Lexicology, its links with other branches of linguistics. Semiosis, types of signs, features of linguistic signs. The word as the basic unit of the language. Philological topology. Synonymy and its sources. Social, stylistic, regional variants of English.
|Рубрика||Иностранные языки и языкознание|
|Размер файла||28,4 K|
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Types of phraseological units. Phraseological unit / set expression / idiom - a complex word-equivalent in which the globality of nomination reigns supreme over the formal separability of elements. It is reproduced in speech. Phraseology. Alongside with separate words speakers use larger blocks functioning as whole (consisting › 1 word). In any language there are certain restrictions imposed upon co-occurence of words. They can be connected with linguistic factors or the ties in the extra-linguistic reality. 3 types of lexical combinability of words:1). Free combination.Grammatical properties of words are the main factor of their combinability.Ex.: I'm talking to you. You are writing. - Free combinations permit substitution of any of its elements without semantic change of the other element.2). Collocations.Ex.: to commit a murder. Bread & butter They are the habitual associations of a word in a language with other particular words. Speakers become accustomed to such collocations. Very often they are related to the referential & situational meaning of words.Sometimes there are collocations, which are removed from the reference to extra-linguistic reality. (collocations involving, colour words)Ex.: to be green with jealousy.Red revolution3). Idioms. Idioms are also collocations, because they consist of several words that tend to be used together, but the difference - we can't guess the meaning of the whole idiom from the meanings of its parts. This criterion is called the degree of semantic isolation.In different types of idioms - it is different. Ex.: to cry a blue murder = to complain loudly This classification of idioms according to their structure: 1. Fixed idioms. a) fixed regular idioms (It's a 60-thousand dollar question = difficult question ) b) fixed irregular (can be varied on the grammatical level) (to have a bee in one's bonnet (She has.., I have...) 2. Variable (varied on the lexical level) Ex.: to add fuel to the fire/flame
26. Etymological classification of the English vocabulary
Vocabulary - 1) the totality of words in a language; 2) individual vocabulary: - active vocabulary;- defining vocabulary;- distinctive vocabulary;- 'dramatic'/ distinctive vocabulary;- general vocabulary;- marginal vocabulary;
- passive vocabulary;- specialised vocabulary;- working vocabulary;Native words - words of the English word-stock which belong to the following etymological layers of the English vocabulary:- words of common Indo-European origin;- words of Common Germanic word-stock;- purely Anglo-Saxon words.
27. The structure of lexical meaning according to Nikitin
Semiotic meaning is arbitrary and conventional, especially established for the sake of communication. No link between the sign and the referent existing in reality.Ex.: winter (December - February); Implicational meaning is based on natural linkage of objects in reality. Winter - cold, snow, frost (implicational meaning) - associations connected with a name. Implicational meaning is culture bound, territory bound
4 types of implicational meaning-
1) Rigid implication- highly probable features of winter (for Russia - холод, мороз)
2) Strong implication- probable features of winter - реки замерзают
3) Weak implication- these are unlikely features of winter - rain, warm weather
4) Negative implication= features that can never be applied to this referent( green grass, hot weather - not winter)Cognitive meaning represents the information about the world (the referent) Pragmatic component presents our subjunctive attitude towards the world and its elements (depends on our life experience).Both of them or only one of them is represented in the structure of lexical meaning. The difference between extension & contention lies in the difference between the contents & the volume of the notion. Contentional meaning reflects the structure of essential features of the notion. Extension: a number of denotater to which its name refers: godmother, biological mother, mother-in-law.
28. Metonymy. Types of metonymy
METONYMY - TYPE OF SEMANTIC SHIFT (Q.V.), FIGURE OF SPEECH THE ESSENCE OF WHICH IS THE SUBSTITUTION OF THE NAME OF AN ATTRIBUTE OR ADJUNCT FOR THAT OF THE THING MEANT (E.G. CROWN FOR KING, THE TURF FOR HORSE RACING).Cognitive/conceptual metonymy - analysis of metonymical expressions in terms of cognitive semantics, resorting to the notion of conceptual domain (q.v.). C.m. names one aspect or element in a conceptual domain while referring to some other element which is in contiguity relation with it. Basic instances of conceptual metonymy: person for his name (I'm not in the telephone book), possessor for possessed (My tyre is flat), container for contained (This is an excellent dish), producer for produced (My new Macintosh is superb), etc. Metonymy is the tendency of certain words to occur in near proximity & mutually influence one another.Ex.: He drinks 2 cups (tea, coffee) every morning. He has eaten 2 plates (porridge) today. Metaphor accounts for a very considerable proportions of semantic changes. Language is full of so-called fossilized (trite-банальный, избитый, неоригинальный) metaphors, which no longer call up the image of an object from which they were borrowed. Ex.: the leaf of a book; hands of a clock; a clock face; hands of a cabbage.
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