Neologisms in Modern English language

Investigate the use of neologisms in computing, music and business world. Research the use of neologisms in lifestyle and leisure, popular culture. Characteristic of neologisms. Cultural acceptance. Description of minor and major structures of the word.

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КИЇВСЬКИЙ СЛАВІСТИЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

ЗАКАРПАТСЬКА ФІЛІЯ

КАФЕДРА ФІЛОЛОГІЇ

Неологізми в сучасній англійській мові

“Neologisms in Modern English language”

Смоленяк С.С.

Науковий керівник:

Андрусяк І.В.

Contents

Introduction

Chapter I. General notes on Neologisms

1.1 Characteristic of neologisms

1.2 Cultural acceptance

1.3 Types of neologisms

Chapter II. Uses of neologisms

2.1 Art and music

2.2 Computing

2.3 Business word

2.4 Health and fitness

2.5 Lifestyle and leisure

2.6 Polities

2.7 Popular culture

2.8 People and society

2.9 Sports

Conclusion

List of literature used

Introduction

With the development of technology, science many “new words” appeared in English language as well. Most of them are terms. The layer of terminological neologisms has been rapidly growing since the start of the technological revolution. The theme of our investigation is “Neologisms in Modern English language”.

The sphere of the Internet alone gave birth to thousand of new terms which have become international (network, server, browser, e-mail, e-news, provider, site, netscape communicator, facebook, Internet explorer etc.). Recent discoveries in biochemistry, genetic engineering , cosmonautics and other sciences demanded new words to name new concepts and ideas. However, the vocabulary of our everyday usage is also being enlarged by neologisms.

The actuality of our theme is preconditioned by the fact that Every period in the development of a language produces an enormous number of new words or new meanings of established words. Most of them do not live long. They are not meant to live long. They are coined for use at the moment of speech.

The aim of our work is to investigate the neologisms in deferent spheres of life and their usage in Modern English language. To achieve the goal I have done the following tasks:

- Investigate the use of neologisms in art and music;

- Investigate the use of neologisms in computing and business world;

- Research the use of neologisms in lifestyle and leisure, popular culture;

- Examine the usage of “new words” in sport, polities atc.

На латинице

Словарь - Открыть словарную статью

1. предлог

1. towards

2. toward

2. союз

1. that

2. in order to

3. so as

Chapter I. General notes on Neologisms

1.1 Characteristic of neologisms

A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word") is a word, term or phrase which has been recently created (coined) - often to apply to new concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context.

Neologisms are by definition "new", and as such are often directly attributable to a specific individual, publication, period, or event. The term "neologism" was coined in 1800? so for some time in the early 19th Century, the word « neologism» was itself a neologism. Neologism can also refer to an existing word or phrase which has been assi8gned a new meaning.

Neologisms tend to occur more often in cultures which are rapidly changing, and also in situations where there is easy and fast propagation of information. They are often created by combining existing words or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes. Neologisms can also be created through abbreviation or acronym, by intentionally rhyming with existing words, or simply through playing with sounds.

Neologisms often become popular by way or of mass media, the Internet, or word of mouth. Every word in a language was, at some time, a neologism, though most of these ceased to be such through time and acceptance.

Neologisms often become accepted parts of the language. Other times, however, they disappear from common usage. Whether a neologism continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the most important of which is acceptance by the public. Acceptance by linguistic experts and incorporation into dictionaries also plays a part, as does whether the phenomenon described by a neologism remains current, thus continuing to need a descriptor. It is unusual, however, for a word to enter common use if it does not resemble another word or words in an identifiable way. (In some cases however, strange new words succeed because the idea behind them is especially memorable or exciting). When a word or phrase is no longer «new», it is no longer a neologism. Neologisms may take decades to become «old», though. Opinions differ on exactly how old a word must be to no longer be considered a neologism? cultural acceptance probably plays a more important role than time in this regard.

