Teaching grammar games

The article basis of teaching grammar games. The advantages of using games. The role of games on languages lessons. The practical basis of teaching grammar games. Some main advantages of using games in the classroom. Learning grammar through games.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид дипломная работа
Язык английский
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INTRODUCTION

The given qualification papers is devoted to the study of Grammar games - Motivation in Teaching English.

The subject of our research is to study the grammar games in teaching English.

The purpose of our qualification paper is to work out the methods of teaching English grammar through games.

The tasks and aims of the research

1. The first task of my work is to describe the role of games on language lessons.

2. The second task is to describe views of different linguists on the problem of using games.

3. The last task is to describe various types of grammar games.

The novelty of research is concluded in new materials of the linguists, which were published in the Internet. The novelty of my work is concluded in the fact, that we had worked out some grammar games which we had approbated on English language lessons during my pedagogical practice.

The actuality of the qualification paper is that we have analysed. The teaching English through the grammar games.

The practical value of our qualification paper is that hard to be overvalued. This work reflects modern trends in linguistics and we hope it would serve as a good manual for those who wants to master modern English language. Also this work can be used by teachers of English language for teaching English grammar.

The theoretical value of qualification paper is that the researches can be used in seminars and

1. The article basis of teaching grammar games

1.1 The role of games on language lessons

Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have the opportunity to use language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners' attention is on the message, not on the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win. This eases the fear of negative evaluation, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language in front of other people. In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech fluency is generated-thus communicative competence is achieved.

Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful use of language (Prasad 2003). In other words, these activities create a meaningful context for language use. The competitive ambiance also makes learners concentrate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious acquisition of inputs. Most students who have experienced game-oriented activities hold positive attitudes towards them (Uberman 1998). An action research conducted by Huyen and Nga (2003), students said that they liked the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness, and the motivation that games brought to the classroom. On the effectiveness of games, teachers in Huyen & Nga's (2003) reported that action research reported that their students seem to learn more quickly and retain the learned materials better in a stress-free and comfortable environment.

The benefits of using games in language-learning can be summed up in nine points.

Games: are learner centered.

1.promote communicative competence.

2.create a meaningful context for language use.

3.increase learning motivation.

4.reduce learning anxiety.

5.integrate various linguistic skills.

6.encourage creative and spontaneous use of language.

7.construct a cooperative learning environment.

8.foster participatory attitudes of the students.

1.2 The advantages of using games

Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas". In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.

Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems.

Ti ere are many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student's experience.

Another factor influencing the choice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Many games have a time limit, but the teacher can either allocate more or less time depending on the students' level, the number of people in a group, or the knowledge of the rules of a game etc.

Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do". Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. At different stages of the lesson, the teacher's aims connected with a game may vary:

Gunes also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency. However, can they be more successful for presentation and revision than other techniques? The following part of this article is an attempt at finding the answer to this question.

2. The practical basis of teaching grammar games

2.1 The adequacy in using games

In this paragraph we would like to reflect how modern teachers evaluate the adequacy in using games when teaching English language

Famous British teacher and educator Andrew Wright in his books' Language learning is hard work ... Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'

Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information."

The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.

If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term!

Another distinguished scholar, Aydan Ersoz, of USA noted them following:

Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.'

Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.

In Korea a noted teacher Lee Su Kim distinguished games as follows:

There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games.'

There are many advantages of using games in the classroom:

1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class.

2% They are motivating and challenging.

3.Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.

4.Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.

5.They encourage students to interact and communicate.

6.They create a meaningful context for language use.'

A great Polish educator the opinions of whom we mentioned within one of our chapters said,

Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms (1979:2) 2. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programmer. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato 1988:147). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen 1994:118). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas" (1988:147). In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus 1994:218). S. M. Silvers "ays many teachers are enthusiastic about using games as "a teaching device," yet they often perceive games as mere time-fillers, "a break from the monotony of drilling" or frivolous activities. He also claims that many teachers often overlook the fact that in a relaxed atmosphere, real learning takes place, and students use the language they have been exposed to and have practiced earlier (1982:29). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future (1994:6).'

Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times seem overwhelming.'

When to Use Games

Ms. Uberman noted that 'Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do" (1979:3). Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.'

'Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention f and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.'

Learning Vocabulary

Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'

'Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.'

'In conclusion, learning vocabulary through games is one effective and interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms. The results of this research suggest that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and - view of language lessons, thus leading toward the goal of improving learners' communicative competence.' Why Use Games in Class Time?

