The Peculiarities of Advertising Language

General overlook of definition of advertising language. New agencies such as newspapers, radio, television. Features of the using linguistic devices in advertising texts with functional expressive features, stylistic devices and stylistic features.

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The Peculiarities of Advertising Language

Moscow - 2010


The peculiarities of advertising language are the subject of this graduation paper. At the beginning, in the first chapter is given a general definition of advertising language, its history. The second chapter is types of advertising (consumer advertising, media of consumer advertising). In the third chapter we consider slogans, logos, types with tone and some thoughts of colour. In the fourth chapter we study advertising as a service. The fifth chapter includes new agencies such as newspapers, periodicals, radio, television. And also methods of advertising in the chapter of sixth (television, newspapers, brochures, direct mail, radio, internet and so on). In the seventh chapter it is considered features of the using linguistic devices in advertising texts with functional expressive features, stylistic devices, syntactic and stylistic features. The eighth chapter introduces the role of parentheses insertion as additional information. Very important advertising text in sociolinguistic coverage and phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices in the ninth chapter (Galperin`s stylistic devices, the definitions of stylistic devices with examples). In the chapter of tenth we consider classification of language styles (Belles-Letters Style, Pablicist Style, Newspaper Style, Scientific Prose Style). And finally in the chapter eleventh it is analysed psychology and advertising.


This graduation paper is devoted to the investigation of peculiarities of advertising language.

However, the number of works devoted to the analysis of advertising language, is rather significant, though we witness advertising English is developing very fast. The reason is that advertising is very popular nowadays and a lot of people want to know about advertising language. An advertising practitioner might simply want to find clues to more successful advertising; a sociologist might be interested in its effect on the behaviour and values of society; a psychologist might be interested in its effect on individual motivations. And there are many other possible approaches. It is very interesting to investigate linguo-stylistic peculiarities of advertising language in order to understand why advertising has so much influence on people. That's why we have chosen advertising language as the object of this study.

Linguo-stylistic peculiarities of advertising language are the subject of this investigation. Theoretical and specialized works of Russian and foreign linguists such as I.R. Galperin, E.V. Maksimenko, Angela Goddard, Alastair Crompton, Geoffrey Leech, Guy Cook, Gillian Dyer, Keiko Tanaka and others served as a methodological basis of the given work.

Thus, the aim of this graduation paper is to single out the basic linguo-stylistic peculiarities of advertising language, its specific character and to analyze such phenomenon as “pun” in advertising English.

This graduation paper consists of introduction, six chapters and conclusion.

In INTRODUCTION we describe the structure of our graduation paper, ground the actuality of the chosen topic, set aims of this scientific research.

In CHAPTER I we give the general overlook of definition of advertising language and its history.

CHAPTER II is devoted to the types of advertising (consumer advertising, media of consumer advertising).

In CHAPTER III we investigate slogans, logos, types with tone and some thoughts of colour.

CHAPTER IV we study advertising as a service (social benefits and mass media).

CHAPTER V includes new agencies such as newspapers, periodicals, radio, television.

In CHAPTER VI we study the methods of advertising (television, newspapers, brochures, direct mail, radio, internet and so on).

In CHAPTER VII it is considered features of the using linguistic devices in advertising texts with functional expressive features, stylistic devices, syntactic and stylistic features.

In CHAPTER VIII introduces the role of parentheses insertion as additional information.

In CHAPTER IX it is very important the advertising text in sociolinguistic coverage and phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices (Galperin`s stylistic devices, the definitions of stylistic devices with examples).

In CHAPTER X we consider classification of language styles (Belles-Letters Style, Pablicist Style, Newspaper Style, Scientific Prose Style).

In CHAPTER XI it is analysed psychology and advertising.

In CONCLUSION we analyze the results of the investigation which show that advertising language is a special style of the English language with its lingou-stylistic peculiarities.

1. What is an advertising, its definition?

We all recognize the type of advertisement text that occurs in news-papers and magazines, where a product is being presented as desirable for us to buy, we also know the TV version of this, placed between the programs on certain channels.

It is undoubtedly true that advertisement are texts that do their best to get our attention, to make us turn towards them.

Ad-phenomenon is extremely multifaceted and multidimensional. Therefore not surprising that there is a considerable variety of interpretations of the concepts and definitions of the term.

Advertising occupies a border position between the various professional fields and attracts the attention of representatives of various professions. Allocation of certain activities in the advertising field shows a certain level of its development.

In Russia this process is at an early stage; however we can already say with certainty about the ever-increasing pace of transformation of advertising in the professional realm (occupation).