Neologisms are very common in newspaper vocabulary. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society, in science and technology. Hence, neologisms make their way into the language of the newspaper very easily and often even spring up on newspaper pages. Now, in the early 21st century, neologisms relating to computers and the Internet outnumber all others, for example, cybersickness (a feeling of illness caused by using a computer for long periods of time), keypal (someone with whom one regularly exchanges e-mail), online auction, access provider, MP3, PDA (Personal digital assistant), animatronics.

Finance has also launched numerous new words, such as dead cat bounce (a situation in which the price of shares rises a small amount after a large fall, sometimes before falling further), stealth tax (a tax that you pay on something that you buy rather than tax you pay directly to the government, and which you are less aware of paying than, for example, direct tax on your income).

Sometimes finance and computers come together, as with dot-com (a person or a company whose business is done using the Internet),
e-cash (money that can be used to buy things on the Internet, but that does not exist in a physical form or belong to any particular country). Many new words have come from medicine and biological science, e.g., biologically engineered, genetically modified; from the world of business: benchmark (to use a companies good performance as a standard by which to judge the performance of other companies of the same type), best practice (a description of the best way of performing a particular activity in business).

Every period in the development of a language produces an enormous number of new words or new meanings of established words. Most of them do not live long. They are not meant to live long. They are coined for use at the moment of speech, and therefore possess a peculiar property --that of temporariness. The given word or meaning holds only in the given context and is meant only to "serve the occasion."

However, such is the power of the written language that a word or a meaning used only to serve the occasion, when once fixed in writing, may become part and parcel of the general vocabulary.

The coining of new words generally arises first of all with the need to designate new concepts resulting from the development of science and also with the need to express nuances of meaning called forth by a deeper understanding of the nature of the phenomenon in question. It may also be the result of a search for a more economical, brief and compact form of utterance which proves to be a more expressive means of communicating the idea.

The first type of newly coined words, i.e. those which designate newborn concepts, may be named terminological coinages. The second type, i.e. words coined because their creators seek expressive utterance may be named stylistic coinages.

Among new coinages of a literary-bookish type must be mentioned a considerable layer of words appearing in the publicistic style, mainly in newspaper articles and magazines and also in the newspaper style-- mostly in newspaper headlines.

Another type of neologism is the nonce-word - a word coined to suit one particular occasion. They rarely pass into the standard language and remind us of the writers who coined them.

1.2 Cultural acceptance

neologisms word cultural

After being coined, neologisms invariably undergo scrutiny by the public and by linguists to determine their suitability to the language. Many are accepted very quickly; others attract opposition. Language experts sometimes object to a neologism on the grounds that a suitable term for the thing described already exists in the language. Non-experts who dislike the neologism sometimes also use this argument, deriding the neologism as "abuse and ignorance of the language."

Some neologisms, especially those dealing with sensitive subjects, are often objected to on the grounds that they obscure the issue being discussed, and that such a word's novelty often leads a discussion away from the root issue and onto a sidetrack about the meaning of the neologism itself.

Proponents of a neologism see it as being useful, and also helping the language to grow and change; often they perceive these words as being a fun and creative way to play with a language. Also, the semantic precision of most neologisms, along with what is usually a straightforward syntax, often makes them easier to grasp by people who are not native speakers of the language.

The outcome of these debates, when they occur, has a great deal of influence on whether a neologism eventually becomes an accepted part of the language. Linguists may sometimes delay acceptance, for instance by refusing to include the neologism in dictionaries; this can sometimes cause a neologism to die out over time. Nevertheless if the public continues to use the term, it always eventually sheds its status as a neologism and enters the language even over the objections of language experts.

1.3 Types of neologisms

* Unstable - Extremely new, being proposed, or being used only by a very small subculture.

* Diffused - Having reached a significant audience, but not yet having gained acceptance.

* Stable - Having gained recognizable and probably lasting acceptance.

* Trademarks are often neologisms to insure they are distinguished from other brands. If legal trademark protection is lost, the neologism may enter the language as a genericized trademark. Example: Laundromat, Hoover.

* Nonce words - words coined and used only for a particular occasion, usually for special literary effect.

* Inverted - words that are derived from spelling (and pronouncing) a standard word backwards. Example: redrum

* Paleologism - a word that is alleged to be a neologism but turns out to be a long-used (if obscure) word, such as Stephen Colbert's truthiness. Used ironically.