Games are fun and children like to play them. Through games children experiment, discover, and interact with their environment. (Lewis, 1999)

Games add variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing a plausible incentive to use the target language. For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivational factor. Games can provide this stimulus. (Lewis, 1999)

The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children. It brings the target language to life. (Lewis, 1999)

The game makes the reasons for speaking plausible even to reluctant children. (Lewis, 1999)

Through playing games, students can learn English the way children learn their mother tongue without being aware they are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot.

Even shy students can participate positively.

How to Choose Games (Tyson, 2000) A game must be more than just fun.

A game should involve "friendly" competition.

A game should keep all of the students involved and interested.

A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language itself.

A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material.

One more scholar, M. Martha Lingering said the following:

'In an effort to supplement lesson plans in the ESL classroom, teachers often turn to games. The justification for using games in the classic m has been well demonstrated as benefiting students in a variety of ways. These benefits range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more co-operative group dynamics.'

General Benefits of Games

Affective:

lowers affective filter

encourages creative and spontaneous use of language

promotes communicative competence

motivates

fun Cognitive:

reinforces

* reviews and extends

focuses on grammar communicatively

Class Dynamics:

udent centered

teacher acts only as facilitator

builds class cohesion

fosters whole class participation

promotes healthy competition Adaptability:

easily adjusted for age, level, and interests

utilizes all four skills

requires minimum preparation after development

So language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.

Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be use ' to practice many types of communication.

2.2 Learning grammar through games

The collection of word games is a valuable resource for the teacher of young through adult learners of English as a second or foreign language. Focusing primarily on language development through the use of high frequency vocabulary and structures, they reinforce classroom lessons and provide additional spelling, conversation, listening and speaking practice.

The most instructive language learning games are those that emphasize specific structures. They do not only practice the basic pattern but also do so in a pleasant, easy way that allows the students to forget they are drilling grammar and concentrate on having fun. The following games are concerned with Yes/No questions, When-questions, tag questions, comparative and superlative, adverbs, modals, demonstratives, etc.

Most learners somehow accept that the sounds of a foreign language are going to be different from those of their mother tongue. What is more difficult to accept is that the grammar of the new language is also spectacularly different from the way the mother tongue works. At a subconscious, semiconscious and conscious level it is very hard to want to switch to "to be" ('I'm 23', 'I'm hungry', 'and I'm cold') if it is "have" in Italian.

Grammar is perhaps so serious and central in learning another language that all ways should be searched for which will focus student energy on the task of mastering and internalizing it. One way of focusing this energy is through the release offered by games. Teenagers are delighted to be asked to do something that feels like an out-class activity and in which they control what is going on in the classroom - they become the subjects, while for a lot of the 15,000 hours they spend in schools they are the objects of teaching. The point is that fun generates energy for the achievement of the serious goal.

Where exactly do such games fit into a teaching programme? Grammar games can be used in three ways:

*diagnostically before presenting a given structure area to find out how much knowledge of the area is already disjointedly present in the group;

*after a grammar presentation to see how much the group have grasped;

*as revision of a grammar area.

One should not use grammar games as a Friday afternoon 'reward' activity. Using them as a central part of the students' learning process would be a better idea. Thus, each game is proposed for a given level ranging from beginner to advanced. This refers simply to the grammar content of that particular game. But, as it has been already mentioned above, a lot of activities can be adapted to different classes with different grammar components. By changing the grammar content a teacher can, in many cases, use the game frame offered at a higher or lower level. Generally, any frame can be filled with any structures you want to work on with your students. The students have to take individual responsibility for what they think the grammar is about. The teacher is free to find out what the students actually know, without being the focus of their attention. Serious work is taking place in the context of a game. The dice throwing and arguing lightens and enlivens the classroom atmosphere in a way that most people do not associate with the grammar part of a course. The 'game' locomotive pulls the grammar train along. Everybody is working at once- the 15-30 minutes the average game lasts is a period of intense involvement.

Other reasons for including games in a language class are:

1.They focus student attention on specific structures, grammatical patterns.

2.They can function as reinforcement, review and enrichment.

3.They involve equal participation from both slow and fast learners.

4.They can be adjusted to suit the individual ages and language levels of the students

5.They contribute to an atmosphere of healthy competition, providing an outlet for the creative use of natural language in a non-stressful situation.