The analysis of advertising texts seems appropriate to rely on the definition proposed by American Marketing Association, drawing attention to the fact that the method of presenting information depends on its nature and characteristics of the target audience:

Advertising is distributed in some form of impersonal nature of the information on products, services or ideas and initiatives designed for groups of individuals (target audience) and pay a sponsor.

In American book «Advertising: principles and practice»(3) by the following function, which carries advertising, communicative, economic, social. The essence of the definition of advertising is that advertising plays a significant role not only in business but in society.

1.1 Advertising and the Modern World

The modern world depends on advertising. Without it, producers and distributors would be unable to sell, buyers would not know about products or services, and the modern industrial world would collapse. If factory output is to be maintained profitably, advertising must and continuous. Mass production requires mass consumption which in turn requires advertising to the mass market through the mass media.

Advertising is not easily defined, though many people have tried. Narrowly, it means a paid form of non-personal communication that is transmitted through mass media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, public transport vehicles, outdoor displays and also the Internet, which aims to persuade, inform, or sell. It flourishes mainly in free-market, profit-oriented countries. It is one of the most important factors in accelerating the distribution of products and helping to raise the standard of living. Advertising cannot turn a poor product or service into a good one. But what it can do - and does - is to create an awareness about old and new products and services. So three main objectives of advertising are: (1) to product knowledge about the product or service; (2) to create preference for it; and (3) to stimulate thought and action about it.

But the word is also used to cover a much broader range of activities - from design to public relations.

Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world. In the past when a shopkeeper had only to show and tell about his goods to passers-by, advertising as we know it today hardly existed. Early forms of advertising were signs such as the inn sign or the apothecary`s jar of colored liquid, some of which have survived until today.

Evidence of advertising can be found in cultures that existed thousand of years ago, but advertising only became a major industry in the 20-th century. Today the industry employs hundreds of thousand of people and influence the behavior and buying habits of billions of people. Advertising spending worldwide now exceeds $350 billion per year. In the United States alone about 6000 advertising agencies help create and place advertisements in a variety of media, including newspapers, television, direct mail, radio, magazines, the Internet, and outdoor signs. Advertising is so commonplace in the United States that an average person may encounter from 500 to 1000 advertisements in a single day, according to some estimates. Advertising permeates everyone`s daily life.

Most advertising is designed to promote the sale of a particular product or service. Some advertisements, however, are intended to promote an idea or influence behavior, such as encouraging people not to use illegal drugs or smoke cigarettes.

Advertising has become increasingly international. More than ever before, corporations are looking beyond their own country`s borders for new customers. Faster modes of shipping, the growth of multinational corporations, rising personal income levels worldwide, and falling trade barriers have all encouraged commerce between countries. Because corporations are opening new markets and selling their products in many regions of the globe, they are also advertising their products in those regions.

1.2 Advertising all over the world

In the world of advertising, selling products is the most important goal. As companies are becoming more global, they are looking for new ways to sell their products all over the world. It is true that because of global communication, the world is becoming smaller today.

But it is also true that the problems of global advertising - problems of language and culture - have become larger than ever. For example, Braniff Airlines wanted to advertise its fine leather seats. But when its advertisement was translated from English to Spanish, it told people that they could fly naked!

Another example of wrong translation is when Chevrolet tried to market the Chevy Nova in Latin America. In English, the word nova refers to a star. But in Spanish, it means «doesn`t go». Would you buy a car with this name?

To avoid these problems of translation, most advertising firms are now beginning to write completely new ads. In writing new ads, global advertisers must consider different styles of communication in different countries. In some cultures, the meaning of an advertisement is usually found in the exact words that are used to describe the product and to explain why it is better than the competition. This is true in such countries as the United States, and Germany. But in other cultures, such as Japan, the message depends more on situations and feelings than it does on words. For this reason, the goal of many TV commercials in Japan will be to show how good people feel in party or some other social situation. The commercial will not say that a product is better than others. Instead, its goal will be to create a positive mood or feeling about the product.

Global advertisers must also consider differences in laws and customs. For instance, certain countries will not allow TV commercials on Sunday, and others will not allow TV commercials for children`s products on any day of the week. In some parts of the world, it is forbidden to show dogs on television or certain types of clothing, such as jeans. The global advertiser who does not understand such laws and customs will soon have problems.

Finally, there is the question of what to advertise. People around the world have different customs as well as different likes and dislikes. So the best advertisement in the world means nothing if the product is not right for the market. Even though some markets around the world are quite similar, companies such as McDonald`s have found that it is very important to sell different products in different parts of the world. So when you go to a McDonald`s in Hawaii, you`ll find Chinese noodles on the menu. If you stop a hamburger in Germany, you can order a beer with your meal. In Malaysia, you can try a milk shake that is flavored with a fruit that most people in other countries have never tasted.

