Comparison of Russian and British holidays and traditions
Brief review, general description and comparison of major holidays and national traditions of Great Britain and Russia, features in organization of holidays. Intercommunication of holidays with religion. Appearance of new consuetudes and traditions.
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THE MUNICIPAL EDICATIONAL INSTATION LYCEUM № 8
Comparison of Russian and British holidays and traditions
L. A. Tunakova
Every nation and every country has its own traditions and customs. Traditions make a nation special. Some of them are old-fashioned and many people remember them, others are part of people`s life. Probably it is very seldom to meet someone who doesn`t love the holidays. Celebration is the joy that people are waiting and happy to meet all the people: at any time and in any weather. Holidays are a part of the culture of some country. In order to better understand other people, not just knowledge of the language is very important to get acquainted with its history and culture. Russia and Great Britain have got common holidays. Christmas, New Year`s Day, St Valentine`s Day, April Fool`s Day, Easter, May Day are celebrated in Russia and Great Britain also too. The traditions of celebration of these holidays are different. But there are such holidays in Great Britain ( for example Spring Bank Holiday, Summer Bank Holiday ) which the Russians don`t have in their culture.
Holidays in Great Britain
New year`s Day
St. Valentine's Day
April Fool`s Day
Late March or early April
Spring Dank Holiday
May, last Monday
Summer Bank Holidays
August, last Monday
Guy Fawkes Night
Holidays in Russia
New year`s Day
Country Defendant` Day
Easter ( Pasha )
Day of Spring and Labour
Russia Independence Day
Day of Reconciliation and Harmony
Frequency of the holidays of the year in Russia
Frequency of the holidays of the year in Britain
Traditions and holidays of Great Britain
holiday tradition britain russia
We cannot really imagine Britain without all its traditions. There are only six public holidays a year in Great Britain that is days on which people need not go in to work. They are: Christmas Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday and Summer Bank Holiday, Boxing Day. So the most popular holiday in Britain is Christmas. On the Sunday before churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung. Sometimes carol singer can be heard in the streets as they collect money for charity. There are a lot of very popular British Christmas carols. Three famous ones are:”Good King Wenceslas», «The Holly and the Ivy”,” We Three Kings”.
Good King Wenceslas (Song Lyrics)
Good King Wenceslas looked out
On the Feast of Stephen
When the snow lay 'round about
Deep and crisp and even
Brightly shone the moon that night
Though the frost was cruel
When a poor man came in sight
Gath' ring winter fuel
"Hither, page, and stand by me,
If thou know'st it, telling
Yonder peasant, who is he?
Where and what his dwelling?"
"Sire, he lives a good league hence,
Underneath the mountain
Right against the forest fence
By Saint Agnes' fountain."
"Bring me flesh and bring me wine
Bring me pine-logs hither
Thou and I shall see him dine
When we bear them thither."
Page and monarch, forth they went
Forth they went together
Through the rude wind's wild lament
And the bitter weather.
"Sire, the night is darker now
And the wind blows stronger
Fails my heart, I know not how
I can go no longer."
"Mark my footsteps, good my page
Each year, hundreds of thousands of people all over the world send and receive Christmas cards. Most of people think that exchanging cards at Christmas is a very ancient custom but it is not right. In fact it is barely 100 years old. The idea of exchanging illustrated greeting and presents is, however, ancient. So the first commercial Christmas card was produced in Britain in 1843 by Henry Cole, founder of Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The handcoloured print was inscribed with the words: «A Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year to you».
A traditional feature of Christmas in Britain is the Christmas tree. Queen Victoria`s husband, Prince Albert, brought the German tradition (he was German) to Britain. He and Queen had a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in 1841. A few years after, nearly every house in Britain had one. Traditionally people decorate their trees on Christmas Eve - that`s December 24th. They take down the decorations twelve days later, on Twelfth Night (January 5th).
An older tradition is Christmas mistletoe. People put a piece of this green plant with its white berries over a door. Mistletoe brings good luck, people say. Also, at Christmas British people kiss their friends and family under the mistletoe.
Those who live away try to get back home because Christmas is a family celebration and it's the biggest holiday in the year. As Christmas comes nearer, everyone is buying presents for relatives and friends. At Christmas people try to give their children everything they want. And the children count the weeks, than the days, to Christmas. They are wondering what presents on December 24th. Father Christmas brings their presents in the night. Then they open them on the morning of the 25th.
There is another name for Father Christmas in Britain - Santa Claus. That comes from the European name for him - Saint Nicholas. In the traditional story he lives at the North Pole. But now he lives in big shops in towns and cities all over Britain. Well, that`s where children see him in November and December. Then on Christmas Eve he visits every house. He climbs down the chimney and leaves lots of presents. Some people leave something for him, too. A glass of wine and some biscuits, for example.
At Christmas everyone decorates their houses with holly, ivy colorful lamps.
In Britain the most important meal on December 25th is Christmas dinner. Nearly all Christmas food is traditional, but a lot of the traditions are not very old. For example, there were no turkeys in Britain before 1800.And even in the nineteenth century; goose was the traditional meat at Christmas. But not now.