6.They can be used in any language-teaching situation and with any skill area whether reading, writing, speaking or listening.

7.They provide the immediate feedback for the teacher.

8.They ensure maximum student participation for a minimum of teacher preparation.

A game should be planned into the day's lesson right along with exercises, dialogues and reading practice. It should not be an afterthought.

Games are a lively way of maintaining students' interest in the language, they are fun but also part of the learning process, and students should be encouraged to take them seriously. They should also know how much time they have to play a game. It's not useful to start a game five minutes before the end of the lesson. Students are usually given a five-minute warning' before the time is over so they can work towards the end.

The older the students are, the more selective a teacher should be in choosing a game activity. Little kids love movements, while older ones get excited with puddles, crosswords, word wheels, and poster competitions whatever.

Modern language teaching requires a lot of work to make a lesson interesting for modern students who are on familiar terms with computers, Internet and electronic entertainment of any kind. Sympathetic relations must exist not only among students but between students and a teacher. It's of special importance for junior students because very often they consider their teachers to be the subject itself, i.e. interesting and attractive or terrible and disgusting, necessary to know or useless and thus better to avoid.

A teacher should bear in mind that it is the content, not the form, which is of interest to the child. A toddler does not learn to say,"Cookie, please", in her native language because she is practicing the request form. "Cookie, please" is learned because the child wants a cookie.

So children learn with their whole beings. Whole-child involvement means that one should arrange for the child's participation in the lesson with as many senses as possible. Seeing pictures of children performing actions and repeating, "The boy is running", "The girl is hopping" is not at all as effective as when students do the actions themselves in response to commands and demonstrations from the teacher.

All said above is fairly true to adult learners not only children, because of our common human nature to possess habits through experience. We all learned to understand and speak our first language by hearing and using it in natural situations, with people who cared for and about us. This is the most effective and interesting way to learn a second language as well. The experts now advise language teachers to spend most of the classroom time an activities that foster natural acquisition, rather than on formal vocabulary and structure explanations and drills. They insist that "once you have become accustomed to the.rewards and pleasures gained from teaching through activities, you will wonder how second-language teaching ever got to be anything else. Your own ideas for activities and their management will flow, and your students' learning rates will soar!" "Activities' mean action games, finger and hand-clapping games, jump rope and ball-bouncing games, seat and card games, speaking and guessing games and even handicraft activities. Judging the results we have nothing but believe them.

Practice part

Games with prepositions

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE

1. MAGAZINE SEARCH

Materials: Magazines to share in groups

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: I. On the board, write a list of prepositions of place that the students have studied. Divide the students into groups of three or four and give each group several magazines. You may want to ask students to bring in their own. If you are supplying them, be sure that they have full-page ads or other large pictures.

2. Give the groups a time limit and have them search through their magazines to find a picture that contains situations illustrating prepositions of place.

3. When the time is up, each group goes to the front of the class, holds up its picture, and explains (in sentences) the contents of the picture, using prepositions of place.

Example: The dog is under the table.

The table is next to the man. The table is in front of the window.

4. The group that found a picture allowing them to correctly use the most prepositions of place from the list on the board wins. NOTE: With an intermediate group, choose a wider range of prepositions that they have already reviewed.

2. SCAVENGER HUNT

Materials: Worksheet 1.1, objects filled in various objects provided by instructor

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: 1. Before students come into the classroom, distribute various objects around the room, placing them in visible positions that students can describe using their prepositions of place. List the objects on the worksheet.

2. Divide the class into pairs and give each pair a copy of the worksheet.

3. The students look around the room for each object listed on the worksheet and write a complete sentence describing its location. The first group to finish brings their worksheet to you to be checked. If the answers are correct, that group wins.

3. PREPOSITIONAL CHAIN DRILL

Materials: None

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Review prepositions of place.

2. Take a small object, such as a pen, and do something with it, then describe your action. (Put the pen on the desk and say, "I put the pen on the desk.")

3. Give the pen to a student and ask him/her, "What did I do with the pen?"

4. The student answers and then does something different with the object that involves a different preposition of place.

5. The student then passes the object to the next student and asks, "What did we do with the pen?" That student repeats what the teacher did and what the first student did with the object. The second student then does something different with the object before passing it to the third student.

Example:

Teacher; I put the pen on the desk. What did I do with the pen?

