Basketball

History and evolution of basketball. Key terms used in sport. The essence of basketball games, required elements, the number of players. Optimal growth in the game. Weight basketball ball. The situation of players on the field. Maneuvering in the game.

Рубрика Спорт и туризм
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 27.11.2008
Размер файла 48,3 K

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Министерство спорта и туризма Республики Беларусь

Белорусский государственный университет физической культуры

Кафедра иностранных языков

Г.В. Жулкевская

BASKETBALL

Учебное пособие по английскому языку

для студентов II курса

Минск 2008

Basketball

I. Discuss with your group-mates before you read the text:

What do you know about basketball?

How is basketball played?

II. Say:

if basketball is popular in Belarus,

if basketball is an entertaining sport only,

what you know about the rules of the game,

what one must do to become a good basketball player.

III. Study the vocabulary to text 1:

basket n корзина

basketball n баскетбол, баскетбольный мяч

shoot v бросать, забрасывать

shooter n игрок, выполняющий бросок

inflated part надутый (воздухом)

advance v вести мяч

dribbling n дриблинг

bounce v отбивать мяч (от пола)

score v забивать мяч, вести счет

level surface ровная поверхность

retrieve v вернуть себе, восстановить

rebound n отдача, v отскакивать

ball handler n игрок, владеющий мячом

Task I. Read the text trying to understand each word and expression

BASKETBALL

Basketball is a fast, exciting, and entertaining sport played between two teams, each consisting of five players. A team wins games by scoring more points than the opposing team. Players score by shooting a large inflated ball into a raised goal, called a basket, at one end of a basketball court. A player can advance the ball toward the basket only by dribbling (bouncing the ball) or by passing the ball to a team-mate. Each team also tries to prevent the other team from scoring.

Basketball was invented in 1891. By the mid-1900's, it had become the world's most popular indoor sport. Today, millions of fans crowd into gymnasiums and arenas to watch their favourite teams. Millions more watch games on television.

Basketball is a popular form of recreation as well as an organized team sport. As few as two players can play; all they need is a ball, a basket, and a level surface.

Basketball requires teamwork, quick reactions, and endurance. Tall players have an advantage because they can reach closer to the basket or above other players to shoot and retrieve the ball on the rebound. But smaller players also make contributions to their teams as shooters and ball handlers.

Vocabulary, Grammer and Speech Exercises

Ex. 1. Find Russian equivalents for the following English words and word-combinations:

basket

shoot

advance

dribbling

passing

level surface

endurance

advantage

retrieve

10.rebound

продвигаться

вести мяч

передача мяча

выносливость

забрасывать

корзина

ровная поверхность

отскакивать

преимущество

вернуть себе

Ex. 2. Find English equivalents for the following Russian words and word-combinations:

забрасывать мяч, надутый мяч, ведение мяча, препятствовать другой команде, ровная поверхность, быстрые реакции, высокие игроки, вернуть себе мяч, владеющий мячом.

Ex. 3. Try to match these words with their meanings:

team record of points, made by a player or team

score number of persons playing together

inflate advance the ball bouncing

dribbling fill a ball with air

teamwork ability to endure

endurance combined effort

advantage act of contributing

contribution something useful or helpful to bring success in competition

retrieve bounce back after hitting

rebound get possesion of again

Ex. 4. Find the sentences with Participles in the text and translate them into Russsian.

Ex. 5. Translate the following prepositions in Russian:

between, into, at, toward, to, from, above, by, on, toward, between, to, into, above, at, on, from, between, from, on, above, into, by, between, at, from, on, into, above, toward.

Ex. 6. Insert prepositions (see the text):

A team wins games ... scoring more points. 2. Players score ... shooting a ball ... a basket ... one end ... a basketball court. 3. A player can advance the ball ... the basket only ... dribbling or ... passing the ball ... a team-mate. 4. Each team tries to prevent the other team ... scoring. 5. Tall players can reach closes ... the basket or ... other players. 6. Smaller players also make contributions ... their teams.

Ex. 7. Make up special questions:

Model:

Basketball is a fast, exciting sport.

What kind of sports is basketball?

What sport is fast and exciting?

Basketball is a popular form of recreation.

Basketball is an organized team sport.

The ball is inflated.

Basket is a raised goal.

Endurance is ability to endure.

Inflated ball is a ball filled with air.

Ex. 8. Explain the terms used in basketball:

basketball

team

shoot

ball

basket

dribbling

score

level surface

teamwork

endurance

Ex. 9. Say:

what kind of sports basketball is

how many players there are in a basketball team

when a basketball team win

when players score

how a player can advance the ball toward the basket

what each team tries to do during the game

what players are needed to play basketball

what basketball requires

what advantage tall players have in the team

what contributions smaller players make to their teams

Ex. 10. Draw up a plan of the text.

Ex. 11. Retell the text: a) as it is; b) without details.

Task II. Read text 2 and study the playing court and backboards and baskets designs.