A twentieth-century British Christmas dinner is roast turkey with carrots, potatoes, peas, Brussels sprouts and gravy. There are sausages and bacon, too. Then, after the turkey, there's Christmas pudding. Some people make this pudding months before Christmas. A lot of families have their own Christmas pudding recipes. Some, for example, use a lot of brandy. Others put in a lot of fruit or add a silver coin for good luck. Real Christmas puddings always have a piece of holly on the top. Holly bushes and trees have red berries at Christmas time, and so people use holly to decorate their houses for Christmas. The holly on the pudding is part of the decoration.
Crackers are also usual at Christmas dinner. These came to Britain from China in the nineteenth century. Two people pull a cracker. Usually there is a small toy in the middle. Often there is a joke on a piece of paper too. Most of the jokes in Christmas crackers are not very good. Here is on example:
Customer: Waiter; there's a frog in my soup. Waiter:
Yes, sir; the fly's on holidays.
A pantomime is a traditional English entertainment at Christmas. It is meant for children, but adults enjoy is just as much. It is a very old form of entertainment, and can be traced back to 16th century Italian comedies. There have been a lot of changes over the years. Singing and dancing and all kinds of jokes have been added; but the stories that are told are still fairy tales, with a hero, a heroine and a villain.
A pantomime is a traditional English entertainment at Christmas. It is meant for children, but adults enjoy is just as much. It is a very old form of entertainment, and can be traced back to 16th century Italian comedies. There have been a lot of changes over the years. Singing and dancing and all kinds of jokes have been added; but the stories that are told are still fairy tales, with a hero, a heroine and a villain.
In every pantomime there are always three main characters. These are the "principal boy", the "principal girt» and the "dame". Pantomimes are changing all the time. Every year, someone has a new idea to make them more exciting or more up-to-date.
December 26th is Boxing Day. Traditionally boys from the shops in each town asked for money at Christmas. They went from house to house on December 26th and took boxes made of wood with them. At each house people gave them money. This was a Christmas present. So the name of December 26th doesn't come from the sport of boxing - it comes from the boys' wooden boxes Now, Boxing Day is an extra holiday after Christmas Day.
Traditionally Boxing Day Hunts is a day for foxhunting. The huntsmen and huntswomen ride horses. They use dogs, too. The dogs (fox hounds) follow the smell of the fox. Then the huntsmen and huntswomen follow the hounds. Before a Boxing Day hunt, the huntsmen and huntswomen drink not wine. But the tradition of the December 26th hunt is changing. Now, some people want to stop Boxing Day Hunts (and other hunts, too). They don't like foxhunting. For them it's not a sport - it is cruel.
It is very interesting to get acquainted with Christmas customs and traditions in Britain. I would give an advice to do Christmas Quiz and you will know about Christmas in Britain much more.
In England people celebrate the New Year. But it is not as widely or as enthusiastically observed as Christmas. Some people ignore it completely and go to bed at the same time as usual on New Year's Eve. Many others, however, do celebrate it in one way or another, the type of celebration varying very much according to the local custom, family tradition and personal taste.
The most common type of celebration is a New Year party, either a family party or one arranged by a group of young people. And another popular way of celebrating the New Year is to go to a New Year's dancer.
The most famous celebration is in London round the statue of Eros in Piccadilly Circus where crowds gather and sing and welcome the New Year. In Trafalgar Square there is also a big crowd and someone usually falls into the fountain.
Every Year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It's a big Christmas tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Also in central London, Oxford Street and Regent Street always have beautiful decorations at the New Year and Christmas. Thousands of people come to look at them.
In Britain a lot of people make New Year Resolutions on the evening of December 31st. For example, «I`ll get up every morning next year", or " I`ll clean, my shoes every day». But there is a problem. Most people forget their New Year Resolutions on January 2nd.
But New Year's Eve is a more important festival in Scotland then it is in England, and it even has a special name. It is not clear where the 'Hogmanay' comes from, but it is connected with the provision of food and drink for all visitors to your home on 31st December.
There is a Scottish song that is sung all over the world at midnight on New Year's Eve. It was written by Robert Burns; the famous Scottish poet and you may find some of the traditional words a bit difficult to understand, but that's the way it's always sung - even by English people!
It was believed that the first person to visit one's house on New Year's Day could bring good or bad luck. Therefore, people tried to arrange for the person of their own choice to be standing outside their houses ready to be let in the moment midnight had come.
Usually a dark-complexioned man was chosen, and never a woman, for she would bring bad luck. The first footer was required to carry three articles: a piece of coal to wish warmth, a piece of bread to wish food, and a silver coin to wish wealth. In some parts of northern England this pleasing custom is still observed. So this interesting tradition called "First Footing".
On Bank holiday the townsfolk usually flock into the country and to the coast. If the weather is fine many families take a picnic - lunch or tea with them and enjoy their meal in the open. Seaside towns near London are invaded by thousands of trippers who come in cars and coaches, trains and bicycles. Great amusement parks like do a roaring trade with their scenic railways, shooting galleries, water-shoots, Crazy houses and so on. Trippers will wear comic paper hats with slogans, and they will eat and drink the weirdest mixture of stuff you can imagine, sea food like cockles, mussels, whelks, fish and chips, candy floss, tea, fizzy drinks, everything you can imagine.