Chapter II. Uses of the neologisms

Neologisms widely uses in art, music, computing, business world, popular culture in sports and also in literature. Many neologisms have come from popular literature, and tend to appear in different forms. Most commonly, they are simply taken from a word used in the narrative of a book; for instance, McJob from Douglas Coupland's Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture and cyberspace from William Gibson's Neuromancer. Sometimes the title of the book will become the neologism. For instance, Catch-22 (from the title of Joseph Heller's novel) and Generation X (from the title of Coupland's novel) have become part of the vocabulary of many English-speakers. Also worthy of note is the case in which the author's name becomes the neologism, although the term is sometimes based on only one work of that author. This includes such words as Orwellian (from George Orwell, referring to his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four) and Ballardesque (from J.G. Ballard, author of Crash).

Lewis Carroll's poem "Jabberwocky" has been called "the king of neologistic poems" as it incorporated some dozens of invented words. The early modern English prose writings of Sir Thomas Browne 1605-1682 are the source of many neologisms as recorded by the OED. In psychiatry, the term neologism is used to describe the use of words that only have meaning to the person who uses them, independent of their common meaning. This is considered normal in children, but a symptom of thought disorder (indicative of a psychotic mental illness, such as schizophrenia) in adults. People with autism also may create neologisms. Use of neologisms may also be related to aphasia acquired after brain damage resulting from a stroke or head injury. In theology, a neologism is a relatively new doctrine (for example, rationalism). In this sense, a neologist is an innovator in the area of a doctrine or belief system, and is often considered heretical or subversive by the mainstream clergy or religious institution(s).

2.1 Art and Music

Hip-hop /hIp' h?p/ noun, adjective, verb Often written hip hop

Intransitive verb: To dance to hip hop music.

Formed by combining the adjective hip in its slang sense ?cool? with the noun hop, which also had a well-established slang ?dance?? hip-hop had existed as an adverb ?meaning with hopping movements? since the seventeenth century, but hip-hop as a noun was quite separate development. Its adoption as the name of the subculture and its music may have been influenced by the catch-phrase hip hop, be hop, chanted by the disc jockey and rapper Lovebug Starsky in the form ?to the hip hop, hip hop, do not stop that body rock?.

In the US the name was used to refer to the assertive and showy culture as a whole, which its visible and flamboyant street manifestations, and its related dress and hair styles. Break-dancing , and crews of graffiti artists leaving their TAG signatures, are typical parts of the hip hop scene. The word was first imported to Britain to refer specifically to the music, when it became popular in clubs in the mid eighties, though the dress and general culture have also since taken root among British urban blacks.Its popularity as a dance music has led to the development of the verb hip hop and the action noun hip-hoping? someone who listens or dances to the music or follows the hip-hop culture in general is a hip-hopper?adherents may consider themselves, or be described as, part of the hip-hop community or hip-hop nation.

Mosh /m?? / intransitive verb

To dance in a violent and reckless manner at a rock concert, often jumping up and down and colliding with other dancers and crashing into the walls or to the floor.

Moshing is a phenomenon of the rock scene - especially heavy metal and hardcore, and louder indie bands - of the eighties and nineties, in which concert audiences express their involvement with and ap[recitation of the music through energetic physical activity in the mosh pit, the area in front of the stage. Further forms of such activity are stage-diving and slam dancing. Though these activities carry the risk of physical injury, they are an exuberant expression of enthusiasm rather than aggression. Concern has however been expressed about the vulnerability of those attending these concerts, and there has even been a reference to post-moshing syndrome or PMS,which is associated with injuries, ranging from bruises and pulled hair to broken bones, sustained by mosheras.

Revisit / ri: 'vizit / verb and noun

Transitive verb: To reconsidering or re-experiencing (something).

2.2 Computing

Benchmark / 'b?nt?m?: k / verb and noun

Transitive verb: To measure the performance of ( a computer system) in certain well defined situations, such as intensive calculation, sorting, or text formatting, by running a specially-designed computer program or suite of programs.