Text 2. Basketball equipment

1. Learn these words and word-combinations:

endline n лицевая линия

sideline n боковая линия

centreline n центральная линия

3-point line трехочковая линия

2-point field goal area двухочковая зона

3-point field goal area трехочковая зона

scorer's table стол секретаря

team bench скамья запасных игроков

team bench area зона скамьи игроков

free throw штрафной бросок

free throw line линия штрафного броска

lane places размещение зон

free throw lane зона штрафного броска

neutral zone нейтральная зона

restricted area n штрафная зона, трехсекундная зона

backboard n щит

basket support ферма

ring n кольцо

rim n кольцо, ободок

padding n подушка

upside-down a перевернутый

bolt v скреплять болтами

technical equipment техническое оборудование

scoreboard n табло

scoresheet n протокол

game clock n часы для игры

stop watch секундомер

time-out watch n хронометрические часы (хронометр)

24 second device n прибор 24 секундной отметки

team foul indicator n указатель количества ошибок, допущенных командой

player foul markers n указатель количества персональных ошибок, допущенных игроком

count-down n часы обратного отсчета времени

elapse v прохождение времени, заканчиваться

digital v цифровой (табло)

suitable a подходящий, соответствующий

adverse a неблагоприятный

THE COURT

A basketball court is a rectangle divided into halfes by a centre linе.

A regulation basketball court measures 28 metres long and 15 metres wide. Most courts are made of wood. Various lines, 5 centimetres wide, divide the court into sections. For the names of these lines and the sizes and names of the sections, see the digrams.

BACKBOARDS AND BASKETS

A basket and a backboard hang over each end of the court. Each backboard must be 120 centimetres inside the end line. The basket consists of a rim, net, and backboard support. The rim is a metal hoop 45 centimetres in diameter and not more than 20 millimetres thick. The rim is attached to a metal plate shaped like an upside-down L that is bolted to the backboards so it is parallel to the floor and 3.05 metres above it. Backboards are made of clear fibreglass or metal. The cotton or synthetic fabric net is attached to the rim and has a hole in the bottom large enough for the ball to drop through.

TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT

Game clock. The game clock is used for timing periods of play and the intervals between them. It can be stopped and subsequently continued from that time. It is recommended to use a count-down type of clock. When half time, full time, period or extra period has elapsed its signal shall automatically sound with a very loud signal. It shall be placed so that it is clearly visible to everyone involved with the game. In FIBA events at least during the last 60 seconds of each half or a period the amount of time remaining shall be indicated to the one-tenth of a second.

Time-out watch. Stop watch used for timing time-outs.

30 second device: The device shall be automatic, digital count-down type, indicating the time in seconds. The signal of the device should automatically sound with a very loud signal when it reaches `zero', and should effect the stop of the game clock automatically as well. When the main clock stops, the device shall also stop. When the main clock starts, the device must have the capability to start manually (independently).

Scoresheet. It is the FIBA official scoresheet for recording game events.

Player foul markers: For indicating the number of fouls committed by a player. For games played in two halves of 20 minutes they shall be numbered 1 to 5 (1-4 in black, 5 in red). For games played in four periods of 12 minutes they shall be numbered 1 to 6 (1-5 in black, 6 in red).

Team foul markers: Both shall be red, and it shall be positioned on the scorer's table when a team has reached the penalty status.

Team foul indicator: Suitable device to indicate the number of team fouls. The device shall stop at the number of team fouls (8) which indicates that a team has reached the penalty status.

The scoreboard: The scoreboard shall indicate the time remaining of a period as prescribed at game clock. It shall also indicate the points scored by each team, the fouls committed by each player on the team, and the number of team fouls from 1 to 8 for games played in 2 x 20 minutes and from 1 to 5 for games played in 4 x 12 minutes.

Signals. There shall be equipment for at least 2 different sounding signals: 1 for the timekeeper and the scorer, and 1 for the 30 second operator. For FIBA events three separate signals with distinctly different sounds are required for each person. All three signals shall be sufficiently powerful to be easily heard under the most adverse or noisy conditions.

It is strongly recommended that the 30 second device, an additional game clock and the bright red electric light be located above the backboard. The colours of the numbers of the 30-second device and the game clock shall be different.

BALL SPECIFICATIONS

The ball shall be spherical and of an orange shade in colour. It shall be made with an outer surface of leather, rubber or synthetic material. For FIBA games the ball shall be made of leather and of a make approved by FIBA.

It shall be inflated to an air pressure such that when it is dropped into the playing surface from a height of 1.80 m measured from the bottom of the ball, it will rebound to a height of 1.20-1.40 m measured at the top of the ball. A standard basketball weighs between 600 and 650 grams and is between 75 and 78 centimetres in circumference.

The home team shall provide at least 2 used balls that meet the above specification.

The referee shall be the sole judge of the legality of the ball and he may select a ball provided by the visiting team.

The referee may select one of the balls used by either team for the warm-up.

PLAYING UNIFORM

Shirts: shall be of the same, single, solid colour on both back and front. Striped shirts are not allowed. Each player shall be numbered on the front and back of his shirt with plain numbers of a solid colour contrasting with the colour of the shirt. The numbers shall be clearly visible: those on the back at least 0.20 high and those on the front at least 0.10 m high and not less than 0.02 m wide. Teams shall use numbers from 4 to 15. Players on the same team shall not wear duplicate numbers.

Male players must place (tuck) their shirts inside the shorts during the game.

Shorts: of the same, single solid colour shall be worn by all players of the same team.