Bank holiday is also an occasion for big sports meeting at places like the White City Stadium, mainly all kinds of athletics. There are also horse race meetings all over the country, and most traditional of all, there are large fairs with swings, roundabouts, a Punch and Judy show, hoop-la stalls and every kind of side-show including, in recent, bingo. There is also much boating activity on the Thames.
Although the Christian religion gave the world Easter as we know it today, the celebration owes its name and many of its customs and symbols to a pagan festival called Easter. Easter, the Anglo-Saxon goddess of springtime and sunrise, got her name from the world east, where the sunrises. Every spring northern European peoples celebrated the festival of Easter to honour the awakening of new life in nature. Christians related the rising of the sun to the resurrection Jesus and their own spiritual rebirth.
Many modern Easter symbols have come from pagan time. The egg, for instance, was a fertility symbol long before the Christian era. The ancient Persians, Greeks and Chinese exchanged eggs at their spring festivals. In Christian times the egg took on a new meaning symbolizing the tomb from which Christ rose. The ancient custom of dyeing eggs at Easter time is still very popular.
The Easter bunny also was originated in pre-Christian fertility times. The rabbit was the most fertile animal, so they selected it as a symbol of new life. Today, children enjoy eating candy bunnies' and listening to stories about the Easter bunny, who supposedly brings Easter eggs in a fancy basket.
Also there is a spectacular parade on Easter. It is a truly spectacular Easter Parade in Battersea Park. It is sponsored by the London Tourist Board and is usually planned around a central theme related to the history and attractions of London. The great procession, or parade, begins at 3 p.m. but it is advisable to find a vantage-point well before that hour.
On October 31st British people celebrate Halloween. It is undoubtedly the most colourful and exciting holiday of the year. Though it is not a public holiday, it is very dear to those who celebrate it, especially to children and teenagers. This day was originally called All Hallow's Eve because it fell on the eve of All Saints' Day. The name was later shortened to Halloween. According to old beliefs, Halloween is the time, when the veil between the living and the dead is partially lifted, and witches, ghosts and other super natural beings are about. Now children celebrate Halloween in unusual costumes and masks. It is a festival of merrymaking, superstitions spells, fortunetelling, traditional games and pranks. Halloween is a time for fun.
Few holidays tell us much of the past as Halloween. It remembers us to the time when people believed in devils, witches and ghosts. Many Halloween customs are based on beliefs of the ancient Celts, who lived more than 2,000 years ago in what is now Great Britain, Ireland, and northern France.
Every year the Celts celebrated the Druid festival of Samhain, Lord of the Dead and Prince of Darkness. It fell on October 31, the eve of the Druid New Year. The date marked the end of summer, or the time when the sun retreated before the powers of darkness and the reign of the Lord of Death began, The Dun god took part in the holiday and received thanks for the year's harvest.
It was believed that evil spirits sometimes played tricks on October 31. They could also do all kinds of damage to property. Some people tried to ward of the witches by painting magic signs on their barns. Others tried to frighten them away by nailing a piece of iron, such as a horseshoe, over the door.
Many fears and superstitions grew up about this day. An old Scotch superstition was that witches - those who had sold their souls to the devil - left in their beds on Halloween night a stick made by magic to look like them. Then they would fly up the chime attended by a black cat.
In Ireland, and some other parts of Great Britain, it was believed, that fairies spirited away young wives, whom they returned dazed and amnesic 366 days later.
When Halloween night fell, people in some places dressed up and tried to resemble the souls of the dead. They hoped that the ghosts would leave peacefully before midnight. They carried food to the edge of town or village and left it for the spirits.
In Wales, they believed that the devil appeared in the shape of a pig, a horse, or a dog. On that night, every person marked a stone and put it in a bonfire. If a person's stone was missing the next morning, he or she would die within a year.
Much later, when Christianity came to Great Britain and Ireland, the Church wisely let the people keep their old feast. But it gave it a new association when in the 9th century a festival in honour of all saints (All Hallows) was fixed on November 1. In the 11 century November 2 became All Souls' Day to honour the souls of the dead, particularly those who died during the year.
Christian tradition included the lighting of bonfires and earring blazing torches all around the fields. In some places masses of flaming staw were flung into the air. When these ceremonies were over, everyone returned home to feast on the new crop of apples and nuts, which are the traditional Halloween foods. On that night, people related their experience with strange noises and spooky shadows and played traditional games.
Halloween customs today follow many of the ancient traditions, though their significance has long since disappeared.
A favourite Halloween custom is to make a jack-j-lantern. Children take out the middle of the pumpkin, cut hole for the eyes, nose and mouth in its side and, finally, they put a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends. The candle burning inside makes the orange face visible from far away on a dark night - and the pulp makes a delicious pumpkin-pie.
People in England and Ireland once carved out beets, potatoes, and turnips to make jack-o'-lanterns on Halloween. When the Scots and Irish came to the United States, they brought their customs with them. But they began to carve faces on pumpkins because they were more plentiful in autumn than turnips. Nowadays, British carve faces on pumpkins, too.
