - words which were once common but are now replaced by synonyms (e.g. save 'except', hapless 'unlucky', betwixt 'between', etc.). The predilection of a. in vocabulary and syntax is the main feature of the extreme varieties of written English - the language of law, the language of religion and poetic diction. In this respect, religious, legal and poetic English are the only varieties, which allow a. to such an extent. Unlike the case with historisms (q.v.) the thing or notion denoted does not go into disuse.Neologisms. There is a term in linguistics which by its very nature is ambiguous and that is the term neologism. In dictionaries it is generally defined as ' a new word or a new meaning for an established word.'

24. Types of borrowings. Reasons for borrowings

BORROWINGS. Contemporary English is a unique mixture of Germanic & Romanic elements. This mixing has resulted in the international character of the vocabulary. In the comparison with other languages English possesses great richness of vocabulary. All languages are mixtures to a greater or lesser extent, but the present day English vocabulary is unique in this respect. Through cultural contacts with Romans partly already on the continent and all through the influence of Christianity a very early stratum of Latin-Greek words entered the language. Their origin is no longer felt by the normal speaker today in such word: pound, mint, mustard, school, dish, chin, cleric, cheese, devil, pepper, street, gospel, and bishop. The same can be said about some Scandinavian words (from about the 10th century) that today belong to the central core of the vocabulary. It means that their frequency is very high. A more radical change & profound influence on the English vocabulary occurred on 1066 (Norman Conquest). Until the 15th cent., a great number of French words were adopted. They belong to the areas of court, church, law, and state. Virtue, religion, parliament, justice, noble, beauty, preach, honour...Borrowing - 1) (process) resorting to the word-stock of other languages for words to express new concepts, to further differentiate the existing concepts and to name new objects, etc.; 2) (result) a loan word, borrowed word - a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language. - See Assimilation, Source of borrowing, Origin of borrowing. The following types of borrowings can be distinguished:- loan words proper - words borrowed from another language and assimilated to this or that extent; - loan translation - 1) (process) borrowing by means of literally translating words (usu. one part after another) or word combinations, by modelling words after foreign patterns; 2) (result) translation loans (calques) - words and expressions formed from the material already existing in the English language but according to patterns taken from another language by way of literal word-for-word or morpheme-for-morpheme translation: e.g. chain smoker: :Germ Kettenraucher; goes without saying: Fr. va sans dire; summit conference:: Germ. Gipfel Konferenz, Fr. conference au sommet; - semantic borrowings/loans - the term is used to denote the development in an English word of a new meaning due to the influence of a related word in another language (e.g. policy)

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