T-shirts: may be worn under shirts, provided they are of the same single colour as the shirt.

Undergarments: that extend below the shorts may be worn provided they are of the same single colour as the shorts.

Teams must have a minimum of two sets of shirts, one light (preferably white) and the other dark in colour. The first team named in program (home team) shall wear light, and the second named team (visitors) dark coloured shirts. However if the two teams involved agree, they may interchange the colour of the shirts.

Players may not wear equipment which, in judgement of the official, is dangerous to other players.

All equipment used by players must be appropriate for basketball. Any equipment that is designed to increase a player's height or reach or, in any other way, give an unfair advantage, shall not be permitted.

Vocabulary and Speech Exercises

Ex. 1. Put these words in the correct box:

shirt, playing court, basket, backboard, net, shorts, ring, padding, T-shirt, scoresheet, game clock, team foul markers, team foul indicator, under-garment, player foul markers, scoreboard 30 second device, basketball shoes, socks, hoop, rim, team bench, scorer's table.

Equipment

Clothing

Ex.2. Say:

what basketball courts are made of;

how a basketball court measures;

what line divides the court into two halves;

where team benches are;

what divides the court into sections.

Ex. 3. Name:

the lanes of the basketball court;

the lines of the basketball court;

zones of the basketball court.

Ex. 4. Describe:

a playing court;

a free throw lane;

backboards and baskets;

ball specifications.

Ex. 5. Say what you know about technical equipment in basketball:

a game clock;

a time-out watch;

a 30 second device;

a score sheet;

player foul markers;

team foul markers;

a team foul indicator;

a scoreboard;

signals.

Ex. 6. Say what you know about a playing uniform:

shirts;

shorts;

T-shirts;

undergarments.

Ex. 7. Say what instruction would you give to the coach of the basketball team. Complete the sentences:

Teams must have a minimum two _______________ .

The home team shall wear _______________ .

Visitors shall wear _______________ .

If the two teams involved in the game agree, they may ______________ .

Players may not wear equipment which is _______________ .

All equipment used by players must be _______________ .

Any equipment that is designed to increase a players height or give an unfair advantage, shall not be _______________ .

Task III. Learn the words and word combinations to text 3:

secure v

possession n

attempt n

prevent v

attack n

defence n

alert a

repidly adv

guard n

point guard n

shooting guard

forward n

centre n

vary v

rebounder n

end in a tie

field goal

long-range field goal

free throw

centre jump

toss v

tap v

miss a shot

fast break

commit a foul

delay v

use up v

man to man defence

zone defence

charge v

unsportsmanlike conduct

обеспечивать, охранять

владение

попытка

препятствовать

нападение

защита

настороженный, быть на чеку

быстро

защитник

защитник, участвующий в розыгрыше мяча

атакующий защитник

крайний нападающий

центровой

менять

отскакивающий

заканчиваться в ничью

бросок в ходе игры

затяжной бросок

штрафной бросок

начальный бросок

подбрасывать

разыгрывать мяч

пропустить вбрасывание

быстрый прорыв

совершить ошибку

задержка

искать (о времени)

личная защита

зонная защита

повернуться лицом к противнику

неспортивное поведение

Task IY. Read the text and find out how the game of basketball is played nowadays

Text 3. Rules and play

The object of the game is for one team to secure possession of the ball and to throw it into the opponents' basket, while attempting to prevent the other team from securing the ball or scoring. A goal is scored when the ball enteres the basket from above and remaines in, or passes through, the net.

The five players on a team play both attack and defence. When their team has the ball, they are attacking; when their opponents have the ball, they are defending. Because possession of the ball can change rapidly, all players must be alert so that they can quickly switch between attack and defence.

Normally, a team consists of two guards, two forwards, and a centre. However, players can move anywhere on the court at any time, no matter what their position. A team can also vary the positions at any time, for example by playing three quards and two forwards.

The guards are usually the smallest and quickest players. They normally play farther from the basket than the forwards or centre. Guards should be good dribblers and passers. They direct the attack and start most of the moves. Some teams have a point guard, who has the major ballhandling responsibilities. The other guard is the shooting guard and is often the team's best shooter.

Forwards are generally taller and stronger than guards. Forwards usually play in the area from the end line to the free throw lane. They should be good rebounders and be able to manoeuvre for shots close to the basket. The centre is usually the team's tallest player and best rebounder. A centre who is a good rebounder and scorer can dominate a game.

A game lasts for 40 minutes. It is divided into two 20-minute halves, with a halftime interval of 10 or 15 minutes. However, a game cannot end in a tie. Should the score be tied at the end of 40 minutes, an extra period of 5 minutes is played, plus as many additional 5-minute periods as may be needed to break the tie.

A team scores points by shooting field goal and free throws. A field goal is usually worth 2 points and may be attempted from anywhere on the floor by any attacking player while the game clock is running. In some basketball rules long-range field goals are awarded 3 points. A free throw is worth 1 point and is taken as a penalty after certain fouls. A player attempts a free throw from behind the free throw line and inside the free throw circle. Players have 5 seconds to shoot after the official hands them the ball.