According to an Irish legend, jack-o-lanterns were named for a man called Jack who was notorious for his drunkenness and being stingy. One evening at the local pub, the Devil appeared to take his soul. Clever Jack persuaded the Devil to "have one drink together before we go". To pay for his drink the Devil turned himself into a sixpence. Jack immediately put it into his wallet. The Devil couldn't escape from it because it had a catch in the form of a cross. Jack released the Devils only when the latter promised to leave him in peace for another year. Twelve months later, Jack played another practical joke on the Devil, letting him down from a tree only on the promise that he would never purse him again. Finally, Jack's body wore out. He could not enter heaven because he was a miser. He could not enter hell either, because he played jokes on the Devil. Jack was in despair. He begged the Devil for a live coal to light his way out of the dark. He put it into a turnip and, as the story goes, is still wandering around the earth with his lantern.
Halloween is something called Beggars' Night or Trick or Treat night. Some people celebrate Beggars' Night as Irish children did in the 17th century. They dress up as ghosts and witches and go into the streets to beg. And children go from house to house and say: "Trick or treat! » meaning "Give me a treat or I'll play a trick on you". Some groups of «ghosts" chant Beggars' night rhymes:
Trick or treat,
Smell our feet.
We want something
Good to it.
In big cities Halloween celebrations often include special decorating contests. Young people are invited to soap shop-windows, and they get prizes for the best soap- drawings.
In old times, practical jokes were even meting elaborate. It was quite normal to steal gates, block house doors, and cover chimneys with turf so that smoke could not escape. Blame for resulting chaos was naturally placed on the "spirits".
At Halloween parties the guests wear every kind of costume. Some people dress up like supernatural creatures; other prefers historical or political figures. You can also meet pirates, princesses, Draculas, Cinderellas, or even Frankenstein's monsters at a Halloween festival.
At Halloween parties children play traditional games. Many games date back to the harvest festivals of very ancient times: One §f the most popular is called bobbing for apples. One child at a time has to get apples from a tub of water without using hands. But how can children do this? By sinking his or her face into the water and biting the apple!
Another game is pin-the-tail-on-the -donkey. One child is blind folded and spun slowly so that he or she will become dizzy. Then the child must find a paper donkey hanging on the wall and try to pin a tail onto the back.
And no Halloween party is complete without at least one scary story. It helps too create an air of mystery.
Certain fortunetelling methods began in Europe hundreds of years ago and became an important part of Halloween. For example, such object as a coin, a ring, and a thimble were baked into a cake or other food. It was believed that the person who found the coin in the cake would become wealthy. The one who found the ring would marry soon, but the person who got the thimble would never get married.
Unfortunately now most people do not believe in evil spirits. They know that evil spirits do not break steps, spill garbage or pull down fences. If property is damaged, they blame naughty boys and girls. Today, Halloween is still a bad night for the police...
March 1st and St. David`s Day
March 1st is a very important day for Welsh people. It's St. David's Day. He's the «patron" or national saint of Wales. On March 1st, the Welsh celebrate St. David's Day and wear daffodils in the buttonholes of their coats or jackets.
Saint Valentines Day
On February 14th it's Saint Valentines Day in Britain. It is not a national holiday.
Banks and offices are not closed; it is a happy little festival in honour of St. Valentine.
On this day, people send Valentine cards to their husbands, wives, girlfriends and
boyfriends. You can also send a card to ^person you do not know. But traditionally you must never write your name on it. Some British newspapers have got a page for Valentine's Day messages on February 14th.
This lovely day is widely celebrated among people of all ages by the exchanging of "valentines".
Saint Valentine was a martyr but this feast goes back to pagan times and the
Roman feast of Lupercalia. The names of young unmarried girls were put into a vase.
The young men each picked a name, and discovered the identity of their brides.
This custom came to Britain when the Romans invaded it. But the church moved the festival to the nearest Christian Saint Valentine's Day.
Do you celebrate Valentine's Day?
Midsummer's Day, June 24th, is the longest day of the year. On that day you can see a very old custom at Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is on of Europe's biggest stone circles. A lot of the stones are ten or twelve metres high. It is also very old. The earliest part of Stonehenge is nearly 5,000 years old. But what was Stonehenge? A holy place? A market? Or was it a kind of calendar? Many people think that the Druids used it for a calendar. The Druids were the priests in Britain 2,000 years ago. They used the sun and the stones at Stonehenge to know the start of months and seasons. There are Druids in Britain today, too. And every June 24th a lot of them go to Stonehenge. On that morning the sun shines on one famous stone - the Heel stone. For the Druids this is a very important moment in the year. But for a lot of British people it is just a strange old custom.
Londoners celebrate carnivals. And one of them is Europe's biggest street carnival. A lot of people in the Rotting Rill area of London come from the West Indies - a group of islands in the Caribbean. And for two days in August, Nutting Hill is the West Indies. There is West Indian food and music in the streets. There is also a big parade and people dance day and night.
