History of Suffolk
History of education of the County of Suffolk, its geographical location. The characteristics and formation of a land division, creation of administrative districts. Suffolk and the Ice age, the base of the Ipswich, a description of East and West Suffolk.
|Рубрика||География и экономическая география|
|Размер файла||49,8 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/
Министерство образования Республики Беларусь
Учреждение образования «Могилевский государственный университет имени А. А. Кулешова»
Студента 1 курса
Юлия Владимировна Шинкевич
Наталья Михайловна Савченко
Suffolk and the Ice Age
Saxons and Vikings
Good old Ipswich
1200 - 1900
20th to 21th century Suffolk
East and West Suffolk
Translation of unknown words
Suffolk County is a country in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. As of 2014, the population was 767,254. The country seat is Boston, the state capital and largest city. The county government was abolished in the late 1990s and Suffolk remains only as a geographic area, still used by entities such as the National Weather Service to define a weather alert affecting its footprint without listing every single town/city that embraces. Suffolk Country is included in the Boston-Cambridge -Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The county of Suffolk (Sudfole, Suthfolc, meaning 'southern folk') was formed from the south part of the kingdom of East Anglia which had been settled by the Angles in the latter half of the 5th century. The most important Anglo-Saxon settlements appear to have been made at Sudbury and Ipswich. Before the end of the Norman dynasty, strongholds had arisen at Eye, Clare, Walton and Framlingham. Probably the establishment of Suffolk as a separate shire was scarcely completed before the Conquest, and although it was reckoned as distinct from Norfolk in the Domesday Survey of 1086, the fiscal administration of Norfolk and Suffolk remained under a single sheriff until 1575. The boundary of the county has undergone very little change, though its area has been considerably affected by coast erosion. Parts of Gorleston and Thetford, which formerly belonged to the ancient county of Suffolk, are now within the administrative county of Norfolk, and other slight alterations of the administrative boundary have been made. Under the Local Government Act of 1888 Suffolk was divided into the two administrative counties of East and West Suffolk.
Suffolk County comprises 1000 square miles of eastern two-thirds of Long Island. Long Island itself extends 120 miles into the Atlantic Ocean, East from New York City. The distance from the Nassau County border to Montauk Point is 86 miles. At Suffolk County's widest point the distance from Long Island Sound to the southern shore is 26 miles.
Long Island was formed during the Pleistocene Era when the earth warmed and the massive glaciers then covering the area melted, leaving glacial moraines of rock and soil deposits which shaped the island. Extending back 10,000 years and up to the 17th century, the island was inhabited by numerous small groups of Algonquins having a language and culture throughout the Middle Atlantic region and what is now New England. Historians estimate the native population to have been no more than 6,000 (In 1994 there were approximately 1,400,000 residents of Suffolk.) The Algonquins fished and harvested shellfish at the shore and hunted the inland wilderness. From clam shells and whelk they chiseled wampum, the currency of eastern natives and, in the 17th century, adopted as money by colonists.
The Dutchman, Adrian Block, the first explorer to touch land at Montauk point in 1614, encountered native Americans. The first white resident was Lion Gardiner, who settled in 1639 on the Island between the north and south forks. Gardiner's Island still bears his family name.
English colonists crossed Long Island Sound from Connecticut and Massachusetts colonies, founding Southold and southampton (1640), East Hampton (1648), Shelter Island (1652), and Setauket, in Brookhaven (1655). Dutch settlers moved eastward from Manhattan Island. By the mid-1600s the Dutch had ceded control of eastern Long Island to the English.
In the 1670s, James, Duke of York, who owned Long Island, appointed Thomas Dongan to govern it. At a gathering of colonial representatives, the "Charter of Liberties and Privileges" was adopted (1 November 1683), establishing Suffolk county as a political entity and as one of the 12 original counties of the Province of New York, and laying the foundation for the State's present political subdivisions and governmental structure. The County was occupied by the British for the seven years of the Revolutionary War, from 1776 to 25 November 1783.
From the first years of colonization, the heavily wooded forests provided wood which Long Islanders cut and shipped as cordwood and as board footage for local ship and home builders. As the land was cleared, the rich acreage was farmed. Fishing and shipbuilding were other early industries. Until the 1850s whaling was an important source of income.