A game starts with the centre jump. Four players from each team stand outside the centre circle. The fifth players, usually the centres, stand inside the centre circle. The official tosses the ball into the air above the latter two players, who jump up and try to tap it to a team-mate. The game clock starts as soon as a player touches the ball.

Once it gains possession of the ball, the attacking team advances the ball into the front court. The team can dribble the ball or pass it. If the attacking team scores, the opposing team immediately takes the ball out-of-bounds from behind the end line and tries to move the ball to the basket at the other end of the court. It then becomes the attacking team and the team that just scored becomes the defending team. Action continues in this manner until the clock is stopped.

If a player misses a shot, both teams try to gain possession of the ball by catching the rebound. All missed field goal attempts and most missed free throw attempts result in rebounds. Rebounding is a vital part of the game. Most teams miss at least half shots. Therefore, a strong rebounding team can control the ball more and has more scoring opportunities.

Attacking strategies try to free a player so that the player may have an opportunity to score. This may involve a number of passes and constant movement by at all five players. Such strategy is intended to produce a good shot or cause a defender to commit a foul. An attacking player may free a team-mate for a shot by legally blocking a defensive player with his or her body so that the defensive player cannot guard the player with the ball. That player can then take an open shot.

The fast break is designed to score quickly after the attacking team gains possession of the ball. The attacking team tries to get at least one of its players ahead of the defending team for an easy shot before the defenders can move into proper position.

The delay is an attacking strategy that is primarly designed to use up time, rather than to score. Teams often use a delay to protect a lead late in the game, passing and dribbling to keep the ball away from the other team. However, the attacking team must shoot within a certain time. Otherwise, the defending team will be awarded the ball.

There are two types of team defence, zone and man-to-man. In a zone defence, each player is assigned a particular area of the front court to defend. In man-to-man defence, each player guards a particular attacking player on all parts of the court.

Fouls are called by officials. Players may commit either a personal foul or a technical foul.

The more common type of foul is the personal foul. Most personal fouls occur when a player holds, pushes or charges into an opponent, or hits the arm or body of an opponent who is in the act of shooting. A player fouled in the act of shooting is allowed free throws, the number depending on the type of foul. A technical foul may be called on any player or coach for unsportsmanlike conduct towards an official.

Vocabulary and Speech Exercises

Ex. 1. Find Russian equivalents for the following English words and word combinations:

attack

defence

forward

guard

centre

free throw

rebound

delay

zone difence

10.centre jump

защита

нападение

защитник

центровой

крайний нападающий

отскакивать

задержка

штрафной бросок

начальный бросок

зонная защита

Ex.2. Translate from English into Russian:

1. The object of the game. 2. Attack and defence. 3. Possession of the ball can change rapidly. 4. The players can quickly switch between attack and defence. 5. Guards should be good dribblers and passers. 6. Forwards usually play in the area from the end line to the three throw lane. 7. A game cannot end in a tie. 8. A team scores points by shooting field goals and free throws. 9. A game starts with the centre jump. 10. The game clock starts as soon as a player touches the ball. 11. The team can dribble the ball or pass it. 12. Rebounding is a vital part of the game. 13. There are two types of team defence, zone and man-to-man. 14. Players may commit either a personal or a technical foul.

Ex. 3. Try to match these words with their meanings:

backcourt

occurs when a defending player legally hits a shot with the arm or hand before the ball reaches the basket

front court

the defending team's half of the court

blocked shot

the attacking team's half of the court

possession

give by handling

dribble

ownership

pass

take the ball forward by short passes from one player to another

shot

something contrary to the rules

rebound

throw

strategy

spring or bounce back after hitting something

foul play

the art of planning operations in game

Ex. 4. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate word combinations from the list below:

The object of the game is for one team to secure possession of the ball and to throw it into the ... ... . 2. The five players on a team play both ... ... . 3. A game lasts for ... . 4. A game starts with the ... . 5. The team can dribble the ball or ... . 6. Rebounding is a ... ... of the game. 7. Players may commit either a personal foul or a ... . 8. The more common type of foul is the ... . 9. A player fouled in the act of shooting is allowed ... . 10. A technical foul may be called on any player or coach for ...

(opponents' basket, attack and defence, center jump, 40 minutes, pass it, technical foul, vital part, free throw, personal foul, unsportsmanlike conduct).

Ex. 5. Say:

what object of the game is for each of the teams in basketball;

how many players take part in a standard game;

what players the team consists of;

how long the game lasts;

how the game starts;

how the team tries to move the ball;

which team can score;

how a point is awarded;

which team wins the game.

Ex. 6. Speak on the topics:

Basketball players.

Playing the game.

Scoring.

Attacking strategies.

Defensive strategies.

Fouls.