April Fool's Day
April 1st is April Fool's Day in Britain. This is a very old tradition from the Middle
Ages (between the fifth and fifteenth centuries). At that time the servants were masters for one day of the year. They gave orders to their masters, and their masters had to obey. Now April Fool's Day is different. It is a day for jokes and tricks.
University Boat Race
One of the most interesting competitions is the University Boat Race. Oxford and Cambridge are Britain's two oldest universities. In the nineteenth century, rowing was a popular sport at both of them. In 1829 they agreed to have a race. They raced on the river Thames and the Oxford boat won. That started a tradition. Now, every spring, the University Boat Race goes from Putney to Mortlake on the Thames. That is 6, 7 kilometers. The Cambridge rowers wear light blue shirts and the Oxford rowers wear dark blue. There are eight men in each boat. There is also a "Cox". The Cox controls the boat. Traditionally coxes are men, but Susan Brown became the first woman Cox in 1981. She was the Cox for Oxford and they won.
Brighton Car Rally
An annual British tradition, which captures the imagination of the whole nation, is the London to Brighton Car Rally in which a fleet of ancient cars indulges in a lighthearted race from the Capital to the Coast.
When the veteran cars set out on the London - Brighton run each November, they are celebrating one of the great landmarks in the history of motoring in Britain - the abolition of the rule that every «horseless carriage" had to be preceded along the road by a pedestrian. This extremely irksome restriction, imposed by the Locomotives on Highways Act, was withdrawn in 1896, and on November of that year there was a rally of motor-cars on the London - Brighton highway to celebrate the first day of freedom -Emancipation Day, as it has known by motorists ever since.
Emancipation is still on the first Sunday of the month, but nowadays there is an important condition of entry - every car taking part must be at least 60 years old.
The Run is not a race. Entrants are limited to a maximum average speed of 20miles per hour. The great thing is not speed but quality of performance, and the dedicated enthusiasts have a conversation all their own.
The Highland Games
The Highland Games -this sporting tradition is Scottish. In the Highlands (the mountains of Scotland) families, or "clans", started the Games hundreds of years ago.
Some of the sports are the Games are international: the high jump and the long jump, for example. But other sports happen only at the Highland Games. One is tossing the caber. "Tossing" means throwing, and a "caber" is a long, heavy piece of wood. In tossing the caber you lift the caber (it can be five or six metres tall). Then you throw it in front of you.
At the Highland Games a lot of men wear kilts. These are traditional Scottish skirts for men. But they are not all the same. Each clan has a different "tartan". That is the name for the pattern on the kilt. So at the Highland Games there are traditional sports and traditional instrument - the bagpipes. The bagpipes are very loud. They say Scots soldier played them before a battle. The noise frightened the soldiers on other side.
The world's most famous tennis tournament is Wimbledon. It started at a small club in south London in the nineteenth century. Now a lot of the nineteenth century traditions have changed. For example, the women players don't have to wear long skirts. And the men players do not have to wear long trousers. But other traditions have not changed at Wimbledon. The courts are still grass and visitors still eat strawberries and cream. The language of tennis has not changed either.
Tea is Britain's favourite drink
There are some British traditions and customs concerning their private life. The British are considered to be the world's greatest tea drinkers. And so tea is Britain's favourite drink. The English know how to make tea and what it does for you. In England people say jokingly: The test of good tea is simple. If a spoon stands up in it, then it is strong enough; if the spoon starts to wobble, it is a feeble makeshift'.
Every country has its drinking habits, some of which are general and obvious, others most peculiar. Most countries also have a national drink. In England the national is beer, and the pub "pub", where people talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax.
The word "pub" is short for "public house". Pubs sell beer. (British beer is always warm). An important custom in pubs is "buying a round". In a group, one person buys all the others a drink. This is a "round". Then one by one all the people buy rounds, too. If they are with friends, British people sometimes lift their glasses before they drink and say: "Cheers". This means "Good luck».
In the pubs in south-west England there is another traditional drink-scrumpy.
Pub names often have a long tradition. Some come from the thirteenth or fourteenth century. Every pub has a name and every pub has a sign above its door. The sign shows a picture of the pub's name.
And as you know, the British talk about the weather a lot. They talk about the weather because it changes so often. Wind, rain, sun, cloud, snow - they can all happen in a British winter - or a British summer.
Hundreds of years ago, soldiers began this custom. They shook hands to show that they did not have a sword. Now, shaking hands is a custom in most countries.
Frenchman shakes hands every time they meet, and kiss each other on both cheeks as a ceremonial salute, like the Russians, while Englishmen shake hands only when they are introduced, or after a long absence.
Victorian England made nearly as many rules about hand shaking as the Chinese did about bowing. A man could not offer his hand first a lady; young ladies did not shake men`s hands at all unless they were old friends; married ladies could offer their hands in room, but not in public, where they would bow slightly.
What about royal traditions? I cannot really imaging Britain without royal traditions. There are numerous royal traditions in Britain, some are ancient, and others are modern.