The products must be sold with the right kind of message. It has never been an easy job for global advertisers to create this message. But no matter how difficult this job may be, it is very important for global advertisers to do it well. In today`s competitive world, most new products quickly fail. Knowing how to advertise in the global market can help companies win the competition for success.

In 2000 the United States was the leading advertising market in the world with total advertising spending of $147.1 billion. Japan ranked with $39.7 billion, followed by Germany with $20.7 billion, the United Kingdom with $16.5 billion, and France with $10.7 billion. This article deals primarily with advertising practices in Canada and United States.

1.3 History

Archaeologists have found evidence of advertising dating back to the 3000s BC, among the Babylonians. One of the first known methods of advertising was the outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs, notably in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii. An advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent, and one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travels to a tavern situated in another town.

In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simple but effective form of advertising, the use of socalled town crier. The criers were citizens who read public notices aloud and were also employed by merchants to shout the praises of their wares. Later they become familiar figures on the streets of colonial American settlement. The town criers were forerunners of the modern announcer who delivers radio and television commercials.

Although graphic forms of advertising appeared early in history, printed made little headway until the invention of the movable-type printing press by German printer Johannes Gutenberg about 1450. This invention made the mass distribution of posters and circulars possible. The first advertisement in English appeared in 1472 in the form of a handbill announcing a prayer book for sale. Two hundred years later, the first newspaper advertisement published offering a reward for the return of 12 stolen horses. In the American colonies, the Boston News-Letter, the regularly published newspaper in America, began carrying advertisements in 1704, and about 25 years Benjamin Franklin made advertisements more readable by using large headlines.

In the United States, the advertising profession began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1841 when Volney B. Palmer set up a shop as an advertising agent, the forerunner of the advertising agency. Agents contracted with newspapers for large amounts of advertising space at discount rates and resold the space to advertisers at a higher rate. The advertisements themselves were created by the advertisers. In 1869, Francis Ayer bought out Palmer and N. W. Ayer & Son, an agency that still exists today. Ayer transformed the standard agent practice by billing advertisers exactly what he paid to publishers plus an agreed upon commission. Soon Ayer was not only selling space but was also conducting market and writing the advertising copy.

Advertising agencies initially focused on print. But the introduction of radio created a new opportunity and by the end of the 1920s, advertising had established itself in radio to such an extent that advertisers were producing many of their own programs. The early 1930s ushered in dozens of radio dramatic series that were known as soap operas because they were sponsored by soap companies.

Television had been introduced in 1940, but because of the high cost of TV sets the lack of programming, it was not immediately embraced. As the American economy soared in the 1950s, so did the sale of TV sets the advertising that paid for the popular new shows. Soon TV far surpassed radio as an advertising medium.

It is important to trace the inception of the Internet before we discuss its implications on the future of advertising. This new media was essentially created for purposes. The idea of the Internet was proposed by Dr. J. C. R. Licklider of MIT, in 1962, who headed a Project called Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA). Due to defense reasons, he saw great merit in «the global network» of computers. He, however, could not completely developed his idea, and thus it was continued by his successor Law Roberts. Dr Roberts in the late sixties finally managed to develop his plan for ARPANET by connecting a computer in Massachusetts with a computer in California through a dial up telephone line. This development demonstrated the feasibility of wide area networking. Due to development, in 1969, four Universities UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah connected their main computers and shared data from one location and thus began the Internet.

Up until the 70s the Internet was popular merely in the government and the academic circle, but in the mid 70s with the introduction of the new TCP/IP protocol the Internet became a viable platform to communicate for the average person.

As the Internet gained popularity with the average person, marketers began to explore if this medium was lucrative to advertise on. They realized that this medium gave them more than what the previous mediums could offer. The Internet provide their consumers with interactivity - consumers could now interact with their product and build their own experience with it. They believed that this form of brand conditioning would enhance the consumer`s brand experience. However since this medium was new, there was a lot of skepticism and marketers were very wary at first to invest their marketing budgets. Their skepticism was soon put to rest. There has been enough research conducted to show the merit of advertising on the Internet.

2. Types of advertising

Advertising can be divided into two broad categories - consumer advertising and trade advertising. Consumer advertising is directed at the public. Trade advertising is directed at wholesalers or distributors who resell to the public. This article focuses on consumer advertising, the form of advertising that is familiar to most people.