Task V. Learn the words and word-combinations to Text 4:

progress n

well-executed

change-of-pace dribbling

low or control dribble

entail v

high (speed) dribbling

crossover dribble

behind-the-back dribble

between-the-legs dribble

reverse dribble

two handed chest pass

tuck v

two-handed bounce pass

two-handed overhead pass

one-hand (push) pass

lob v

alignment n

behind the back pass

set shot

unhindered shot

lay up shot

underhand shot

jump shot

hook shot

dunking n

dunk shot

reverse lay-up shot

tap-in shot

blocking out

rebounding n

rebounder n

screen (pick) n

screener n

pick and roll (combination)

footwork n

anticipate v

успех

хорошо выполненный

ведение мяча с изменением скорости

низкий или контролируeмый дриблинг

(ведение мяча)

требовать, быть связанным

высокий (скоростной) дриблинг

дриблинг с переводом

дриблинг с переводом за спиной

дриблинг с переводом мяча под ногой

поворот с мячом

передача мяча двумя руками без отскока

прятать

передача мяча двумя руками с отскоком от пола

передача мяча двумя руками от головы

передача мяча одной рукой от груди

подбросить

расстановка (игроков)

передача из-за спины

бросок мяча с места

бросок без сопротивления

бросок мяча в движении сверху

бросок мяча в движении снизу

бросок мяча в прыжке

бросок крюком

бросок (мяча в корзину)

бросок одной рукой сверху

бросок мяча с обратной стороны мяча

бросок в корзину

блокирование

отскок (мяча от щита)

игрок, борющийся за отскок (мяч

от щита)

заслон

игрок, который ставит заслон

передача мяча игроку, поставившему заслон (после разворота) для атаки корзины

работа ног

упреждать

Task YI. Read text 5. Pay attention to

three basic ways to move the ball in basketball;

blocking out and rebounding;

screening;

defence.

Text 5. BASIC ELEMENTS OF BASKETBALL

In basketball there are three basic ways to move the ball: dribbling, passing and shooting.

Dribbling is the way to progress with the ball by an individual player, in order to get free from his opponent or to get in a good passing or shooting position.

Passing the ball is the quickest and most effective way to get the ball from player to player. The perfect end result of a series of well-executed passes will be a pass made to an open team mate close to the basket who just takes the ball and easily scores. A good assist has the same importance and attraction as scoring a basket.

Shooting is the final movement to complete the offensive action in order to score a basket. In basketball, generally, shots are taken every twenty to thirty seconds, and nearly half of the attempts are successful. The many goals scored are the features that make basketball interesting, attractive, and exciting for the spectators.

There are many types of dribbling, passing and shooting used by players depending on their ability and the game situation.

DRIBBLING

During a dribble the dribbler keeps the ball on the side of his body that is away from the defender. To dribble, the ball is pushed down by spreading the fingers by a light pressure. All players should learn to dribble equally well with both hands without looking the ball.

The change-of-pace dribble is one of the most common in basketball and is used to make the defender think that the dribbler is slowing down or going to pick up his dribble and stop, or he is looking for a team mate to pass to, but still keeping his dribble, he explodes by the defender at top speed.

THE LOW OR CONTROL DRIBBLE

The low or control dribble is used whenever the player is closely guarded. This type of dribbling simply entails keeping the ball low to the floor and in player's control. The ball is dribbled on the side of the body away from the defender. The palm of the dribbling hand is kept over the ball.

THE HIGH OR SPEED DRIBBLE

When a player is in the open court and needs to go as fast as he can with the ball, he uses the high/speed dribble. In such case the dribble is not closely guarded and while running fast, he pushes the ball in front of him and lets the ball bounce at hip level. With this type of dribble the dribbling hand is not directly over the ball as in the low dribble, but behind it.

THE CROSSOVER DRIBBLE

The crossover dribble entails dribbling with one hand, then, as the dribbler get close to his defender, pushing the ball out in front of him, over to the other hand, and exploding past him. This move is a very good way to beat the defender, but, since the ball is unprotected as he makes the crossover, it can be stolen by the defence if the move is not done smoothly.

THE BEHIND-THE-BACK DRIBBLE

The type of dribble is used when the dribbler changes direction in order to get loose from his opponent. The dribbler moves the ball from one side of his body to another by swinging it behind and across his back.

THE BETWEEN-THE-LEGS DRIBBLE

This dribble is a quick way to move the ball from one hand to another between the legs when a dribbler is closely guarded or when (being overplayed and) he wants to change direction.

THE REVERSE DRIBBLE

This dribble (also called spin dribble or roll dribble) is also a type of dribbling to change direction and to bounce the ball from one hand to another when the dribbler is closely guarded. To use it effectively it must be executed quickly when the dribbler pushes the ball to the floor and rotates around defender.

PASSING

THE TWO-HANDED CHEST PASS

The chest pass is the most common pass in a game when there isn't a defensive player between the passer and his team mate. To execute this pass, the ball is held in two hands chest-high and close to the body. The elbows are tucked and fingers spread around the ball. As he releases the ball, arms and hands are extended with the palms turning outward. This is the most accurate of the various passes.

THE TWO HANDED BOUNCE PASS

The basic mechanics of the bounce pass are the same as those of the chest pass, although the situation when it is used are not. A bounce pass is used most often in pivot plays when the passer is passing to a team mate guarded from behind, or in other situation when the chest pass cannot be used.

THE TWO-HANDED OVERHEAD PASS

The two-handed overhead pass is commonly used for passing the ball into the high and low post area, or as an outlet pass directly off a rebound to begin a fast break, or during a throw-in.

THE ONE-HAND (BASEBALL) PASS

The one-hand (baseball) pass is a long-distance pass that is usually thrown more than half the court length. This pass is not too accurate but is useful in getting the ball for a fast break.