Alfredo: You put the pen on the desk, (to the next student, Damian) I put the pen above my head. What did we do with the pen? Damian: The teacher put the pen on the desk. Alfredo put the pen above his head. I put the pen under my book, (to the next student) What did we do with the pen? etc.

6. This activity continues until no one can do something different with the pen that can be described using a preposition of place.

NOTE: You may want to write the prepositions that have been used on the board to help the students remember.

Variation: Give each student a card to use with a preposition of place on it.

4. ERROR ANALYSIS

Materials: Worksheet 1.2 or other similar picture

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 1. Divide the class into pairs. Give each pair a copy of the worksheet or other similar picture. NOTE: If you are using your own picture, also give the pairs several sentences you have written about the picture, as on the worksheet. Some sentences should be accurate, and others incorrect.

2. The pairs read the sentences about the picture and decide if they are correct or incorrect in their preposition usage. If they are incorrect, they must correct them.

3. When a pair is finished, check their work. If this is a competition, the first pair to finish the worksheet correctly wins. If using this activity as a review activity, go over the answers together when everyone has finished.

SUGGESTION: As a follow-up activity, have each pair write 10 True/False sentences with which to challenge another pair.

5. PREPOSITION BEE

Materials: Worksheet 1.3 A or 1.3 B for instructor's use

Dynamic: Teams

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into two teams. Have them line up along opposite walls, or arrange their desks in two lines.

2. The first student from Team A steps to the front of the class. Read a sentence, omitting the preposition. The student must fill in the blank. Several answers will probably be possible; give the team a point for any appropriate answer.

3. Alternate students from the two teams until everyone has had a turn or you are out of time. The team with the most points wins.

SUGGESTION: Instead of reading the sentences, use an overhead and reveal one sentence at a time. This avoids repetition and helps the students to focus on the sentence.

NOTE: You may want to make your own sentences based on the prepositions your class has covered. This activity could also be done at a higher level with sentences using phrasal verbs.

PHRASAL VERBS

1. CONCENTRATION

Materials: Board, instructor's grid

Dynamic: Groups

Time: 25 minutes

Procedure: 1. Draw a grid on the board with just the numbers. On a paper, your grid will have the answers written in.

NOTE: In the example below, the phrasal verbs have been taken from the list in Fundamentals of English Grammar. Several of the verbs in the chart below can take more than one particle, but the list is usually limited to one or two combinations. It is important to choose combinations you have studied and to limit entries so that three or even four matches are not possible. If you have studied more than one combination (such as ask out, ask over, and ask around,) and you want to review them using this activity, you will need to use some particles more than once. That way, the students will be able to make matches such as ask out, drop out, and so on. This chart is intended only as a model to help you explain the game; your own chart will be geared to the lessons in your class.

2. Divide the class into groups of about five. Tell them that this is a memory game and no writing is allowed. Explain that they are looking for matches and will get a point for each match. They can confer as a team, but you will accept an answer only from the student whose turn it is. They can call out two numbers together the first time since no one knows where any of the words are. In subsequent turns, they should wait for you to write the first answer before they call out their second number.

3. As the first student calls out numbers, write the words that correspond to these numbers in the blanks. Ask the class if it is a match. If not, erase the words. If so, leave them there and cross them out (see below).

On the board:

1

2

3

4 up

5

6 around

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19 fool

20 call

Variation: Instead of matching the verb with an appropriate preposition, you can set up the grid to review meaning. Your instructor's grid might then look like this model. Follow the same rules for the game above.

Instructor's grid

I call back

2 give back

3 stop sleeping

4stop a machine/ light

5 get through with

6 return

7 invent

8 return a call

9 start a machine/light

10 throw out

11 make up

12 shut off

13 be careful

14 put off

15 discard

16 wake up

17 postpone

18 turn on

19 watch out for

20 finish id:

teaching grammar game language lesson

2. TIC TAC TOE

Materials: Board, Worksheet 1.4 (optional)

Dynamic: Teams

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Draw a tic tac toe grid on the board with the first word of the phrasal verbs written in. Divide the class in'.o two groups.

2. A student from Team X comes to the board and writes in the corresponding particle for the verb he/she selects. If correct, he/she dra\ s his/her mark in the square (an X). (You may choose to accept only combinations you have studied in class or that are listed in the students' books, or you may decide to accept any correct combination. Whichever you decide to accept, make your decision clear to the students before playing the game.)

3. A student from Team O then comes to the board and does the same. If an answer is incorrect, the student cannot draw his/her mark and erases the answer. The next player on the other team may choose that same square or another square.