A specialized figurative application of the word. Originally a benchmark was horizontal wedge-shaped incision cut by surveyors, for example in a wall, so that an angled bracket could be inserted to form a bench or support for the surveying equipment at a reproducible height. By the 1800 it had taken on the figurative sense of ?a point of reference? a criterion, a touchstone? f which the computing sense is a specific usage.

With the rise in number of models of microcomputers from about the end of the seventies onward, manufacturers and computer enthusiasts increasingly found a need for independent measure of the power of competing system. The obvious solution was to run a computer program on each system which carried out some repetitive task and compare the time each took to complete. This process was termed benchmarking in 1976 and the noun and verb first appeared in print in the early eighties. A large number of such benchmarks have appeared, but their results are often distrusted because they are necessarily measures taken in artificial situations which may not correspond to real working conditions.

Browse / bra?z/ verb and noun

Transitive or intransitive verb: To read or survey (data files), especially across a computer network? specifically, to do so on the World Wide Web.

A further extension of the figurative use of the verb browse, originally meaning ?the action of animals feeding on scanty vegetation? (the implication being they have to search it out), but then extended to the action of looking through (say) a book.

The word has had this sense in the computing context since at least the mid eighties? it is common to find buttons labeled browse on visually- oriented computer applications which enable the user to search for relevant files on the local system or across a network. The word took on a new sense and life with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early nineties. This interface to the Internet requires special computer programs to search out, translate, and display the tagged material n the files being downloaded. These programs were quickly dubbed browsers and in computer contexts browsing now Frequently means using such a program to access the Web. The use of browsability, in application to software, has also been recorded.

Download /da?n 'l??d/ transitive or intransitive verb

To transfer (the contents of electronic data file) from a large system to a smaller or peripheral one.

A compound of down, in its figurative adverbial sense of ?moving from a superior to an inferior position', and load, meaning ?to store data in a computer'.

e-mail / 'i: meil/ noun and verb Also written email

Transitive verb: To send e-mail to (a person)? to send (a message) by e-mail.

The term e-mail has been in use since the first half of the eighties, and was originally applied to the transfer of messages in this way? as the number of e-mailers increased, the term was increasingly applied to the messages themselves.

Flame /fleim/ verb and noun

Transitive verb: In online jargon, to post an electronic message to someone which is destructively critical, abusive, or intended to provoke dissent or controversy.

FTP /?ti: 'pi:/ noun and verb

Transitive or intransitive verb: To transfer (a file) by FTP

The initial letters of File Transfer Protocol, protocol being used here in the computing sense of ?a set of rules that govern the exchange of information between computer devise'.

FTP is one of the most important and oldest techniques of the Internet? the term has become widely known in the nineties as interest in the Internet has increased. It permits an authorized user on one computer system to connect to another, identify files on it, and DOWNLOAD them.

Import /im 'p?: t/ transitive verb

To transfer (data) into a computer from a distant one, or to introduce (data) into one computer application from another.

This ward came into use in the mid eighties. Like export, it usually now implies the movement of data into an application, most frequently data which is in another format and which has to be translated by the receiving application. So a user may add new records to a database by importing them from a source file which may be text or may be in the format of another database? a desktop- publishing system may import text and graphic files in a variety of formats and covert them to its internal representation.

Mouse /ma?s/ verb

Transitive verb: To carry out (an operation) by using a mouse.

Intransitive verb: To move around a computer screen or carry out an operation by means of a mouse.

A verb sense which has developed directly from the noun mouse, a term for the standard pointing device employed in graphical applications and operating systems, first applied in the mid sixties.

Reboot /ri: 'bu: t/ verb and noune

Transitive verb: To restart (a computer) by reloading its operating system into working memory? to cause (the system or a program) to be reloaded in this way.

Intransitive verb: (Of a computer) to be restarted by reloading its operating system.

A compound of re-, ?again', with an abbreviated form of bootstrap ?to initiate a fixed sequence of instructions which initiates the loading of further instructions and, ultimately, of the whole system'?this in turn is named after the process of pulling oneself up by one's bootstraps, a phrase which is widely supposed to be based on one of the eighteenth-century Adventures of Baron Munchausen.