THE ONE-HAND ( PUSH ) PASS

The one-hand (push) pass is a quick pass made with one hand tо a short distance. The pass originates near the ear and relies on elbow being bent for its power. It can be either a straight or a lob pass depending on the defensive alignment.

THE BEHIND - THE BACK PASS

This pass was once considered to be a fancy pass but has now become a normal offensive weapon

SHOOTING

THE SET SHOT

During the normal course of the game the set shot is generally not used, since if the shooter does not leap to the air the shot can easily be blocked. It is commonly used only when executing free throws, when the shooter may take an unhindered shot.

THE LAY-UP SHOT

In the game of basketball, a lay-up is the first shot that should be leamed. In a competitive situation this is the one shot that the player has to be able to make with both right and left hands. The dribble towards the basket is generally finished by a lay-up shot. When the dribbler is several feet away from the ring, simultaneously lifts his hand and the same knee up when jumping towards the basket.

THE UNDERHAND SHOT

The underhand shot is a special type of the lay-up shot when the shooter after taking his jump towards the basket extends his arm and lifts his hand upward keeping the ball away from the defender.

THE JUMP SHOT

Of all the shots taken in basketball game, the jump shot is the most widely used in a player's offensive arsenal. Since fit is taken at the highest point of the shooter's vertical jump, it is a shot that is extremely hard to block. From a long distance it is almost the only type of shot.

THE HOOK SHOT

The hook is a soft and accurate shot and excellent low-post move. When executed correctly, it is nearly impossible to block, because the shooting hand is away from the defender, even when guarded by a taller player.

The hook shot always starts with the shooter's back to the basket. A good hook shot, like a good jump shot, depends on body balance. To make a righthand hook shot the player pivots on his rear (right foot) and takes a step with his left leg. Then he lifts his right knee straight up and simultaneously raises his shooting (right) hand upward and releases the ball with a flick of his wrist.

If this shot is executed by jumping from both feet, it is called jump hook.

DUNKING

The dunk shot was once considered a special attraction of the tallest players. Recently, it has become common and its benefit is that the shot has no upward flight and is very difficult to block. The dunk shot is the most spectacular offensive move and it is one that can boost the team mates' spirits and quickly demoralise the opponent. Dunking can be made by one or two hands, from in front or from behind.

THE REVERSE LAY-UP SHOT

The reverse lay-up shot has the benefit of the rim and backboard to help protect the shooter from defenders trying to block his shot from behind. It is a good shot to use after a penetration along the end line or when he receives the ball inside the lane with his back to the basket.

TAPPING (TIP-IN)

The tap-in is not really a shot per se. This move consists of only a soft flick of the fingertips. The fingertips are positioned under the ball as it comes off the rim and the ball is gently pushed up and tapped in the direction of the rim or backboard. Timing and good jumping ability are needed to perform this shot.

BLOCKING OUT AND REBOUNDING

Rebounding is one of the most important parts of the game. Every rebound that a player can get gives the opportu-nity to that team to score a basket. Since approximately half of all shots are missed, the difference in rebound-ing between the two teams can determine the winner.

Height and good jumping ability are certainly big advantages in rebounding but they are not the only factors in becoming a good rebounder. Good position and timing are equally important. When the offensive players are blocked out by the defensive players even the shortest player can get the rebound.

SCREENING

A screen, also called a pick, is a legal block set by an offensive player on the side of or behind a defender in order to free a team mate to take a shot or receive a pass or dribble past his defender.

The screen should be set perpendicular to the direction that the defence expects to move.

The effectiveness of the screen depends not only on the screener, but also on the player who receives the screen. It's important that the player comes close to the player making the screen. If he makes the mistake of going a step or two away from the screener, the screen will lose most of its effectiveness, especially when a good defensive man is guarding him.

PICK AND ROLL

This is a combination play between the screener and his team mate with the ball. Its essence is that after the screener has set a screen, he makes a tum and looks to receive a possible pass. If it is well executed and he receives the ball, generally, he is in a very good scoring position.

This type of play is one of the most often used ones against the man-to-man defence.

DEFENCE

To play good defence the elementary fundamental to master is footwork. The defender shall anticipate his opponents by moving his feet, so as to establish legal guarding position in the path of his opponent.

MAN-TO-MAN DEFENCE

In basketball the most often used defence is the man-to-man defence. In this defence each player guards an opponent. This type of defence requires every player to play good defence because, if one of the defensive players makes a mistake his opponent can easily score a basket. Against this defence the pick and roll combination plays are often effective, sometimes resulting in very dynamic plays. In NBA the teams are only allowed to play man-to-man defence.

ZONE DEFENCE

When using this defence the defenders are not guarding every opponent individually but they guard a specific area (zone) around the basket. The defensive team's moves do not directly mimic the opponents but remain in a defensive pattern as they follow the path of the ball. Every player has his own position. It is generally used when the defensive players are tall but not as quick as their opponents. Against this type of defence pick and roll combinations cannot be used because the defenders do not follow a player without the ball.

Vocabulary and Speech Exercises

Ex. 1. Continue the lists:

Dribbling: high dribbling, ...

Passing: push pass, ...

Shots: jump shot, ... .