Faring remains a staple of eastern Long Island commerce, although strawberries, cabbage, potatoes, pumpkins and sod acres are giving way to horse farms and vineyards. Its quaint historic villages, rocky north shore beaches and calm waters, the white sand and breakers off Fire Island, and the dependable winds and safe harbors for sailing make tourism a major Suffolk County industry. In the 1930s the County became the site of large-scale suppliers to the U.S. defense and aerospace industries. For example, Grumman Corporation played an important role in developing high-technology jet planes, such as the Navy F14 fighter, as well as the lunar module (LEM) which first landed men on the moon in 1969. After World War I, Brookhaven National Laboratory, a research institution administered by Associated Universities Inc. and funded by the Federal Government, was established on the site of Camp Upton in Yaphank. Its scientists develop peaceful uses of atomic energy. High technology centers make Suffolk County sixth in the nation in the production of radio and television communications equipment and aircraft manufacture.
Since World War II, Long Island has epitomized the phenomenon of growing suburbia. In 1955, mass-produced housing developments, along with new major institutions of learning, contributed to Suffolk County's population explosion. Foremost among the latter is the State University of New York at Stony Brook, which opened on a 1000-acre campus in 1962. Its Health Science Center and 18-story University Hospital became Long Island's tallest buildings in 1976. For some, the Island's bucolic pleasures are offset by new problems accompanying population growth: disappearing farms replaced by housing developments, strip-zoning along once pastoral roads, dependence on the automobile, overcrowded roadways, possible effects of pollution of inland and coastal waters, and mounting waste-disposal needs.
Long Island's leading newspaper, Newsday, founded by Alicia Paterson in 1940 in Hempstead, started a Suffolk edition in 1944. The paper features investigative news coverage of local public officials and institutions, up-to-the-minute sports, and coverage of world and national affairs.
At first the whole shire lay within the diocese of Dunwich which was founded approximately 631. In 673 a new bishopric was established at Elmham to comprise the whole of Norfolk which had formerly been included in the see of Dunwich. The latter came to an end with the incursion of the Danes, and on the revival of Christianity in this district Suffolk was included in the diocese of Elmham, subsequently removed from South Elmham to Thetford and thence to Norwich. The archdeaconry of Sudbury was transferred by the ecclesiastical commissioners to thediocese of Ely. This archdeaconry had been separated from the original archdeaconry of Suffolk in 1127. In 1256 the latter included thirteen deaneries which have since been subdivided, so that-at present it contains eighteen deaneries; Sudbury archdeaconry which comprised eight deaneries in 1256 now (1911) includes eleven. There were also three districts under jurisdiction of Canterbury and one under that of Rochester.
The shire-court was held at Ipswich. In 1831 the whole county contained twenty-one hundreds and three municipal boroughs. Most of these hundreds were identical with those of the Domesday Survey, but in 1086 Babergh was rated as two hundreds, Cosford, Ipswich and Parham as half hundreds and Samford as a hundred and a half. Hoxne hundred was formerly known as Bishops hundred and the vills which were included later in Thredling hundred were within Claydon hundred in 1086. Two large ecclesiastical liberties extended over more than half of the county; that of St Edmund included the hundreds of Risbridge, Thedwastre, Thingoe, Cosford, Lackford and Blackbourn in which the kings writ did not run, and St Aethelreda of Ely claimed a similar privilege in the hundreds of Carleford, Colneis, Plumesgate, Loes, Wilford and Thredling. Among others who had large lands in the county with co-extensive jurisdiction were the lords of the honor of Clare, earls of Gloucester and Hereford and the lords of the honor of Eye, held successively by the Bigods, the Uffords and the De la Poles, earl of Suffolk. The Wingfields, Bacons and Herveys have been closely connected with the county.
For the purposes of civil government the Liberty of Saint Edmund and the remainder (or "body") of the county were quite distinct, each providing a separate grand jury to the county assizes. The county was further divided into "geldable" land, in which fines and forfeitures were payable to the Crown, and the liberties and franchises where they were payable to the lord of the liberty. The geldable lands were divided into two quarter sessions divisions: Bungay (Hundreds of Blything, Mutford And Launditch and Wangford); and Ipswich (Bosmere and Claydon, Hartismere, Hoxne, Samford and Stow). The liberty of St Ethelredra held sessions at Woodbridge while those of the St Edmund were held at Bury St Edmunds. By the early nineteenth century these were being referred to simply as Beccles, Bury St Edmunds, Ipswich and Woodbridge Divisions. The three quarter sessions divisions of Beccles, Ipswich and Woodbridge were combined to form a single division in 1860. From that date Suffolk had eastern and western divisions with sessions held at Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds respectively. These became the basis for the two administrative countries of East Suffolk and West Suffolk in 1890.