Spam /spem/ noun and verb

Intransitive verb: To post spam.

Spell-check /'sp?it??k/ verb and noun

Transitive verb: To check the spelling of (a word or a document) using a program which computers the words in a text file with a stored list of a acceptable spellings.

Being able to check the spelling of words was one of the most prized facilities in the word processor programs that began to appear for microcomputers at the end of the seventies. They quickly become standard, despite limited vocabularies, an inability to spot correctly spelled but inappropriate words, and a tendency to suggest unsuitable replacements for unknown ones. A first, they were called spelling checkers, but the noun was soon abbreviated to spell-checker in the US and this form is now frequently used also in Britain.

2.3 Business world

Bundle /'b?ndl/ verb and noun

Transitive verb: To supply (items of software) with computer equipment at an inclusive price? also, supply(a selection of software) as a single item, or to include (additional items of equipment) as part of a computer system, similarly at an inclusive price.

Competition among suppliers of personal computers grew dramatically during the late eighties and nineties. As an attempt to distinguish their products from the pack, and to add value, manufacturers and retailers began to include operating systems, applications software, games, and reference CD-ROMs as part of the sales package or bundle? they also provided system enhanced with peripherals such as printers, CD-ROM drives, or modems. The adjective is bundled, often in the phrase bundled software, and the verbal noun is bundling.

Cherry-pick /'t??ri pik/ transitive or intransitive verb

To pick out for oneself (the best and most desirable items)? to make such a selection from (a list of possible choices).

Probably a back-formation from cherry picker, a hydraulic crane with a platform at the end, for raising and lowering people working at a height, but also with an idea of someone being raised to a position of advantage for picking the best fruit on a tree.

The term is recorded from the early seventies, but seems to have come into widespread general use in the expansionist eighties, particularly as companies diversified. As the term has become more familiar, there has been a further shift in emphasis: a cherry-piker may now be a person who selects favourable figures and statistics in order to present biased data.

Kick-start /'kiksta: t/ noun and verb

Transitive verb: To give a kick-start to (a process or thing).

A figurative use of kick-start in the sense an act of starting ?an engine by the downward thrust of a pedal, as in older motorcycles'.

Outsource /a?t 's?: s/ transitive or intransitive verb

In business jargon: to obtain (goods, especially component parts, or specialist services) by contract from a source outside an organization or area? to contract (work) out.

2.4 Health and fitness

Access /'aks?s/ transitive verb

To get in touch with (one's deepest inner feelings or subconscious desires)? to experience at a deep level.

In the sense defined here, access is a vogue term in popular psychology, used particularly since the late eighties and originating in American English. The word was first use as a transitive verb by computer scientists in 1962.

Aquacise /'akw?s?iz/ noun and verb

Intransitive verb: To practice aquacise.

Formed by substituting the Latin word aqua ?water' for the first two syllables of exercise.

Dowse /da?z/ intransitive verb

To make a diagnosis by dowsing, chiefly with a pendulum attached to a radionic device, over a patient's body. Also as a transitive verb, to diagnose (a patient) by dowsing.

In the field of alternative medicine, diagnosis by radionics, the study and interpretation of radiation believed to be emitted from substances, has been practiced since the fifties. Since the early eighties, interest in the technique has grown, centring on the use of a pendulum to detect variations in a body's radiation levels as a guide to a person's state of health.

Flat-line /'flatl?in/ intransitive verb

To die. Also, by extension, to become unproductive or ineffectual.

With reference to the flattering, when a patient dies, of the peaks on the line displayed on a heart monitor.

Earliest uses of the verb were recorded in a medical context in the very early eighties. Shortly afterwards, in 1984, it was taken up by the science-fiction writer William Gbson, who used it in his novel Neuromancer. However, it was in 1990, with the release of the film Flatliners, that the verb and its noun derivative flatliner entered the popular language. The film tells the story of a group of medical students who dangerously exploit their ability to control the heart rate by helping each other to flatline in order to experience the first few seconds after the moment of death, before being revived. Use in relation to actual death has not become widespread, but the verb in its extended use is growing in currency.