The Queen is the only person in Britain with two birthdays. Her real birthday is on April 21st, but she has an «official birthday, too. That is on the second Saturday in June. And on the Queens' official birthday, there is a traditional ceremony called the Trooping of the Colour. It is a big parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guard`s Parade in London. A «regiment» of the Queen`s soldiers, the Guards, march in front of her. At the front of the parade there is regiment`s flag or «colour». Thousands of Londoners and visitors watch in Horse Guards` Parade. And millions of people at home watch it on television. This custom is not very old, but it is for very old people. On his or her one hundredth birthday, a British person gets a telegram with congratulations from the Queen.
So soldiers stand on front of the palace. Each morning these soldiers (the «guard» ) change. One group leaves and another arrives. In summer and winter tourists stand outside the palace at 11:30 every morning and watch the Changing of the Guard.
Traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. But the Parliament, not the Royal Family, controls modern Britain. The Queen travels from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a gold carriage-the Irish State Coach. At the Houses of Parliament the Queen sits on a «throne» in the House of Lords. Then she reads the «Queen`s Speech». At the State Opening of parliament the Queen wears a crown. She wears other jewels from the Crown Jewels, too.
Every year, there is a new Lord Mayor of London. The Mayor is the city`s traditional leader. And the second Saturday in November is always the day for the Lord Mayor`s Show. This ceremony is over six hundred years old. It is also London`s biggest parade.
The Lord Mayor drives to the Royal Courts of Justice in a coach. The coach is two hundred years old. It is red and gold and it has six horses.
As it is also a big parade, people make special costumes and act stories from London`s history.
In Britain as in other countries costumes and uniforms have a long history.
One is the uniform of the Beefeaters at the Tower of London. This came first from France. Another is the uniform of the Horse Guards at Horse Guard`s Parade, not far from Buckingham Palace. Thousands of visitors take photographs of the Horse Guards.
Britannia is a symbol of Britain. And she wears traditional clothes, too. But she is not a real person.
Lots of ordinary clothes have a long tradition. The famous bowler hat, for example. A man called Beaulieu made the first one in 1850.
One of the British soldiers, Wellington, gave his name to a pair of boots. They have a shorter name today-«Wellies».
There is a very special royal tradition. On the River Thames there are hundreds of swans. A lot of this a beautiful white birds belong, traditionally, to the king or queen. In July the young swans on the Thames are about two months old. Then the Queen`s swan keeper goes, in a boat, from London Bridge to Henley. He looks at all the young swans and marks the royal ones. The name of this strange nut interesting custom is Swan Upping.
Traditions and holidays in Russia
Russian holidays it is the holidays of Russian people connected with widespread national traditions of their carrying out. For a long time already in Russia there was a set of remarkable holidays. People drove round dances, sang songs, and lived not boringly. Every day, what that - a holiday. But gradually traditions and holidays varied. In Russia there are also state holidays. As state eight national holidays, first of all, are called, are recognized non-working, holidays, namely: New Year of the first and on second of January and a Christmas on seventh of January. The international women's day on eighth of March, the Holiday of Spring and work of the first and on second of May, a Victory Day on ninth of May, Independence Day of Russia on twelfth of June, the Day of accord and reconciliation on seventh of November, the Constitution day of the Russian Federation on twelfth of December. For the state holidays, in Russia now, the combination of what remained from the previous historical periods, and new, come to a life finding by the country of the sovereignty and change of a political system is characteristic.
In Russia a great number of Russians, with hunting celebrating Christmas, prefer New Year. Winter holidays are tightened for some weeks: at first we mark the western Christmas, then New Year, then orthodox Christmas, and then old New Year. But nevertheless a favorite holiday in this* long train of celebrations - New Year, mark in the night from December, 31st January, 1st. It is the holiday most ancient and most favorite among Russians.
The main attributes of celebrating of New Year it: a live fur-tree (the truth, in modern Russia the artificial fur-tree - because of availability and possibility of reusable use is preferred), various Christmas-tree decorations, and also obligatory gifts for favorite and close people. The main characters, it is possible to tell, heroes of a holiday are Father Frost and the Snow Maiden - without them cannot manage not only mass celebrating, but also a private congratulation that madly pleases children.
The basic dishes on a celebratory table make salads, hot, fruit (tangerines) and a considerable quantity of spirits (in particular champagne). Any New Year does not do without fireworks, Bengal fires, crackers and salutes.