4. The first team with three marks in a row wins.

NOTE: You will probably want to explain game strategy such as blocking, but often the student's choice is based on which verb he/she knows.

5. As a follow-up, divide the class into groups of three and use the worksheet. One student is X, one is 0, and the other is in charge and can have his/her book open to the verb page to judge whether an answer is correct. After the first game, the students should rotate roles so that the judge is now one of the players. Continue until all students have had a chance to be the judge. As you will see, some of the verbs on the handout take several different prepositions. As long as the students make an acceptable phrasal verb, the answer is correct.

NOTE: The items on the worksheet come from the list in Fundamentals of English Grammar. If this worksheet is not appropriate to your class, modify it.

Variation: On the grid on the board (or on a modified worksheet), fill in the squares with both parts of phrasal verbs. When a student selects a certain square, he/she must use the phrasal verb in a complete sentence which demonstrates understanding of the meaning. If the sentence is correct, the student puts his/her team's mark in that square.

Example:

as, out do over fill up

get off give up try on

turn off make uphang up

A student from Team X chooses "give up." The student then makes a sentence orally: I couldn't understand the assignment, so I gave up. The sentence must reflect the student's understanding of the meaning of the phrasal verb. A sentence such as I gave up or Don't give up is not acceptable. If a sentence is accepted as being correct, the student writes an X over the square. A student from Team O then chooses a square and makes a meaningful sentence using that phrasal verb. Alternate turns until one team has three in a row or the game is a draw.

3. PREPOSITION BEE

See the directions for the Preposition Bee on Worksheet 1.5 or a similar list of your own sentences.

4. BEAT THE CLOCK

Materials: 3" x 5" cards (see sample)

Dynamic: Teams

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure: 1. Put a sentence using a phrasal verb on one side of as many index cards as you need. Review and discuss phrasal verbs. Have the students create sentences or dialogues and practice orally.

2. Divide the class into two teams, A and B. Arrange the teams so that Team A's desks are directly across from (and touching) Team B's desks. If using tables, have Team A sit on one side and Team B on the other side.

3. Show the students the front of a card. The first student {A or B) who answers with a phrasal verb that correctly replaces the verb on the card gets a point for his/her team. If that student can then use the phrasal verb in a sentence with the correct tense, his/her team gets an extra point.

Example:

Card: I raised my children in Ohio.

Student response: bring up

I brought my children up in Ohio.

Sample cards:

FRONT BACK

I raised my children in Ohio.

bring up

I met John by chance at the mall.

run into

Tell Jill to return my call.

call back

Please be sure to arrive for the test at exactly 8:00.

show up

5. "UP" VERBS

Materials: 3" x 5" cards

Time: Pairs/Small groups

Time: 20 minutes

Procedure: Write one verb on each card. Choose some verbs that can also be phrasal verbs with up. Examples: ask (can't be used with up) check (can be used with up) cross (can't be used with up) ge< (can be used with up)

2. Divide the class into pairs or groups of three or four. Give each group a stack of verb cards.

3. Tell the students to divide the cards into two piles: verbs with up/verbs without up.

4. When all the up verbs are found, have the students take turns explaining the meaning of each phrasal verb to the other students in the group.

Variation: Make three identical sets of vocabulary cards. Divide the class into three teams. Tell the students to find the up verbs. The team that finds the most up verbs wins. Each correct up verb is worth one point. For each incorrect up verb, subtract one point from the total score. Use the same procedure for any phrasal verb pattern (for example, out, away, through, etc.).

6. PHRASAL CHALLENGE

Materials: None

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into pairs. Tell the pairs to write down eight phrasal verbs and their meanings that they think the rest of the class will not know.

2. After they are finished, join two pairs and have the first pair challenge the other pair. Each pair takes turns reading the phrasal verbs from their list and having their opponents state the meaning of each phrasal verb and use it in a sentence.

3. If the opponents answer correctly, they get a point. The pair with the most points wins.

4. For homework, have the students use the phrasal verbs that they missed in correct sentences.

7. STORY TIME

Materials: 3" x 5" cards, writing paper

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into groups of three, and give each group five 3"x 5" cards.

2. Each group writes down a different phrasal verb on each of their index cards. You may want to let them use the lists in their books. Have them write the definition of each phrasal verb on the back.