Ex. 2. Replace the following Russian words and word-combinations by their English equivalents from the text:

основные элементы, передача мяча двумя руками с отскоком от пола, дриблинг с переводом за спиной, контролируемый дриблинг, поворот с мячом, передача мяча двумя руками от головы, расстановка игроков, бросок мяча с места, бросок мяча в движении сверху, бросок мяча в прыжке, бросок мяча в корзину, заслон, блокирование, бросок крюком, передача из-за спины, перекрёстный дриблинг.

Ex. 3. Explain the terms used in basketball:

change of pace dribbling

high dribbling

crossover dribble

reverse dribble

two-handed overhead pass

set shot

jump shot

dunking

blocking out

screen

Ex. 4. Find proof in the text to support the following statements:

There are three basic ways to move the ball.

All players should learn to dribble.

Rebounding is one of the most important parts of the game.

The effectiveness of the screen depends not only on the screener.

To play good defence the elementary fundamental to master is footwork.

Ex. 5. What do you think about:

basic elements of basketball;

types of dribbling;

types of passing;

types of shooting;

pick and roll.

Ex. 6. Give extensive answer to these questions:

1. How many basic ways to move the ball are there in basketball? 2. What must a player do while dribbling? 3. When is the low dribble used? 4. When is the high dribble used? 5. What is the reverse dribble used for? 6. What are the basic mechanics of the two-handed chest pass? 7. How is the one-hand pass made? 8. What shot should be learned by a basketball player first? 9. What movements does tapping consist of? 10. What is screening?

Ex.7. Speak on:

basic elements of basketball;

basic ways to move the ball;

types of dribbling;

types of passing;

types of shooting.

Task YII. Read and learn the following words and word-combinations to text 6:

occupy v

evolve v

peach basket

nail v

janitor n

ladder n

eliminate v

deftness n

divert v

stepladder n

pave the way

elaborate v

revise v

занимать

выделять, намечать

корзина для персиков

прибивать (гвоздями)

сторож

лестница

упразднить

ловкость

развлекать

стремянка (лестница)

проложить путь

разрабатывать

пересматривать

Task VIII. Read text 6 as fluently as you can

TEXT 6. A SHORT HISTORY OF BASKETBALL

The history of basketball dates back a hundred years to 1891, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA.

At that time Dr.James Naismith (born Nov.6 1861 - died Nov.28 1939) was the physical educator in the School for Christian Workers (now Springfield College). As the coach of the school football team he was given the task to create an interesting indoor game to occupy the students during the winter months. In a fortnight he came up with the basic rules of a new game. Mr.Naismith evolved 5 basic principles when created the rules.

The game is played with a round ball and with the hands.

A player cannot run with the ball.

Any player can take up any position on the playing court at any time.

There shall be no physical contact between players.

The goal (basket) shall be placed horizontally above the floor of the court.

He chose two wooden peach baskets and nailed them to the side of the balcony of the hall. The height where the baskets were hung was dictated by the height of the balcony. This height (10 feet) was so ideally selected that it has never been changed.

The first games were played with a football ball and a janitor sat on a ladder to retrieve the ball from the basket when a player made a goal.

The new game became a big success. The 13 Naismith's original basketball rules were based on the principle that the points are to be attained by deftness rather than force. The rules were published in «Triangle» magazine in 15 January 1892 under the title «A New Game».

The first publicly played game of basketball was played in March 2, 1892 between students and teachers at the Springfield Collage. The students won 5-1 before a crowd of over 200.

Basketball began its world-wide movement as the game was then introduced in Mexico.

In the same year Lew Allen of Hartford, Connecticut made cylindrical baskets of heavy woven wire to eliminate Naismith's peach baskets. The rims were hung at the balcony and some spectators amused themselves by diverting the ball away from the hoop. To protect the ball from spectators, first backboards (3.60 x 1.80 m) were introduced.

The ball itself outgrew the football ball and was replaced by an official basketball in 1894. In the next year a 1.80 x 1.20 m backboard was approved. Free throws were introduced.

A new rim was invented. It consisted of a net suspended on a rim and with a rope attached to the bottom of the net. When the rope was pulled the ball was released and the days of the stepladder came to an end.

On March 22, 1893 the first women's match took place in Northampton. No men were allowed to watch the game.

From 1896 field goals were changed to 2 points, free throws to 1 point.

The same year Chicago and low competed in the first college match. Five players were allowed on each team. Chicago won 15-12. Neither team used substitute players.

Dr. James Naismith controlled the rules until 1896. Since 1896 the Amateur Sports Federation had been in charge of the rules and any changes. The Federation ruled in 1897 that a team should consist of five players and it was universally accepted. Before this ruling it sometimes occurred that up to 50 players on each side were on the floor.

By 1905 basketball had become widely spread in secondary schools, universities, church clubs and military barracks. Many students from abroad studied at the Springfield Sports School at the time when basketball was being born. They spread the new game across the ocean. Basketball was brought to Europe, more specifically to France, by the Springfield student Mel Rideout.

In 1909-1910 glass backboard was first approved in the rules. A player was disqualified upon committing his fourth personal foul.

With the arrival of the First World War the game's growth slowed down. During that time the American soldiers and sport coaches, including Naismith himself brought to Europe the innovations of the game.