There is some evidence of transitive use of the verb in both senses. There is also evidence of the development of an adjective, especially in the phrase go flatline.

2.5 Lifestyle & Leisure

Graze /greiz/ intransitive verb

To flick rapidly between television channels, to zap or channel-surf.

A figurative use of the verb graze ?to feed'.

In the late seventies, graze began to be used in the US to refer to the practice of eating lots of snacks throughout the day in preference to full meals at regular times; the word was also applied to eating unpurchased food while shopping in a supermarket. In the mid eighties the word was applied to browsing or grazing among television channels. Two factors were particularly significant: the growth of cable television in the US, with the proliferation of channels for grazers to graze among, and the popularity of remote control devices. In the nineties, graze has also come to mean browsing information from CD-ROMs or the Internet.

Power nap / 'pa?? nap/ noun and verb

Intransitive verb: To take a nap of this kind.

In the mid eighties power naps joined power lunches and power dressing as part of the lifestyle of the busy and successful executive in a high-level job; once more, the implication is that as little time as possible is spent on physical refreshment. Power naps, however, may be seen less cynically as representing a source of natural refreshment preferable to taking stimulants in order to keep going. In current usage, they are regarded as a sensible way to achieve some relaxation, rather than as merely a demonstration of the pressures of ones successful and busy lifestyle.

Veg /v?dz/ intransitive verb

In slang: to vegetate, to pass the time in vacuous inactivity.

Vegging or vegging out is particularly associated with the kind of television viewing in which the watcher slumps in front of the set and pays little or no attention to the programme being shown.

2.6 Polities

Bork /b?: k/ transitive verb

To seek to obstruct the selection or appointment of by a campaign of systematic public criticism of the person concerned. The use of this verb, and of the noun Borking for the process involved, is associated primarily with the challenge to the nomination of Judge Clarence Thomas in 1991. No challenge since has generated similar controversy, and it remains to be seen whether the coinage will outlast immediate memories of the hearings involved.

Opt out /?pt 'a?t/ intransitive verb

In the UK, of a school or hospital: withdraw from local authority control.

A specialized development of the general sense of the phrasal verb opt put, ?to choose not to participate?.

The Conservative government, in the late eighties, introduced reforms within the education and health services which encouraged schools and hospitals to opt out of local authority control by applying for direct funding from central government and acquiring self-governing autonomy, with control over their own budgets. In the case of schools, a large proportion of the financial and administrative management was to become the responsibility of the governors and head teacher, a system referred to as local management of schools or LMS; schools that had opted out became known as grant-maintained school. Hospitals were encouraged to become self-governing hospital trusts.

The reforms were promoted by the4 government as a means of reducing the inefficiency and expense of these parts of the nanny state, but were seen by some to create the undesirable prospect of a two-tier system, in which successful institutions are awarded greater funding and thus become stronger at the expense of weaker ones.

Sound bite / 'sa?nd b?it/ noun and verb

Transitive verb: To reduce to a series of sound bites.

The use of bite here both puts across the idea of a snatch of soundtrack taken from a longer whole and includes undertones of the high-tech approach to units of information.

2.7 Popular culture

Be good news /bi: g?d 'nju:z/ verbal phrase

To be an asset; to be commendable, admirable.

A transferred usage, recorded since the early eighties, in which a person or thing, rather than information or tidings, represents good news. This development has followed the comparable be bad news, which had become established by the sixties.

Diss /dis/ verb and noun

Transitive or intransitive verb: to put (someone) down, usually verbally; to show disrespect for a person by insulting language or dismissive behavior. Formed by abbreviating disrespect to its first syllable.

High-five /h?i 'f?iv/ noun and verb

Transitive or intransitive verb: To slap high- fives (with someone) in celebration of something or as a greeting; to celebrate. A five (that is, a hand-slap; compare British slang bunch of fives for a hand or fist) that is performed high over the head.

Max /maks/ noun and verb

Transitive or intransitive verb: In US slang, to do (something) to the limit; to excel, to perform to maximum ability or capacity, to peak. (Often as a phrasal verb max out.)