2.1 Consumer advertising

Different Kinds

There are two kinds of goods bought by the general public, consumer goods and consumer durables, which together with consumer services are advertised media addressed to appropriate social grades.

Consumer Goods

There are the numerous goods to be found in the shops, those which enjoy sales like foods, drinks, confectionery and toiletries being called Fast Moving Consumer Goods, (FMCGs)

Consumer Durables

Usually more expensive and less frequently bought, consumer durables are of a more permanent nature than consumer goods and include clothes, furniture, domestic appliances, entertainment goods like radio, television and video, and mechanical equipment from lawn-mowers to motor-cars.

Consumer Services

They include services for security and well-being like banking, insurance, investment, repairs and maintenance, and those more to do with pleasure such as hotels, restaurants, travel and holidays.

2.2 Media of Consumer Advertising

The media of consumer advertising are those with wide appeal. Even when more specialist journals such as women`s magazines are used they still have large circulations. In fact, the term «consumer press» is applied to the publications which are displayed for sale in newsagents shops and news-stands.

Most of the trade, technical and professional journals have other forms of distribution such as special orders placed with newsagents, postal subscription or free postal controlled circulation. Controlled circulation are mailed (free of charge) to selected readers plus those who have requested copies.

The primary media of consumer advertising are the press, radio, television. Outdoor and to a limited extent cinema, supported by sales literature, exhibitions and sales promotion. We should not forget sponsorship, especially the sponsorship of many popular sports which in turn can be supported by arena advertising at the sports venue.

Consumer advertising can be further divided into national advertising and local advertising.

National advertising is aimed at consumer throughout the entire country. National advertising usually attempts to create awareness among the public of a product or service, or it tries to build loyalty to a product or service. Local advertising is aimed at informing people in a particular area where they can purchase a product or service. Advertising to the public may also take the form of institutional advertising, image advertising, informational advertising, or cooperative advertising.

Institutional advertising seeks to create a favorable impression of a business or institution without trying to sell a specific product. This type of advertising is designed solely to build prestige and public respect. For nonprofit institutions, such advertising helps support the institution`s activities - for example, by encouraging blood donations or cash contributions for the work of an organization like the Red Cross. A for-profit business has other reasons for improving its reputation rather than trying to sell a particular product. In some cases a large company may sell a diversity of products. As a result, there is greater efficiency in building a brand image for the company itself. If consumers learn to have a high regard for the company, then they are more likely to have a favorable opinion of all of the company`s diverse products.

Many advertisers prefer a strategy known as image advertising. These advertisers seek to give a product a personality that is unique, appealing, and appropriate so that the consumer will want to choose it over similar products that might fulfill the same need. The personality is created partly by the product`s design and packaging but, the words and pictures the advertisements associate with the product. This personality is known as a brand image. Advertisers believe brand image often leads consumers to select one brand over another or instead of a less genetic product. Brand image is especially important for commodities such as detergents, jeans, hamburgers, and soft drinks, because within these product categories there are few, if any, major differences.

Informational advertising seeks to promote an idea or influence behavior. Sometimes known as service advertising, it may try to discourage young people from using illicit drugs or it may encourage people to adopt safer, healthier lifestyles.

Cooperative advertising is an arrangement between manufacturers and retailers in which manufacturers offer credits to their retail customers for advertising. The credits, or advertising allowances, are based on the amount of product the retailer purchases. For example, if the retailer purchases $100,000 worth of a product a manufacturer, the manufacturer`s cooperative advertising program may allot a 1 percent credit, or $1,000, toward the cost of purchasing an ad that will feature the product. In addition, some manufacturers will match the amount that the retailer spends, sharing the cost of the ad. In the United States antitrust laws enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) ensure that these ad allowances are offered on equal and terms so that large retailers are not unduly favored over small retailers. Cooperative advertising is a form of local advertising because it direct consumers to local retail outlets.

3. Slogans, Logos, Types

A unique and memorable slogan that summarizes and highlights your firm`s special capabilities can strengthen the impact of your message, increase your firm`s name recognition and enhance your firm`s image. An effective slogan can also act as a powerful closer or summary statement for your advertisement.

Likewise, a distinctive and attractive logo can help to increase your firm`s name recognition and communicate something about the personality of your firm and the nature of your corporate environment. Some firms like to portray a traditional, highly formal image; others like to convey the idea that their firm`s culture is rather informal and more casual.

Like your slogan and logo, the type and that is selected for your advertisement should reflect your firm`s personality and image you want to project to existing clients, potential clients, your employees, and the general public. In most instances, you will want to utilize a simple layout that is direct and to the point. A busy and layout can make people feel that your firm is poorly organized and inefficient.