By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and later became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk, and several adjacent areas, became the kingdom of East Anglia, which was settled by the Angles in the 5th century AD, later merging with Mercia and then Wessex.
Suffolk was divided into separate Quarter Sessions divisions. These were originally four in number, reduced to two in 1860, the eastern division being administered from Ipswich and the western from Bury St Edmunds. The two divisions were made separate administrative counties as East Suffolk and West Suffolk under the Local Government Act 1888, with Ipswich becoming a county borough. A few Essex parishes were also added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon, and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
Under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk and Ipswich were merged to form a unified county of Suffolk on 1 April 1974. This was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Ipswich, Mid Suffolk, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal and Waveney. This Act also transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Bill would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire, but Colchester would have been transferred in from Essex; but those changes were not included in Act as passed.
In 2007 the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee.The Boundary Committee consulted local bodies and reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, however, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government.
Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities - Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk; and the other, that of creating a single county-wide controlling authority - the "One Suffolk" option. In February 2010 the then Minister Rosie Winterton announced that there would be no changes imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the Review, but that the Government would be "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 General Election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition Government, and the administrative structures of the county are therefore unchanged.
Suffolk and the Ice Age
Suffolk's chalky clay soils are formed from 'till' or 'boulder clay'--this is material that was scraped up by the great Anglian Glaciation about 470,000-430,000 years ago and then left behind when the ice sheet melted. In places this layer is nearly 70 metres thick. Nearly all of Suffolk was covered by the Anglian Glaciation but no subsequent ice sheets reached this far south--the last glaciation, which ended about 10,000 years ago, only reached the north Norfolk coast. On either side of the clay till are areas with sandy soils. These are the result of 'outwash' from the melting glaciers and of windblows from the main glacial deposits.
20.000 years ago Suffolk was in the grip of an arctic freeze. 120.000 years ago the climate was like Southern France. Different types of wildlife - from polar bears to hippopotami - were able to thrive in these different environments.
West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, spearheads, arrows, axes, palstaves, knives, daggers, rapiers, armour, decorative equipment (in particular for horses) and fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds. Other finds include traces of cremations and barrows.
In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archжological finds; a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State, gold and silver bowls and jewellery and a lyre.
Suffolk has the earliest site offering evidence of tool-making in the whole country at High Lodge near Mildenhall. Flint tools made by Homo heidelbergensis half a million years ago, in a warm interval during the Ice Age, have been found there. As the ice sheets melted, the sea level rose and Britain eventually became an island in about 6000 BC. By 4000 BC Neolithic people--who had learned to grow crops and keep animals--had arrived in Suffolk. These New Stone Age farmers favoured sandy soils (which we think of as less productive) because they are easy to cultivate. The heavy clay soils of central Suffolk probably remained largely forested until the latter part of the Iron Age, in the final centuries BC. The Romans landed in AD43 and ruled Britain for nearly 400 years. Boudica's revolt in AD60-61 is notorious. Her people, the Iceni, lived in Norfolk and the northern half of Suffolk. After the revolt new small towns and numerous farmsteads across the country indicate a stable and fairly prosperous life for the descendants of the Iceni and the other local tribes. By the end of the period there were some extremely rich landowners as demonstrated by the wealth buried in the Mildenhall and Hoxne hoards. In the 3rd century the Romans built Walton Castle at Felixstowe (now destroyed by the sea), as one of a series of coastal forts for protection against raiders from northern Europe. In AD410 the legions and provincial government were recalled to Italy, and after this the Anglo-Saxons gradually took control of the county. The Mildenhall Treasure Enquiry is a site for schools about a Romano-British treasure hoard found in Suffolk--and the story that Roald Dahl wrote about its discovery.
Saxons and Vikings
suffolk ipswich county
In time, the Anglo-Saxons established kingdoms, including that of East Anglia.