Max has been an abbreviated colloquial form of maximum since the middle of the nineteenth century, and it seems occasionally to have been used as a verb at that time.

Push the envelope /p?? ?i '?nv?l??p/ verbal phrase

To go beyond established limits; to do something new, to pioneer.

A phrase which probably derives from the aeronautical and aerospace industries, in which the envelope is the boundary line on a graph representing an aircraft's capabilities. Push the envelope has been used since the late seventies as a mode of expression that covers both the extension of scientific and technical knowledge, and the breaching of accepted limits of toleration. A person who pushes the envelope, deliberately or inadvertently, is one who is going beyond the known limits, with the risk that this entails.

Slaughter /'sl?: t?/ transitive verb

To criticize with great severity.

A figurative use of the sense ?to kill in a ruthless manner or on a great scale'; perhaps also coloured by an earlier figurative use, ?to defeat utterly'.

In the nineties this sense of slaughter has gained some currency. The notion is one of making a severe and stringent criticism of a person or organization in response to the perceived infraction of some standard or rule; there is often also an implication that the severity of treatment of the offender may include the imposition of penalties. A person who has been slaughtered is one who has been subjected to so comprehensive a criticism as to be effectively defenceless against it.

Spazz out /'spaz a?t/ verbal phrase

To lose physical or emotional control, to be overcome. Also, to display symptoms of this. Probably formed as an alteration of space out, influenced by spaz as a slang abbreviation for spastic, or spasm. Spazz out is recorded from the mid eighties as a term for losing physical or emotional control, especially as the result of an intense emotional experience. To be spazzed out is to be overcome.

Tag /tag/ noun and verb

In HIP-HOP culture:

Transitive verb: to decorate with graffiti; to leave in a public place.A figurative use of tag in the sense of label.

Trawl /tr?: l/ intransitive or transitive verb

Make an exhaustive and sometimes indiscriminate search for(a person or thing) within a defined area. A figurative use of trawl in the sense ?fish with a trawl or seine'; a noun trawl in the sense of ?an act of searching thoroughly for something' has existed since the early seventies.

2.8 People & Society

Empower /im 'pa??/ transitive verb

Give power to, make able to do something.

While empower in the sense give power to is recorded from the seventeenth century, it has in recent times developed an extension of meaning. Since the seventies, the questioning of the traditional values of Western culture has been accompanied by a growing perception that the acceptance of such values effectively restricts or deprives groups or individuals who do not conform to who is recognized as the dominant tradition.

Empowerment is increasingly seen as a strategy for liberation and restoration, whereby a person may both be freed from the restraints of an imposed tradition, and given back the ability to act independently. In this context, the empowering process is seen as one which allows the envelopment of full potential, and in so doing opens up new horizons. A person who is self-empowered is thus one whose ability to act independently is not governed by acceptance of an external set of values.

Ram-raid /'ramreid/ verb and noun Also written ramraid, ram raid

Transitive verb: to break into premises, especially for the purpose of robbery, by ramming a vehicle through a window or wall.

The term ram-raid entered the language in the late eighties and soon became a familiar name in the UK for this motorized form of smash-and-grap. In such a crime the vehicle, usually a heavy van, doubles as a battering ram and as a conveyance for the loot, which is then driven away at great speed by the ram-raiders. Ram-raiding has sometimes been carried out not for the purpose of theft but as an act of aggression against establishments, such as nighclubs, from which the perpetrators have been debarred. There is evidence too of the term being extended to include transferred and figurative uses, denoting the acquisition of an object or an idea with the implication of a lack of finesse.

Reskill / ri: 'skil/ transitive verb Also written re-skill

To retrain (workers) in the skills required by a modern business.

The verb reskill and the verbal noun reskilling entered the language in the early eighties as synonyms for retrain and retraining, but ones used in the particular context of the business and industrial worlds of the late twentieth century. Those in work may be reskilled in new procedures, for example in technology, in management, or on the shop floor, while the unemployed may be offered reskilling in preparation for a return to work. Reskilling may also be offered as part of a redundancy package.