In comparison with other world, Russia actively celebrates two New Year's holidays. One in the night from December, thirty first for January, first, and the second, "Old New year" on thirteenth of January that surprises foreigners got on New Year's holidays to Russia as at the majority of the countries arrival of New year means much, only change of a calendar cycle and widely it is not marked (celebrated), attaching special significance to Christmas. Now it seems to us that so was always. But the tradition of a meeting of New Year is much younger, than in the countries of Europe. New Year in Ancient Russia, as well as at many other people, began in March and merged with the pagan holiday of a pancake week marking a seeing-off of winter and a meeting of spring. In the tenth century with Christianity acceptance to Russia has come ulianski a calendar on which year began on first of September. But only in the end of the fifteenth century this date began to be marked (celebrated) officially as the beginning of church and civil New Year. And only Peter I, carrying out calendar reform, in 1700 has established (installed) the beginning of New Year since January, 1st. The special decree Peter I demanded solemn and cheerful celebrating of this event. Moscow, therefore all celebrating was capital then passed (took place) on Red Square. However since 1704 of a celebration have been transferred (carried) to northern capital. However, in those days not feast and national festivities was the main thing. By January, 1st of the house of grandees and commoners were decorated by fur-tree or pine branches which needed to be dressed up not toys, as now, and fruit, vegetables, nuts and even eggs. And all products were not only an ornament, but also symbols: apples were a symbol of fertility, egg a symbol of harmony and full well-being. Since then the meeting of New Year with a green fur-tree, needles, and then with Father Frost and the Snow Maiden became on first of January traditional in our country. Old New Year is the holiday marked (celebrated) according to New Year on ulianski to a calendar (now in the flight from 13 for January, 14th) and being, as a matter of fact, a historical echo of change of chronology. It (He) is known and popular in Russia though it is marked (celebrated) also in Serbia, Switzerland and some other countries. It (He) is marked (celebrated) in a greater degree by those who could not meet New Year on thirty first of December. And also the Russian orthodox Christians who observe from November, twenty till January, sixth the Christmas post and which to meet New year on Julian sky style more conveniently not to break instructions of the Christmas post.
Since 1991 as the state holiday the Christmas marked in Russia on seventh of January has been restored. The announcement of an orthodox religious holiday a day off in such multinational country as Russia has demanded the flexible mechanism of the account of national and religious traditions of all people. Every time when we step over a threshold of New Year, on a shower it becomes especially warm, because in some days there will come the Christmas Holiday! A Christmas - surprising time when heart is filled with miracle expectation... And this miracle occurs! «The Christ is born, glorify! » - Rushes over the Universe, - «the Christ from heavens, meet! » - All world sings of glory of the Creator. Angelic forces and mankind - together glorify what love has no borders. And, probably, therefore a Christmas name «Winter Easter». Each of us tries to spend this day not how any another: to present good and love td the loved one, to become better, and the most important thing - is closer to God. On January, 6th at 12 o'clock in the morning solemn divine service in orthodox temples begins. And on January, 7th it is accepted to congratulate friends and native on this light holiday. Unlike Europeans who aspire to note Christmas in the bosom of the family, and even doors close, in Russia it is accepted to hold doors opened that all who wishes to celebrate Christmas came, to share celebratory pleasure. Christmas Eve is called « Eve» and the word is derived from the ritual of food, sunshiny this day, cooked red wheat or barley, rye, mixed with honey and juice, almonds and poppy.
The food in Christmas Eve could not be accepted to the first star, in memory of the Bethlehem star, announced to magicians about Christmas of the Savior. And with approach of twilight when there was first star, sat down table and shared gifts, wishing each other all kind and light. Christmas is a holiday when all family together gathers behind the big table. The table prepared the plentiful. Pancakes, fish dishes, jelly, jellied pork and beef feet. Fragrant pigs with breast stuffed with oatmeal, pork head with horseradish, pork sausage at home, roast, honey cakes, pudding and, of course, roasted goose. Christmas-tide begins with Christmas - continuous holidays which last before Kreshchensky Christmas Eve and are accompanied by walks, visiting native and friends, masquerades. In the old days it was customary to tell fortunes. The sparrow flies, by a tail twirls. And you, people, know tables dim.
On the Christmas-tide in Russia it was from time immemorial accepted to dress, to arrange cheerful games to go on houses, to awake sleeping, to congratulate all passers on sun turn for the summer, and later, after Christianity acceptance, with Christmas, to joke, sing songs
Svyatochnoye guessing is various and numerous. Girls, sometimes under the direction of the senior women were engaged in them. Whether and interested them they, first of all, will marry next year or remain in girls will be rich or poor, in general, will be live or will die. Therefore very many guessing are connected with searches of the promised.
After Celebrating of New Year the Christmas will come to Russia. Remains to very few people who to meet a holiday according to Russian traditions, cheerfully and hospitably.
Christening of Gospodne (Sacred Epiphany)
On January, 19th Russians celebrate Kreshchenie Gospodne. In memory that this day Jesus Christ has accepted a; christening in the river Jordan, in orthodox temples water which parishioners store then the whole year is consecrated. From temples to cross-shaped ice-holes pass religious processions. Believers plunge into ice-holes, symbolizing it a christening ceremony. Besides, it is considered that bathing for the Christening helps to recover from various illnesses. An Epiphany -one of twelve basic (great) orthodox holidays.
Day of students (Tatiana day)
The good mistress. And the kind soul,
"Tatiana, with a name-day", -
Let's whisper, hardly breathing.
Live without a bad weather,
Without knowing a hardship,
And let a great happiness
To you the holiday will bring.