Suffolk was the southern half of this, being the home of the "South Folk". The royal cemetery at Sutton Hoo where Raedwald, King of East Anglia, was buried in AD 625--is just ten miles inland, overlooking the River Deben. There is a splendid exhibition centre at the site.
The early settlers favoured the light, sandy areas for their settlements, specially near the rivers in the east and west of the county, but from the 8th century they expanded onto the heavy clay soils of central "High Suffolk". The re-constructed Anglo-Saxon village at West Stow, near Bury, is well known, and well worth a visit.
Later, the Anglo-Saxons in their turn tried to prevent Viking invasions. The number of Suffolk place names with Danish or Norse endings (-thorpe, -by and -toft) indicates how impossible they found it to do so.
The most famous episode of this period was the killing of St. Edmund, the King of East Anglia, in 869. More than one village claims to be the place where the Danes shot him with arrows, but the abbey at Bury St Edmunds is definitely the spot where his body was eventually laid to rest. When miracles were reported at his tomb, the abbey became the most important shrine in the country for pilgrimage, until Canterbury overtook it after the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket, in 1170.
Good old Ipswich
Ipswich is East Anglia's first town. Founded in the 7th century by the kings of East Anglia, it was the kingdom's main centre for industry and international trade until the 9th century.
From the late 9th century, other towns were founded in the region. In 1086, when the Domesday Book was compiled, Bury St Edmunds, Dunwich, Beccles, Sudbury, Clare and Eye were also functioning as towns.
The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History has information on their website about their important role in encouraging and publishing research on Suffolk's past. The Colchester and Ipswich Museum Service has information on their website about archaeology in Ipswich and the surrounding area.
1200 - 1900
In the Middle Ages, East Anglia was an important region with the local wool trade accounting for much of the country's wealth.
Hardly any fighting occurred here during the Civil War, the county being controlled for Parliament by a committee which met in Bury--but Bury was also the site of a riot in 1646, protesting against a Puritan ban on Christmas celebrations. 18th century Suffolk is notable for the rise of stately homes--like Heveningham Hall--and the renovation of others, such as Euston Hall.
Between 1800 and 1810, eighteen Martello towers were built in Suffolk, as a defence against Napoleon. They extended as far north as Aldeburgh.
Later in the century, Suffolk saw the same rapid rise in population--and the same movement to newly industrialised towns, and mass emigration--as the rest of the country. Rural poverty and discontent were marked when prices fell after the Napoleonic wars, and again towards the end of the century.
Suffolk, a maritime county on the E. coast of England, is bounded N. by Norfolk, E. by the German Ocean, S. by Essex, and W. by Cambridge. It lies between 51 56' and 52 37' N. lat., 0 23' and 1 46' E. long. Its greatest length from Southtown, a suburb of Great Yarmouth, on the N.E., to the south-western border, is 68 miles, and the extreme breadth 52 miles. The area is 1,481 square miles, or 947,681 acres, of which about 820,000 acres are arable land, meadow, and pasture. The population in 1801 was 214,404; in 1851, 337,215; and in 1861, 337,070. In the earliest times of which we have any record, it was inhabited by the Iceni, a British tribe, and subsequently formed part of the Roman province of Flavia Caesariensis. It was afterwards occupied by the Angles, and formed part of the kingdom of East Anglia. In 654, Penda, king of Mercia, attacked the East Anglians, and in a battle fought near Blytheburgh, slew their king. The Danes early commenced their ravages along this coast, and in 871 defeated and took prisoner Edmund, king of East Anglia, whom they put to death for refusing to renounce Christianity. His body was removed from Hoxne to Bury, which received in consequence the name of Bury St. Edmund's, and a monastery was erected to his honour. In the division of the kingdom under Alfred the county was included within the Danelagh, and at the time of the Norman conquest was held by Gurth, brother of Harold II. The surface of this county is generally flat, or gently undulating, there being no eminence in the whole county worthy of notice. The highest ground lies towards the W., through which, some miles to the W. of Bury, and thence to Thetford, runs a chalk dyke, which crosses this part of England in a north-easterly direction. This ridge separates the watershed of the N. from that of the S. of the county, the streams on the upper side flowing into the Little Ouse and Waveney, while those on the lower side fall into the Stour and Orwell, or directly into the German Ocean. The north western districts bordering on Cambridgeshire partake of its marshy, fenny nature, and in some places the land is secured from overflow of the rivers by large embankments along their course. The coast line, 52 miles in length, is for the most part regular, and convex to the sea. The bays are generally shallow, and the headlands have little prominence. The principal harbours are formed by the estuaries of the Orwell and Stour on the S.E., and of the other rivers which flow into the German Ocean. The shore is in most places low and sandy, and occasionally marshy; but low cliffs, composed of alternations of clay, sand, and gravel, are found on both sides of the estuary of the Deben, and at some other points. These are being slowly undermined by the sea, while at some places the reverse occurs, and accessions of land are being formed by the accumulation of marine deposits. Lowestoft, Southwold, and Felixstow are much resorted to as watering-places.