Remember: good copy should be clear. Good copy should be crisp. Good copy should be concise. Clear, crisp, and concise. The three Cs of copywriting suggest that the words in your advertising message do a good job of communicating. Do not use big words when small words can make your meaning clear. Use colorful, descriptive terms. Use the number of words necessary to make your meaning clear and no more - but also no less! Recent research conducted at Yale University found the following 12 words are the most personal and persuasive words in our language. You Discovery Safety Money Proven Results Love Guarantee Save New Easy Health. Notice the overused word free is not on the list.

As excited as you may be about your product or service the largest ad with the boldest type doesn`t necessarily receive the attention you might expect. In fact, sometimes the big and the bold just end up looking like the big, the bad and the ugly.

For instance, in newspapers where advertisement are surrounded by small type set in a column format, the most affective ads are those with an appropriate use of white space and type. Prove it to yourself. Glance at your morning paper. Where is your eye drawn? More than likely, you are drawn to those ads that strike a balance between type, white space and graphics. (By the way, placement on the paper will also affect the attention you receive. Your eyes are drawn first to the upper 1/3 of the page and then downward).


So does this mean you never use big, bold type or graphics in your ads? Of course not. Just keep in mind that a little goes a long way. Whatever you are preparing - ads, press releases, data sheets and the like - remember that your main purpose is to inform. Just don`t go overboard.

3.1 What`s your tone?

The tone of your advertisement should reflect the nature of your target audience as well as your firm`s personality and orientation.

For example, if you are trying to attract physicians, your message should be written the way doctors think and speak. If you are trying to attract clients in a particular industry, use phrases, images, and language that are germane to the businesses comprising that field. Try to let your advertisements speak from your clients` perspective. After all, they are the people to whom you arte trying to promote your services. In brief, you want potential clients to know that you speak and understand their language.

3.2 Some thoughts on colour

It`s quite well known that the color red inspires impulsive buying. Our eyes are drawn to the color like ducks to water. Just walk into any supermarket and look at the color most often used on products. It`s red. The next one is yellow. Both colors tend to raise your blood pressure. They cause excitement, which goes to prove one thing: color affects us.

The Science of Color. For a long time, color has been used by both advertiser and merchandiser to encourage us (the consumer) to take (purchase the product or service.) In fact, the use of color in advertising and merchandising has become somewhat of a science to itself.

Sometimes color is selected for the sole purpose of drawing attention to the product or advertisement. This is when red or yellow may be used. But you can also attention by using a combination of colors. For instance, Stagg Chili uses a black background with gold letters. Total creates eye-catching appeal with a blue package and a red logo.

Color can also be used to relate to a particular product or service. Consider the Green Giant product. Their packages are set in a white background with the famous green logo. Healthy Choice is another example of using green. Both products are trying to emulate or healthfulness. Green does the job. Root beer is sold, using packages created in brown shades. A&W is a perfect example, which uses brown and orange.

Designers & Color. Designers often select colors to bring life to an otherwise dull advertisement. Sometimes those colors selected by a designer aren`t always based on any real scientific choice. But when asked, the designer can usually give you a reason why he or she selected one color over another.

What Colors Say. Of course, as with everything else these days, there have been plenty of studies done on color. Here`s short review of some of the basics used today in advertisements or product development and what they mean:


Here is the all-time color favorite for most folks, especially men. It`s a cool color that is extremely versatile inspiring us in so many different directions.


Along with red, this color raises our blood pressure a bit and catches our eyes specifically when used against black. Yellow embodies life, joy and offers a high-visual impact. It adds brightness to our lives.


This color is an attention grabber. It is considered the hottest color with the highest impact for attention and action. It has a strong masculine appeal.


This is the symbol of health. Green is often used with health food products, vegetables and even mentholated tobacco products (to emphasize freshness).


Although considered a masculine color, it does have a strong appeal to women as well. It symbolizes earth, wood, hearth, home, warmth, comfort.


Black is the embodiment of sophistication, usually used for expensive products. It is also a wonderful background color to accentuate other color, such as yellow, red and orange.


This is the color of autumn - the edible color, and it evokes strong emotions regarding holidays, home, good thing to eat.

So what should you do with color in your product or advertisement development? While most of us in the small business industry cannot afford to have color studies done for our products, services and/or customers, we can use color to provide an accent to our visual presentations.

But whatever the you choose, keep it simple (not more than three colors per item) and be consistent.

Remember to always stay with the same color palette. It helps your identity and is certainly more pleasing to the eye.

