The United States of America - "New World". Geographical position and physical features of country. The USA - a highly developed industrial country, her climate, national economy, political system. Education, electionsin and electoral company in the USA.
|Рубрика||География и экономическая география|
|Размер файла||18,9 K|
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united states america country
The United States of America was formed by emigrants in 1382. The USA makes up of 62 states. Washington, the capital of the United States is situated on the Rotomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which doesn't belong to any state but to all the states. All these states are sovereignty. The United States is a young country. Its written history is only a few hundred years old. It is sometimes called the “New World”. Over the last 400 years millions of people have come to start a new life in this “New World”. The people of the United States are a mixture of many different nationalities. These different people brought to their new land a wonderful mixture of customs and traditions. The German brought Christmas trees. The Irish brought St. Patrick's Day celebrations. The Scots brought Halloween.
2. Geographical position and physical features
The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of North America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA has borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico. The USA is divided into three areas: Eastern area is a highland, central area is a plain and Western area is mountains including the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huron, Michigan, Supireo, Ontario and Erie. They are connected by fast rivers. There is the most famous to the whole world fall called Niagara Fall. Mississippi together with its tributary Missouri is the longest river in the world.
Mountain ranges cross the country from north to south and don't protect it against cold air from the north and warm one from the south. The USA has a continental climate.
4. National Economy
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. Large reserves of oil, coal, iron and other minerals are solid base of development of Americans industry. Heavy industry prevails in USA, including such branches as the mining, metallurgical, engineering, chemical and high-tech industries. USA has also well-developed light industry which includes textile, tanning and footwear industries. The food industry is well developed too. Both animal husbandry and farming takes big place in the economy of the USA.
5. Political system
The US government has three branches. The 1st branch is the Congress. The Congress is a meeting of representatives from all states. The people elect those representatives. The Congress makes the laws that everybody must obey. The Congress meets in the US Capitol in Washington, D.C. The Congress is divided into two parts, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Every state, no matter how large or small, sends two people to the Senate. These people are called senators. There are one hundred senators in the Senate. A senator's term is six years. Each state also sends people to the House of Representatives. They are called congressmen or congresswomen. The number of congressmen from each state depends on the number of people who live in the state. All in all there are 425 congressmen in the House of Representatives. A representative's term is two years. The Constitution gives many powers to the Congress. One important power of the Congress is the power to declare war. The 2nd branch of government is the President and his helpers. They carry out the laws that the Congress makes. The President signs bills and then they become law. The Vice President and members of the Cabinet help the President to make decisions. The US President is Commander in Chief of the country's armed forces. A person who wants to become President must be at least 35 years old and must live in the United States for at least 14 years before becoming President. The President's term is four years and one can be President for one or two terms, but not longer. The 3rd branch of government is the Supreme Court. It is made up of nine judges - the most important judges in the land. They have to make sure that the President and the Congress follow the Constitution. Americans are very proud of their Constitution. It was written more than 200 years ago and it is still working!
Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches. The Congress is vested with the legislative power and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators. Each state elects two members of the Senate.
The executive branch is headed by the President, who proposes bills to Congress, serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years. The second person in executive branch is vice President. The vice President, elected from the same political party as the President
The judicial branch consists of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states.
Constitution is the most important document in the USA. Constitution has been amended 26 times. The Bill of Rights guarantees individual liberties: freedom of speech, religion and so on.
6. Education in the USA
Americans place a high value on education. Universal access to quality education has been one of the nation's historic goals. Americas first college, Harward was founded in 1636. In 1865 education was becoming available to all. The peculiar feature of American education is the absence of national administration. Each of the 50 states controls and directs its own school. Most states require that children attend school from the time they reach six or 7 years old until they are 16 or 17. There is no school uniform organization or curriculum throughout the nation. But certain common features exist. Preschool education is part of the elementary school. Elementary and secondary schools consist of 12 years of classes, which meet for about ten month a year, five days a week and five hours a day.
Almost every elementary school curriculum includes English, mathematics, science, social studies, music, art and physical education. Many schools include classes teaching basic computer skills. After graduating from secondary schools a growing number of Americans go on to higher education. American institutions of higher education include: technical training schools, community colleges; and universities which contain one or more colleges and graduate schools offering master's or doctoral degree programmes.
7. Elections in the USA
The US Constitution includes some general provisions on the franchise. It sets forth certain requirements for candidates running for a post of a president, vice-president, senator or member of the House of Representatives. Requirements usually concern age, residence and citizenship. The candidates who meet all these requirements are considered eligible for office.
A residence qualification requires a permanent residence of an individual in order to get the right to vote. The duration of the residence qualification is, in general, a few months though it may substantially vary from state to state. Besides, some states have the so-called literacy qualification (the voter should be able to read and speak English, he (she) must know how to interpret the US Constitution, etc.).
And at last it should be mentioned that in some states a poll tax is levied upon everyone who votes and this certainly discourages poor citizens and Negroes from voting. In this context, it is not surprising that not all the Americans participate in elections, including congressional or presidential elections.
The voters are registered by clerks of counties or towns and by local election commissions. When registering, the voter must produce an identification card. This is done to prevent fraud. The administration of elections is vested in an election commission which ordinarily is composed of two commissioners, one representing each of the major parties, and a third ex officio member, usually a sheriff, a county judge, or a clerk.
Prior to holding primary or general election, the commission appoints election officer for each precinct and also arranges for polling places. After the ballots have been cast, they are counted and the results obtained are tabulated and returned to the election commission which officially counts the precinct tally sheets.
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