20th to 21th century Suffolk
In the 20th Century, Suffolk's easterly position, combined with its low relief, made it an ideal location for air bases in the struggle against Hitler. Wattisham is now used by the Army Air Corp while Honington is still used by the RAF. Mildenhall and Lakenheath are rented out to the US air force.
There were many more airfields at the time of the Second World War. Several are now the sites of industrial estates.
Suffolk, like all places, has changed physically, economically and socially over the course of time. Nowhere can this be seen more clearly than in the part of East Suffolk shown in the model of Sizewell.
Recent censuses reveal that over 20,000 people are moving into Suffolk each year--some from abroad, more though from other parts of the UK. This is out of a total county population of about 700,000.
During the 1950s and 1960s there was an increase in migration from the Caribbean to Suffolk. Many of the new migrants were employed in Ipswich by companies such as Cranes.
In the arts, Suffolk is noted for having been the home to two of England's best regarded painters, Thomas Gainsborough and John Constable - the Stour Valley area is branded as "Constable Country" - and one of its most noted composers, Benjamin Britten. Other artists of note from Suffolk include the cartoonist Carl Giles (a bronze statue of his character "Grandma" to commemorate this is located in Ipswich town centre), poets George Crabbe and Robert Bloomfield, writer and Literary editor Ronald Blythe, actors Ralph Fiennes and Bob Hoskins, actress and singer Kerry Ellis, musician and record producer Brian Eno, singer Dani Filth, of the Suffolk-based extreme metal group, Cradle of Filth, and singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran. Hip-hop DJ Tim Westwood is originally from Suffolk and the influential DJ and radio presenter John Peel made the county his home. One of Britain's leading contemporary painters, Maggi Hambling, was born, and resides, in Suffolk.
Suffolk's contributions to sport include Formula One magnate Bernie Ecclestone and former England footballers Terry Butcher, Kieron Dyer and Matthew Upson. Due to Newmarket being the centre of British horse racing many jockeys have settled in the county, including Lester Piggott and Frankie Dettori.
Significant ecclesiastical figures from Suffolk include Simon Sudbury, a former Archbishop of Canterbury; Tudor-era Catholic prelate Thomas Cardinal Wolsey; and author, poet and Benedictine monk John Lydgate.
Other significant persons from Suffolk include the suffragette Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett; the captain of HMS Beagle, Robert Fitz Roy; Witch-finder General Matthew Hopkins; and Britain's first female physician and mayor, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. Charity leader Sue Ryder settled in Suffolk and based her charity in Cavendish.
East and West Suffolk
Suffolk was administered as two units until it was united in 1974, as part of a national overhaul of local government.
West Suffolk was originally the area controlled by Bury Abbey, most of the land having been granted to it by Edward the Confessor, just before the Norman Conquest. Suffolk used to have the nickname "Silly Suffolk" but only on account of its many fine churches! "Silly" was being used in its original sense of holy, or unworldly.
East Suffolk, along with West Suffolk, was created in 1888 as an administrative county of England. The administrative county was based on the eastern quarter sessions division of Suffolk. East Suffolk County Council's headquarters were at East Suffolk County Hall in Ipswich, which was a county borough in its own right.
East Suffolk was abolished in 1974 when most of the county was merged with West Suffolk and the county borough of Ipswich to form the non-metropolitan county of Suffolk. A small part of East Suffolk was included into Norfolk in 1974.
From 1894 the administrative county was divided into municipal boroughs, urban districts and rural districts:
· Boroughs: Aldeburgh, Beccles, Eye, Lowestoft, Southwold.