Effective advertisement design takes full advantage of buyers` 4 ad reading habits

Attract the - SIZE

buyers when they - BRDER

scan - COLOR

Interest the - ILLUSTRATION

buyers when they - LOGOS

review - SLOGANS


Convince the - RELIABITY

buyers when they - AUTHORIZED SALES & SERVICE




Prompt the - INFORMATION

buyers when they - MAP


4. Advertisement as a service

4.1 Social benefits

The impact of the whole advertising industry on a person is immense and plays a very important role in our lives. Advertising absorbs vast sums of money but it is useful to the community. What are the function of advertisement? The first one to mention is to inform. A lot of the information people have about household devices, cars, building materials, electronic equipment, cosmetics, detergents and food is largely derived from the advertisements they read. Advertisements introduce them to new products or remind them of the existing ones.

The second function is to sell. The products are shown from the best point of view, and the potential buyer, on having entered the store, unconsciously chooses the advertised products. One buys this washing powder or this chewing gum, because the colorful TV commercial convince him of the best qualities of the product. Even cigarettes or sweets or alcohol are associated with the good values of human life such as joy, freedom, love and happiness, and just those associations make a person choose the advertised products.

The aim of a good advertisement is to create a consumer demand to buy the advertised product or service. Children are good example as they usually want the particular kind of chocolate or toy or chewing-gum. Being naive they cannot evaluate objectively what is truthful and what is exaggerated and select the really good products unless they buy the goods and check for themselves.

Thirdly, since the majority of advertisements are printed in our press we pay less for newspapers and magazines, also TV in most countries is cheap.

The public advertising seen on street billboard, railway stations and buildings makes people`s life more joyful. Moreover, all those small ads in the press concerning «employment», «education» and «For sale and wanted» columns, help ordinary people to find a better job or a better employee, to sell or to buy their second-hand things and find services, or learn about educational facilities, social events such as, concerts, theatre plays, football matches, and to announce births, marriages and deaths. Thus despite our dissatisfaction when being bombarded by all the advertisers` information, we must admit that they do perform a useful service to society, and advertisements are an essential part of our everyday life.

4.2 Mass Media

To reach the consumer, advertisers employ a wide variety of media.

Mass media is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio, motion pictures, and large-circulation newspapers and magazines. Journalism is one of the instruments of popular communications.

There are five major fields of journalism: newspapers, news services, periodicals, radio, and television perform information only briefly, but quickly. Newspapers include full reports on different topics. News agencies provide them with the latest information.

5. News Agencies

News agencies are local, international, or technical organizations that gather and distribute news, selling their services to newspapers, periodicals, and broadcasters; reports are also available as part of some on-line computer services. The majors news organizations in the U.S. are: the Associated Press (AP), the United Press Association, called the United Press (UP), and the International News Service (INS), United Press International (UPI). Two major European news agencies are the Reuter Telegram Company of London; and Agence France-Presse. Some countries have government-owned and controlled agencies. News agencies transmit copy through the use of the telegraph, telephone, wires, underwater cables, and communications satellites. Many offer their clients photographs, news analyses, and special features.

Methods of advertising


Newspapers is a publication issued periodically, usually daily or weekly, to present information about current events. The first daily paper in England was the Daily Courant (1702). England newspapers began to reach the masses in the 19-th cent. Important English newspapers of today are The Times of London (founded in 1785) and the Manchester Guardian. One of the oldest continental newspapers, Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, appeared in Germany in 1609; and the first French newspaper, the Gazette, was founded in 1631. Important newspapers of the world today include Francfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Germany), Figaro (France), and the Times of India 9Delhi). Since the invention of the telegraph, which facilitated the rapid gathering of news, the great news agencies have sold their services to many newspapers. Improvements in typesetting and printing (especially the web press) have made possible the publication of huge editions at great speed. During the 1970-th such technological developments as photocomposition and the use of communications satellites to deliver news and photographs revolutionized the newspaper industry. The advent of computer technology has many newspapers to offer information through commercial on-line computer services, but they are unable to give more attention and space to each problem. The newspaper articles give much more information about events. That is the main advantage of newspapers.

Newspapers cover stories in great detail. However, newspapers present information later than radio or TV. The great advantage of newspapers over radio and TV is that they can report stories in depth.


Periodicals are publications issued regularly, distinguished from the newspaper in format, in that their pages are smaller and usually bound, and in that they are smaller and in that they are published weekly, monthly, or quarterly, rather that daily. Periodicals range from technical and scholarly journals to illustrated magazines for mass circulation. Specialized magazines include the news magazines Time (1923- ) and Newsweek (1933- ). Computer advances have made possible the delivery of magazine article through on-line services and have begun to spawn entirely electronic periodicals, such as The Online Journal of Current Critical Trials (1922- ), a professional medical journal.