The first Inter-Allied Games were played in 1919 in Paris. This competition was won by the USA who defeated France and Italy. It is considered to be the first

international basketball tournament and paved the way for World Championship and Olympic recognition. In 1923 the designated foul shooter was eliminated, the person fouled had to shoot the free throw. At the Olympic Games in Paris in 1924 basketball was played as exhibition.

In 1927 Abe Saperstein organised the Harlem Globetrotters. The players were from Chicago and they played their first game in Hinckley, Illinois. Since that time they have contributed greatly to increase the popularity of basketball throught the world, playing in about 100 different countries. Their superior and offen amusing basketball skills continue to draw the attention of all ages.

Until 1932 we can mainly speak about American basketball rules. The rest of the world was developing under the influence of the local enthusiasts with certain fashionable additions coming from the States.

The rules were not standardised internationally. The World YMCA Committee in co-operation with Springfield College established an International School for Physical education in 1927 in Geneva. It convened a conference of the representatives of basketball associations in 18 June 1932 in Geneva and the International Amateur Basketball Federation (FIBA) was founded by eight countries. The first President of FIBA: Leon Bouffard (Switzerland), Secretary General: Renato William Jones (Great Britain).

At the FIBA Founding Congress the first international rules were elaborated.

Each team consisted of five players and 2 substitutes who could come into play twice during the game. Following every point scored from the field or from a free throw the game continued by a jump ball at the centre. The rules were basically the same as in the USA with a few changes. It was decided that the rules would be revised every four years, years of the Olympic Games. This revision would be carried out by the Technical Commission.

The first European Championship for Men was held in 1935 in Geneva. Ten national selections took part and the first European Champion was the team from Latvia defeating Spain 24-18 in the final.

In 1935 the International Olympic Committee in Oslo officially approved basketball for the Games in Berlin. It was the first great basketball tournament at which the uniformity of the game had to be proven. USA defeated Canada 19-8 (in the rain) for the Gold medal. Dr. James Naismith was among the spectators and presented medals to champions.

In Berlin the FIBA Congress brought changes into the rules in order to keep the balance between the defence and the offence, and limiting the advantage of taller players. Three time-outs were allowed. The centre jump after each score was eliminated. The ball was brought into play at the end line. It was a revolutionary rule when the court was divided into two halves and the 10 second rule went into effect. The player who collected four personal fouls was disqualified. The number of substitutes was increased to five.

Dr. James Naismith inventor of basketball died in Lawrence, Kensas 28 Nov. 1939.

There was a long interval following the Berlin Olympics, and because of the Second World War the next Congress only met in 1948, in London.

The Cup of the European Champion Clubs is introduced for men in 1958, and for women in 1959.

The professional NBA league was founded in 1949. In 1950 the first World Championship for men took place in Argentina and the first European Championship for Women in 1953 in Chile. It was a historical decision when FIBA opened the Olympic Games for the American professional players in Barcelona, 1992. At the beginning of the century basketball is the game which is played and enjoyed by more than 250 million registered players all over the world. It has become the game of the modern times.

Notes

Springfield, Massachusett, USA - Спрингфилд штат Mассачусет (США)

James Naismith - Джеймс Найсмит

«Triangle» - журнал «Треугольник»

FIBA - International Amateur Basketball Federation

Assignments

Assignment 1. Answer the following questions. If necessary, look through the text again:

1. Who invented basketball? 2. What basic principles did J.Naismith evolve when created the basketball rules? 3. What was nailed to the side of the balcony? 4. What were the first games played with? 5. What principles were the original basketball rules passed on? 6. Where were the first rules published? 7. Where and when was the first game of basketball played publicly? 8. When did basketball begin its world-wide movement? 9. When was the football ball replaced by the basketball one? 10. Who was in charge of the basketball rules and their changes? 11. When was FIBA founded? 12. Where were the first international basketball rules elaborated? 12. When was basketball approved for the Olympic Games?

Assignment 2. Reread paragraph 2. Entitle the paragraph. From the list below choose the heading which suites its theme best:

The father of basketball.

2. A diverting indoor winter game.

Basketball invention.

Springfield College.

Assignment 3. Which is the most important sentence expressing the main idea in paragraph 15? It may be called the key sentence (Summe rising the information contained in the whole paragraph). Find the «key» of paragraph 15.

Assignment 4. Reread paragraphs and say:

which the most important sentence expressing the main idea of paragraph 25 is;

the name of the body that would revise the basketball rules.

Assignment 5. Find the passage desribing the first international basketball rules.

Assignment 6. Give some information:

about the origin of basketball;

evolution of the ball;

FIBA;

about the game of the modern time.

Refereeing

Task YIII. Before you read the text:

Say:

how many officials there are in every competition;

what the referees do to start the game;

learn the following words and word-combinations:

officials n

official n

referee n

umpire n

timekeeper n

scorer n

30 second operator

impartial a

infraction n

set aside v

question v

offender n

resume v

inspect v

approve v

recognize v

disagree v

warrant v

forfeit v

restore v

expiration n

precedence n

jump ball

designation n

trail official

lead official

coverage n

perepheral vision n

be unsure

score sheet n

pertain v

notify v

marker n

scoreboard n

discrepancy n

состав судей

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