· Urban districts: Bungay (created 1910), Felixstowe and Walton, (renamed Felixstowe 1914), Halesworth (created 1900), Leiston-cum-Sizewell (created 1895), Oulton Broad (created 1904, abolished 1919), Saxmundham (created 1900), Stowmarket.
· Rural districts created in 1894: Blything, Bosmere and Claydon, East Stow, Hartismere, Hoxne, Mutford and Lothinglands , Plomesgate, Samford, Wangford, Woodbridge.
· The Rural Districts were completely reorganised by a County Review Order in 1934, and reduced to seven in number: Blyth, Deben, Gipping, Hartismere, Lothingland, Samford, Wainford.
West Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust runs West Suffolk Hospital which is a large district general hospital in Bury St Edmunds, England. Founded in 1832, It provides a wide range of services to the population of west Suffolk and serves a catchment area of approximately 600 square miles with a population of around 275,000 people.
West Suffolk Hospital was founded in 1832, and moved to its current site in 1973. It became an NHS Trust in 1993. In 2002, the hospital was widely publicised as Myra Hindley had died there.
West Suffolk was an administrative county of England created in 1889 from part of the county of Suffolk. It survived until 1974 when it was rejoined with East Suffolk. Its county town was Bury St Edmunds.
Before the introduction of county councils, Suffolk had been divided into eastern and western divisions, each with their own quarter sessions. The western division corresponded to the Liberty of Saint Edmund. This area had been established by Edward the Confessor in 1044 and was a separate jurisdiction under the control of the abbot of Bury St Edmunds Abbey until the dissolution of the monasteries.
This history was reflected in the coat of arms of the county council. The council initially adopted the attributed arms of Edward the Confessor: a cross patonce between five martlets. When the council received an official grant of arms from the College of Arms in 1959, abbots' mitres and the emblem of St Edmund: crossed arrows through an open crown were added. The motto adopted was For King, Law and People, referring to the association of Magna Carta with Bury.
Shortly before its abolition the West Suffolk County Council commissioned Elizabeth Frink to sculpt a statue of St Edmund to commemorate the end of 970 years of independent administration of the area. The statue, in the grounds of the abbey of Bury St Edmunds, was completed in 1976.
From 1894 the administrative county was divided into municipal boroughs, urban districts and rural districts:
· Boroughs: Bury St Edmunds, Sudbury.
· Urban districts: Glemsford (created 1896, abolished 1935), Hadleigh, Haverhill, Newmarket.
· Rural districts: Brandon (abolished 1935), Clare, Cosford, Melford, Mildenhall, Moulton (abolished 1935), Thedwastre, Thingoe.
Translation of unknown words
1. Settled  - прочный
2. Strongholds  - крепость
3. Establishment  - создание
4. Formerly  - когда-то, прежде
5. Comprises  - содержать
6. Border  - граница
7. Estimate  - оценивать
8. Foundation  - фундамент
9. Acreage  - акр (площадь земли в акрах)
10. Pumpkin  - тыква
11. Incursion  - вторжение
12. Deaneries  - епархия
13. Sessions  - заседание
14. Countrywide  - общенародный
15. Burial  - похороны
Суфолк - это страна в американском штате Массачусетс. По состоянию на 2014 год, численность населения составляла 767,254. Страна расположена рядом с Бостоном, столице штата и крупнейшим город. Правительство округа было упразднено в конце 1990-х годов, и Суфолк остался только как географический район, но до сих пор используются такие организации как Национальная служба погоды, чтобы определить предупреждения об опасных метеорологических явлениях, влияющих на ее след, который охватывает каждый город, не указывая численность населения. Суфолк Страна входит в Бостон-Кембридж-Ньютон, Массачусетс-отель NH столичный Статистический район.
В графстве Суфолк (Sudfole, Suthfolc, что означает "Южный фолк') было образовано из южной части королевство Восточной Англии, в котором были урегулированы углы во второй половине 5-го века. Наиболее важные англо-саксонского поселения, представляются в Садбери и Ипсвич. До конца нормандской династии, опорные пункты возникли на глазах, Клэр, Уолтон и Фрамлингхэм. Возможно, создание Суфолка в виде отдельного графства было почти завершено еще до завоевания, хотя и считалось, в отличие от Норфолка в исследовании Страшного Суда 1086, налоговой администрацией, Норфолк и Суфолк остались под единой властью до 1575. Граница округа претерпела очень мало изменений, хотя его площадь была значительно подвержена береговой эрозии. Части Горлстона и Тетфорда, которые ранее принадлежали древнему графству Суфолк, сейчас в административном графстве Норфолк были совершены и другие незначительные изменения административной границы. Согласно закону " О местном самоуправлении 1888 года Суфолк был разделен на два административных округа: Восточный и Западный Суфолк.