On twenty fifth of January Russians celebrate Day of the student or Tatiana day. The decree empress Elizabeth Petrovnoj January, twelfth, 1755 on Tatiana day has signed the decree «About establishment of the Moscow university)). Since then on twelfth of January students celebrate the holiday - Day of students' and sacred Tatyana became the patroness of all students. In the nineteenth century since January, twelfth a student's vacation began. This day it was accepted to arrange celebrations on which awards under solemn speeches were distributed. Then it is day named not Tatiana day, and «Day of the basis of the Moscow University). Day of the student in the beginning was celebrated only in Moscow. Fete passed very magnificently and consisted of two parts. At first there was an official part, and then the holiday passed to streets in which all inhabitants of capital took participation. Nicolay's decree of the first had been signed the certificate about university establishment, instead of its opening. Thanks to its students had a holiday - Day of the student. Day of the student - celebrate and now. It put modern youth celebrates also it is noisy and it is cheerful, as hundred years ago. The poor student never will miss the chance to shirk study, but according to popular wisdom, from its infinite celebration distracts only time.
Day sacred Valentine (Valentine day)
Love! When both sad and funny.
Love! When do not like, anyway.
Love! Although not the favorite name.
Love! Love thy will understand.
Love! His heart command.
Love! His love of expensive.
Love! When the terms of good and evil.
Love! And it should not be otherwise!
The fourteenth of February - an especial holiday. It is known as Valentine's Day - a holiday of all enamored. It is one of few foreign holidays whom it is successful at us has got accustomed and every year becomes more and more mass. It is possible to consider it joint - both men, and female. It can celebrate at any age, after all the love does not have borders. Loving couples mark this romantic holiday all over the world. As it is known, the name to this holiday was given by simple Christian priest Valentine who secretly crowned enamored legionaries, for what has been executed.
As the Christian martyr priest Valentine for the belief has been canonized by church. In 496 year on fourteenth of February by the Pope has been declared in the Afternoon of sacred Valentine. In Russia and the CIS countries Day of sacred Valentine is marked from the beginning of the ninetieth years of the twentieth century.
On February, 23rd Day of the defender of fatherland
On twenty third of February in Russia it is accepted to congratulate men on Day of the defender of Fatherland (the holiday was marked for the first time at the time of Soviet Union and it is marked now in Russia, in Ukraine, in Belarus and Dniester region). This day we pay-a tribute *of respect and thanks to those who courageously protected the native earth from aggressors, and also that who in a peace time draws hard and responsible duty. Informally the holiday is considered day of men which accept congratulations since February, twenty third not only from an opposite sex, but also from friends, and colleagues. For the first time the holiday was marked in 1922 and «Day of Red army» was called. With 1946 on 1993 it was called «Day of the Soviet Army and Navy fleet». For today on twenty third of February according to the Federal law of the Russian Federation «About days of military glory (victorious days) Russia» (1995) is called as Day of the defender of Fatherland. In 2002 the State Duma of the Russian Federation has made decision to make on twenty third of February the day off.
Pancake week - one of the most joyful and light holidays. The whole week the people see off the bothered winter, bake pancakes and visit. A pancake week for us, as a carnival for Italians. As in a translation from Italian "carnival" is meant «by beef, farewell! ». And the pancake week previous the Lent, long since was called as "Mjasopustom" as this week it was forbidden to eat meat. Some historians consider that in the ancient time the Pancake week was connected with day of a spring solstice, but with acceptance of Christianity it began to anticipate the Lent and to depend on its terms. On every day buttered week there were certain ceremonies. On Monday - the Pancake week meeting, on Tuesday - folk tunes. On the gourmand that is on Wednesday of buttered week the mother-in-law invited to pancakes of sons-in-law with wives. Especially this custom was observed concerning young, recently got married. For certain from here expression «to the mother-in-law on pancakes» also has gone. On wide Thursday there was the most crowded driving on sledge. On Friday - mother-in-law's evenings - sons-in-law called the mother-in-law on entertainment. Saturday was taken away to meetings with sisters-in-law. Sunday was called «day' of pardon». This day all came to see relatives, friends and acquaintances, exchanged kisses, bows and were sorry each other if have offended words or acts.
Women's day 8 Martha
Congratulations to the Women's Day!
Here snowdrop in the meadow,
I found it.
Bring snowdrop mother
Although not bloomed.
And me with a flower so sweetly
What opened my snowdrop?
From her heat.
The eighth of March is "the International women's day", a holiday of spring and attention to the woman. This day we do not work, and ours "fine halves" wait from us for signs on attention, colours and gifts. We rejoice to a holiday. Passes time, the sense of a holiday varies, and we sometimes wonder: what, actually, and what for we celebrate? The beginning to the International women's day which today mark donation of gifts, colours and poetic initiation to women, was put not less by the celebrated personality - Clara Tsetkin. The beginning of celebrating of the International women's day in day on March, 8th has begun since1911. For the first time the holiday to women, has been celebrated in Germany, Austria, Denmark, and Sweden. Russia has joined this list since 1913. As a result of activity of the International female organization for protection of the rights of women, in 1985 in 88 countries of the world recognized the right of women and has stopped fair sex discrimination in the decision of political and other questions. The international women's day has been celebrated for the first time in Russia - in Petersburg in 1913 In May, 1965 on March, 8th has been declared by a day off. In the USSR and new Russia the holiday 8 Martha was and remains to one of the most favourite.
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