The first regularly scheduled radio broadcast in the U.S. began in 1920. The sale of advertising began in 1922, establishing commercial broadcasting as an industry. A coast-to-coast hookup began early in 1924, and expansion of both audience and transmission facilities continued rapidly. Radio is generally the first of news media to report a local story or a news service bulletin. A radio announcer can interrupt a program with a news flash as soon as the report comes in. Most stations present regular news bulletins every half-hour or hour. The national radio broadcast major news events. However, most radio news bulletins do not report the news in detail. In a five minute broadcast the stories average less than 30 seconds each. Radio also provides weather forecast and traffic information.


Experiments in broadcasting television began in the 1920s but were interrupted by World War II. Television signals are also now transmitted from satellites direct to household satellite dishes. Television is the main source of news for many household around the world. TV does what none of the other media can: it brings the sight and sounds of some important news events by means of filmed, taped or live reports. Like regular radio news programs provide only brief accounts of relatively new stories. But the visual aspect of TV news story can often help viewers understand the story. In addition to daily news reports, television covers special news events. Coverage of such an event may replace many hours of regular TV shows. Television also broadcasts in-depth programs that help explain story of subjects. Such programs, which run from half an hour to three hours, include documentaries and interview programs. Most documentaries are filmed or taped. They may perform such subjects as crime, foreign policy, or race relations. Interview programs, which are usually broadcast live, may consist of a panel of journalists who ask questions of a major figure in the news,

The importance of mass media and journalism has greatly increased in recent years. In democratic countries, people depend on the news media for the fair and truthful reporting of current events. Freedom of the press encourages the exchange of ideas among citizens. Media forms public opinions.

In the United States, the most popular media, as measured by the amount of advertising spending, are television, newspapers, direct mail, radio, Yellow Pages, magazines, the Internet, outdoor advertising, and a variety of other media including transit advertisements, novelties, and point-of-purchase displays. These ranking are measured each year by Advertising Age, an advertising trade magazine, and seldom vary. In 1999, television attracted about 23,4 percent, or $50,4 billion, of the advertising dollars spent in the United States. Television is available to advertisers in two forms: broadcast and cable.

To run commercials on television, advertisers buy units of time known as sports. The standard units of time are 15, 30, or 60 seconds in length. These sports are purchased either locally or from a national network. Because of the high cost of national network sports, ranging from hundreds of thousands of dollars to million of dollars, only large national advertisers can afford to run network television sports. Advertisers wishing to reach a local audience can buy time from an individual station. But even these sports cost so much to produce and run that small and even many mid-sized companies cannot afford them. Because television commercials combine sight, sound, and motion, they are more dramatic than any other form of advertising and lend excitement and appeal to ordinary products. Advertisers consider television an excellent medium to build a product`s brand image or to create excitement around a particular event such as a year-end auto sale. But TV sports are too brief to provide much product information. As a result, television works best for products such as automobiles, fashion, food, beverages, and credit cards that viewers are familiar with and easily understand.

In the United States, newspapers are the second most popular advertising medium after television and in 1999 received 21,7 percent, or $46,6 billion, of all advertising dollars. Newspapers enable advertisers to reach readers of all age groups, ethnic backgrounds, and income levels. Two types of advertising appear in newspapers: classified advertising, such as the want advertisements, and display advertisements. Display advertisements range in size from as large as a full page to as small as one column in width and less than one centimeter (less than one inch) in length. Display advertisements often contain illustrations or photographs and usually provide information about where the product or service being advertised can be purchased. Typically, advertising makes up about 65 percent of a newspaper`s content and generates about 65 percent of a newspaper`s revenue.

Brochures. For many small business, a printed brochure may be helpful to establish credibility and tell your story in more detail. Computer typesetting and laser printing have reduced the cost of producing a brochure. Free layout help is available at many copy centers. Brochure having standard 8,5 x 11 inch of triple-fold design that will fit into a standard business envelope is very cheap. Other Local Print Media such as booklets available for free pickup in high-traffic areas like convenience stores, banks and motels should not be overlooked. These may include guides to local television programs, listings currently available from real estate firms, entertainment or sporting events.

Direct mail is the third largest advertising medium, attracting about 19,2 percent, or $41 billion, of all U.S. advertising dollars in 1999. Direct mail advertising, as the name implies, is advertising that is sent directly to people by mail, usually through the postal system. Increasingly, however, electronic mail (e-mail) is being used as a direct mail device. Direct mail can be as simple as a single letter or as involved as a catalogue or an elaborate e-mail known as HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) mail that offers graphics and links to more information.