3. Have the groups quiz each other as to meaning by showing only the front of the card to another group.

4. Next, each group makes a sentence orally for each phrasal verb. Rotate the cards again until each group has seen every card and can make a logical sentence. Monitor the groups during this phase.

5. When the students have a good grasp of the definitions, return their original phrasal verb cards to them. Each group now writes a paragraph using all of their phrasal verbs.

6. When the students have finished, rotate their papers clockwise and the 3"x 5" cards counterclockwise. (Each group will have another group's story and a new set of cards.)

7. Each group reads the paragraph and adds a second paragraph, using their new group of phrasal-verb cards.

8. Have them repeat steps 6 and 7. Each group should now have a three-paragraph story.

9. Return the original story to each group. Tell the students to look it over and make any changes they think are necessary. Have one student from each group read the story to the class. Collect the stories for a final teacher correction.

8. CLASS SURVEY

Materials: 3" x 5" cards in four different colors list of difficult phrasal verbs sheets of newsprint and markers (optional) Dynamic: Groups Time: 40 minutes

Procedure: 1. Choose four themes and for each theme make up a set of questions, using the phrasal verbs that you want to practice. (You may want to have the students compile a list.) Examples: Family:

Do you take after your father or your mother? Did you grow up in a large family or a small family? Do you get along well with your brothers and sisters? Are you named after anyone in your family? School:

Do you go over your notes after class? Do you try to get out of doing your homework? Do you ever have trouble keeping up with the assignments? What is an important grammar point that you have to look out for?

2. Write one set of questions on one yellow card, one set of questions on one green card, etc.

3. Divide the class into groups. (Four groups of four works well, but five groups of five or three groups of three also works. Put extra students into existing groups to work as pairs.)

4. Tell the students that they are going to do some investigation into the society of the classroom by doing a survey. Give each group a set of same-color cards and a theme: The Yellow Group--Family; The Green Group--Friends, etc. Give the question card to the group leader and a blank card to each of the other members.

5. The group members copy the questions from the group leader's card on their own cards so that each has a card with the same questions. They may add questions of their own if they wish or if there is extra time. Any additional questions must include a phrasal verb.

6. When each member has an identical set of questions, the teams stand up and form new groups with one member of each color. (If there are extras of one or two colors, they can work as partners within the group.)

7. In their new groups, the students take turns interviewing each group member. The yellows ask their questions first and record the data, then greens, then blues, etc. Everyone asks everyone else in the group his/her questions.

8. The students reform their original same-color groups, summarize their findings, and present them to the entire class. If time permits, have the groups prepare a visual on newsprint in the form of a pie chart, a graph, a list of statistics, or another type of visual. The posters can be part of the presentation and later be put up around the board.

NOTE: To save time, write out the duplicate cards yourself on colored index cards or copy one set of questions on different-colored paper. This will take the place of step 5. Collect the cards and reuse them in later classes.

SUGGESTION: This activity works well with preposition combinations instead of phrasal verbs.

Examples:

Best Friends:

What do you look for in a best friend?

Is your best friend patient with you?

Dc you ever hide anything from your best friend?

Do you ever argue with your best friend?

Work:

Are you content with your job?

Do you look forward to going to work?

Do you forget about your job when you leave at the end of the day?

Does your boss ever take advantage of you by having you do extra work?

Conditionals and Wishes TRUE IN THE PRESENT/FUTURE

1. SUPERSTITIONS

Materials: None

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Write a few superstitions on the board. Here are some examples. If a black cat crosses your path, you'll have bad luck. If your palm itches, you're going to receive money. If you break a mirror, you'll have seven years bad luck. If you step on a crack, you'll break your mother's back.

Look at the verb forms in the if-clause and result clause together. Ask students to generate a rule (if this is an introduction) or review the rule (if you have already introduced this form).

2. Break students into small groups and have them discuss superstitions from their countries. They should list three or four to share with the rest of the class.

3. As a whole group, share the superstitions and discuss which are universal and which seem to exist only in one or two cultures. Students often have similar superstitions in their countries and like to share them, and it is interesting to compare slight variations.

4. For further review of forms, you may want to write several of the students' superstitions on the board and analyze them (Were they written correctly?).

2. SUPERSTITIONS MATCH A

Materials: Worksheet 2.1

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Cut up the worksheet or make your own. Give each student half of a superstition, that is, one card.

2. The students circulate and try to find the missing half of their superstition. When students feel they have a match, they sit down. You will probably have to check student matches and advise them to sit down or find a different match. (In case you are unfamiliar with some of the superstitions in the worksheet, the //-clause on the left matches the result clause directly across from it.)