Rip /rip/ transitive verb

In colloquial use, especially in North America: to attack verbally; to criticize severely. Probably a shortened form of the colloquial phrasal verb rip into, first recorded in Australian English in the forties, which has the same sense. This punchy and expressive verb has been recorded since the early eighties.

2.9 Sports

BASE jump /'beis dz?mp/ noun and verb

Intransitive verb: To make a BASE jump.

The acronym BASE is formed from the initial letters of Building, Antenna-tower, Span, Earth. The strong formative and semantic influence of the noun base in its standard senses is reflected in the increasing occurrence of the acronym in lower case.

The phenomenon of BASE jumping is thought to have started in the US in the very late seventies. The locations sought by base jumpers include high buildings, the antenna-towers of radio stations, the spans of high bridges, and the cliffs provided by the earth itself. As the sport took hold records were set for the lowest possible jump, at one time recorded as 190 feet. By the nineties the activity had spread to the UK. It appears to be shunned by the British Parachute Association.

Freeride /'fri: r?id/ verb and noun

Intransitive verb: to ride on a snowboard designed for all-round use; to practice free snowboarding on and off piste without taking part in races or performing tricks.

In the nineties, freeriders and their chosen pursuit of freeriding testify to the growing popularity of snowboarding as one of the extreme sports of the decade.

Three-peat /'Ori: pi: t/ verb and noun

Transitive or intransitive verb: In the US: to win (a particular championship or other event) three times, especially consecutively. A blend of three and repeat.

Three-peat derives from American basketball slang, and is first recorded in 1988; since then there is some evidence for the term becoming part of the more general sporting vocabulary. Contextually, and perhaps inevitably, references to three-peats are found more often as future hopes than achieved successes.

Conclusions

New words and expressions or neоlоgisms are created for new things irrespective of their scale of importance. They may be all-important and concern some social relationships, such as a new form of state, e. g. People's Republic, or something threatening the very existence of humanity, like nuclear war. Or again the thing may be quite insignificant and short-lived, like fashions in dancing, clothing, hairdo or footwear (e. g. roll-neck). In every case either the old words are appropriately changed in meaning or new words are borrowed, or more often coined out of the existing language material either according to the patterns and ways already productive in the language at a given stage of its development or creating new ones.

Thus, a neologism is a newly coined word or phrase or a new meaning for an existing word, or a word borrowed from another language.

The intense development of science and industry has called forth the invention and introduction of an immense number of new words and changed the meanings of old ones, e. g. aerobic, black hole, computer, isotope, feedback, penicillin, pulsar, quasar, tape-recorder, supermarket and so on.

List of literature used

1. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка: Учеб. для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. -- 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. -- М.: Высш. шк., 1986. -- 295 с., ил. -- На англ. яз.

2. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. А72 Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов. -- М.: Дрофа, 1999. -- 288с.

3. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка: Учебник. Для студентов филол. фак. ун-тов и фак. англ. яз. педвузов. -- М.: Высш. школа, 1983.-- с. 383 В пер.: 1 р.

4. Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка. Учебник . - 3-е изд. - М .: Высш. Школа, 1981. - 334 с.

5. Єфімов Л.П., Ясінецька О.А. Стилістика англійської мови і дискурсивний аналіз. Учбово методичний посібник. - Вінниця: НОВА КНИГА, 2004. - 240

6. Дубенко О.Ю. Порівняльна стилістика англійської та української мов. Посібник для студентів та викладачів вищих навчальних закладів. - Вінниця:НОВА КНИГА, 2005. - 224 с.

7. Бєлозьоров М.В. абревіатури-неологізми в англійській мові та їх переклад на українську мову // Вісник Сумського держ. ун-ту. Сер. філол. наук. - Суми: Вид-во СумДУ,2001.- №5(26).- С. 9-13

8.The international dictionary of neologisms; internet site: http://www.neologisms.us/

9. Online dictionary of neologisms; internet site: http://www.ats-group.net/dictionaries/dictionary-neologisms.html

10. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; internet site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neologism

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