Because advertisers are speaking directly to those who are most likely to buy their product or service, many advertisers consider direct mail the most effective of all advertising media for generating immediate results. Direct mail through the U.S. postal system, however, is the most expensive form of advertising, costing about 14 times as much per exposure as most magazine and newspaper advertisements. But because of the results it produces, many advertisers believe the expense is justified.

Radio. In America 280 million people own more than 300 million radios! Contrary to the predictions of doom during the advent of television, radio is alive and well today. In its pretelevision days, radio was the national advertisers` most economical way to communicate with millions at a time. The programs of music, drama and news were a common part of the American life-style. With the advent of television, radio moved to the automobile and the beach. Along came the transistor and radio moved to the pocket. Today radio is everyhere.

It attracted about 8 percent, or $17,2 billion, of all U.S. advertising dollars, making it the fourth largest advertising medium in 1999. Although national advertisers can buy national network radio time, 90 percent of all radio advertising is local. Unlike television which reaches a broad audience, the specialized programming of radio stations enable advertisers to reach a narrow, highly specific audience such as people who like sports or urban teenagers who listen to the latest styles of popular music. Because people listen to the radio while doing something else such as driving or working, radio commercials can be easily misunderstood. As a result, radio advertisements work best when the messages are relatively simple ones for familiar, easily understood, products.

Yellow Pages, the thick directories of telephone listings and display advertisements, represented the fifth most popular advertising medium in 1999, attracting $12,6 billion, or 5,9 percent, of total advertising spending. Almost all advertising in the Yellow Pages is total advertising spending. Almost all advertising in the Yellow Pages is local advertising.

Magazines ranked sixth in 1999 in total U.S. advertising spending, representing 5,3 percent, or $11,4 billion. They reach all different kinds of readers, who have similar interests.

The magazine`s ability to reproduce beautiful color photographs can enhance a product`s appearance. As a result, magazine advertising is an effective way to build a product`s brand image. Because such advertising is expensive and because most magazines are distributed regionally or nationally, they generally feature national advertising rather than local advertising.

Magazines generate 63 percent of their revenue from advertising. In 1999, the Internet accounted for $1,9 billion in advertising revenue in the U.S., or 0.9 percent of total advertising spending. Advertisements on the often take the form of buttons, pop-ups, and sponsorships. But the most important aspect of Internet marketing is that the World Wide Web allows advertisers to personalize their messages for individual customers. For example, each time a customer visits a commercial Web site he is often welcomed by name and is offered information about new products based on the type of products the person has purchased in the past. Moreover, the customer can then order the product immediately without venturing out to a store.

Outdoor advertising amounted to 0,8 percent, or $1,7 billion, of total ad spending in the U.S. in 1999. Outdoor advertising is an effective way to reach a highly mobile audience that spends a lot of time on the road - for example, in commuting to from work or as part of their job. It offers the lowest cost per exposure of any major advertising medium, and it produces a major impact, because it is big, colorful, and hard to ignore. The messages on outdoor boards have to be very brief. So outdoor advertising primarily serves as a reminder medium and one that can trigger an impulse buy. One of the forms of outdoor advertising is hoarding.

Hoarding advertisements are usually put up in eye-catching positions at the side of the road. The cost of the advertisement will depend on where the hoarding is and how large it is. If it is a very good place and near the center of the city where it will be seen by many potential customers, then it will probably be quite expensive.

The sites are usually rented out to clients on a monthly basis by an advertising agency.

Transit advertising is mainly an urban advertising form that uses buses and taxi tops as well as posters placed in bus shelters, airports, and subway stations. Like outdoor boards, transit is a form of reminder advertising that helps advertisers place their name before a local audience.

Finally, point-of-purchase advertising places attention-getting displays, streamers, banners, and price cards in the store near where the product is sold to explain product benefits and promote impulse buys. A wide variety of other advertising media are pencils and pens with the firms`s name imprinted, skywriting, business cards and even sandwich boards - all can perform an effective advertising role for some advertisers.

It is very difficult for advertisers to tell whether a particular advertisement or method of advertising has been effective, but there is no doubt that without advertising the customer would never hear of some products. Perhaps the most effective advertising of all is the recommendation of the product by a satisfied customer to a potential customer - advertising by word of mouth.

General characteristics of the language of advertising

Authors of the study «the language of advertising» share in commercial and noncommercial. Commercial advertising is divided into branding, industrial and consumer. Another significant in terms of language design copywriter, I incur the separation of commercial advertising on the turn and rubric advertisement.(5)

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