Графство Суфолк составляет 1000 квадратных миль восточнее на две трети от Лонг-Айленда. Лонг-Айленд - сам по себе простирается на 120 миль в Атлантическом океане, к востоку от Нью-Йорка. Расстояние от границы округа графства Нассау до Монток-Пойнт составляет 86 миль. Расстояние от графства Суфолк в самом широком месте Лонг-Айленда до южного побережья составляет 26 миль.
Лонг-Айленд был сформирован в эпоху Плейстоцена, когда земля прогрелась и массивные ледники, охватывающие область растаяли, оставив ледниковые морены горных пород и грунта, месторождение которых сформировали острова. Возвращаясь на 10 000 лет и, приближаясь к 17 веку остров населяло множество небольших групп Алголкинов, которые имели язык и культуру на всем Ближнем Атлантическом регионе и то, что сейчас является Новой Англией. По оценкам историков туземного населения было не более 6000 (в 1994 году там было примерно 1,400,000 жителей Суфолка.) Алголкины ловили рыбу и собирали моллюсков на берегу и охотились на удаленной от моря местности. Из раковин моллюсков и улиток они вытачивали вампум. Вампум - валюта восточных туземцев, которая была принята колонистами в качестве денег в 17 веке.
Голландец Адриан Блок - первый исследователь, коснувшийся земли в Монток-Пойнт в 1614 году и столкнулся с коренными американцами. Первый резидент был белый Лев Гардинер, который поселился в 1639 году на острове, на разветвлении между Севером и Югом. Остров, который принадлежал Гардинеру, до сих пор носит его фамилию.
Размещено на Allbest.ru
Geography and the climate of the Great Britain. The history of the formation and development of the state. The figures of the country's policy. Level of economic development and industries. Demographic characteristics. The education and culture of the UK.
курс лекций [117,9 K], добавлен 12.11.2014
Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. History of European colonization of Canada. Government and politics.
курсовая работа [1,3 M], добавлен 06.05.2010
Acquaintance with basic lists, etimology, history of foundation, political system, composition, external and military operations, geographical position, climatic terms and environment, economic and demographic situations, cultural life of Australia.
реферат [109,2 K], добавлен 19.01.2010
Administrative division and state system of Great Britain. The country population, a population and ethnic structure. Historical places of interest, big cities, London - the British capital. A geographical position, the nature, a relief and a climate.
презентация [5,7 M], добавлен 16.01.2010
Australia - the world’s smallest continent and the sixth largest country in the world. Common knowledge. Legends of Terra Australis Incognita. The flag's original design. Unusual Australian facts: history, convicts, natural environment. Aimed at friends.
реферат [48,6 K], добавлен 12.05.2012
Geographical location Unated Kingdom. The cities of the Great Britain. London – as the British capital and one of the most biggest cities in the world. Belfast as a city of the east coast of Ireland. Wales - one of the components of the United Kingdom.
презентация [3,6 M], добавлен 23.01.2014
Description of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, its location and geographical features. Flora and fauna. Mountain tourism. People's historical epic "Manas". Kyrgyz cuisine is rich and distinctive. Richness and diversity of Kyrgyz cuisine. Key dishes.
презентация [5,0 M], добавлен 15.05.2014
The geographical position of Canada. It is the worlds second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest. On July 1, 1867, Canada became an independent country. State system, economy, education.
презентация [664,7 K], добавлен 08.02.2011
Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina. It is the administrative, cultural and economic center of the country, is the one of the largest and of the most beautiful cities of the South America. Its geographical location, population, official language.
презентация [3,1 M], добавлен 08.08.2015
Australian history: first europeans and researchers, commonwealth, Olympic games and war. Australian geographic as the driest inhabited continent on earth: location, states, people, flora and fauna. Aboriginal settlers and reservations in Australia.
курсовая работа [38,4 K], добавлен 06.05.2012