3. Go over the superstitions together, talking about meaning and form.

3. SUPERSTITIONS MATCH B

Materials: 3" x 5" cards, or paper cut into strips at least 2" x 4"

Dynamic: Groups

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Follow steps 1 and 2 for Superstitions.

2. Have the students write their superstitions on the cards or paper strips so that one half of the superstition is on one card and the other half is on a different card. (Each group should produce only half as many superstitions as there are members in their group, so that a group of four students will write two superstitions, a total of four cards. In step 2 of Activity 1, students may have generated many superstitions, so instruct them to choose the ones they like best.)

3. Collect and shuffle the cards. Hand one card to each student. Students circulate and try to find their match. (The student who wrote the superstition will have to be the judge of whether or not the match is good because you will probably be unfamiliar with several of the superstitions.)

4. As a class, go over the superstitions and check (as a group) to see if the correct grammar forms were used.

4. JUST THE FACTS

Materials: Worksheet 2.2

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Cut up the cards in the worksheet or prepare your own. Distribute one to each student, who must construct a sentence that uses the true conditional form.

Example: Add lemon to milk

Example fact (by student): If you add lemon to milk, it curdles.

2. Arrange students in a circle, and have each say his/her sentence.

Variation: To avoid students' losing interest, do step 2 as a memory round. Each student says his/her sentence and repeats all those that came before his/hers.

5. EXPERIMENT REPORT

Materials: None

Dynamic: Small groups

Time: 10 minutes

Procedure: 1. Divide the class into groups of three or four. Assign each group an experiment.

Suggested experiments: putting a spoon in the microwave mixing blue and yellow paint boiling eggs in water with onion skins touching your tongue to a frozen surface shaving your eyebrows frowning all the time

2. The students discuss what they think the result will be, Then each group reports to the class, using some conditional sentences.

(If you intend to have the students act out the experiments in class or for homework, obviously there are some in the list above you would not want to assign.)

NOTE: Because the results of these experiments can be perceived as

a habitual result or as a predictable fact, either the present or the future can be used in the result clause.

6. DIRECTIONS

Materials: A map (Worksheet 2.3) and a handout (either A or B) per student.

Dynamic: Pairs

Time: 15 minutes

Procedure: 1. Break the class into pairs and give a map and two worksheets to each pair. Each student handout contains both locations and routes as indicated in Worksheet 2.4.

2. Student A begins and asks Student B for directions to the first location. Student B looks at the map and the list of routes on his/her han.iout and gives advice in a conditional sentence.

Example:

Student A: How can I get to Bethesda?

Student B: If you take Route 190, you will get to Bethesda.

3. After Student A has asked for directions to all the locations on 2.3 Part A, Student B asks for directions to the location on his/her handout (2.3 Part B). Student A now gives the advice.

NOTES: Locations and the ways to get there are not in order. Students must match them. A local map also works well because the students are familiar with places and highways. Pattern the handouts after Worksheet 2.3, in that case.

Variation: For a higher-level class, provide locations only and have the partner search the map for a route that goes to the requested location.

UNTRUE IN THE PRESENT

1. MEMORY GAME

Materials: 3" x 5" cards

Dynamic: Whole class

Time: 25 minutes

Procedure: 1. On each card write an adjective in large letters so that it can be seen around the room.

SUGGESTIONS: sad, drunk, lonely, stranded, nauseous, hungry, thirsty, nervous, angry, rich, sick, sleepy, famous, tired, poor, lost, married, single, scared

(Include a few new words that will be challenging even for higher-level students, such as jilted or stranded.) Have students sit or stand in a circle while you distribute the cards. (If you use adjectives like married or single, be sure to give them to students who are not!)

2. Ask who has the best memory and then start with the person next to him/her. If you know you have a weak student, you may want to start with that person. The first student holds up his/her card and composes a sentence, using the untrue present conditional.

Example card: lonely Example sentence: If I were lonely, I would call my family.

3. The second student says his/her sentence and repeats student one's sentence. Continue around the circle, with each new student adding a sentence and repeating all the previous sentences. The last student will have to remember the sentences from all the other students. It is important that students hold their cards toward the circle at all times because they serve as clues. Also, don't let any of the students write. Students may cue their classmates through gestures. The only correction allowed is to emphasize were rather than was.


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