Modern English and Ukrainian newspaper languages
Peculiarities of lexical shortenings in the English language. Analysis of abbreviated formations in the Ukrainian media texts. Lexical shortenings and their functions. Comparative lexico-semantic analysis of English and Ukrainian reduction in the press.
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- CHAPTER 1. LEXICAL SHORTENINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN THE ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES
- 1.1 Main peculiarities of lexical shortenings in the English language
- 1.2 The characteristic features of lexical shortenings in the Ukrainian language and their stylistic modifications
- CHAPTER 2. MAIN FEATURES OF SHORTENED WORDS IN THE ENGLISN AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES
- 2.1 Functional and pragmatic peculiarities of shortenings in the English media texts
- 2.2 Analysis of abbreviated new formations in the Ukrainian media texts
- 2.3 Comparative lexico-semantic analysis of English and Ukrainian shortenings functioning in the press
- LIST OF REFERENCE SOURCES
- LIST OF DATA SOURCES
Shortenings are a significant and the most dynamic sphere of lexicon. The phenomenon of shortening has taken a strong line in the modern world. Nowadays, the concept of shortenings starts to win attention of modern philologists more and more
Today it is difficult to imagine that just a few decades ago theoretical predictions about the fragility of the formations emerging from this process were made. Now it is safe to say that despite the calls to "clear" language of "abbreviated garbage" and the widespread notion that the abbreviations are obscure or even completely incomprehensible "boring words " has been dispelled. At present this shortening is considered to be one of the most powerful sources of expanding the modern English and Ukrainian vocabularies.
The main idea of this term paper is to give description to the state of shortened words in Modern English and Ukrainian newspaper discourse to characterize the tendency to use shortenings in printed media texts.
The topicality of this work lies in studying shortenings used in newspaper discourse. A lot of researches have been done before to investigate the phenomenon of shortening but there is no universal terminology and classification of them. As new shortened words appear in newspaper texts with a high frequency there is a need to study them in terms of their use and give a proper classification of such shortened items.
The major aim of our research is to investigate and analyze the main features of shortenings in modern English and Ukrainian languages based on the materials of American and Ukrainian press. In order to achieve the aim, the following tasks have been set:
- to observe the classification of English and Ukrainian shortenings in general;
- to define the peculiarities of shortenings in both languages;
- to provide with the characteristics of the main features of shortenings;
- to describe and exemplify the use of shortenings in newspaper discourse;
- to investigate the functions of shortened words in press.
The object of our work is shortened words in Modern English and Ukrainian newspaper languages and the usage of shortenings in newspaper discourse.
The subject of the term paper is investigation of the main features and functions of shortenings in printed media texts.
The term paper is based on the materials of different periodicals. The books of famous linguists served as an incentive for this investigation.
The methods used in this paper are predetermined by the aim and objectives of the research. We resorted to traditional analytical method of observation and generalization of linguistic facts and the method of linguistic description that provides an explanation of the structure and functions of the studied phenomena.
The theoretical value of the research is the description of shortened words and its main features contribute to studying of English and Ukrainian shortenings in general. The introduced material in this term paper may serve as the base for further investigation shortenings in Modern English and Ukrainian languages.
The practical value of the research lies in the usage of the given information in lexicography, lexicology, and practical courses of translation. It can be also very useful during lectures for students in Lexicology.
Compositionally this work consists of Introduction, Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Conclusions, Bibliography, list of reference sources and list of data sources.
The first part consists of two subparagraphs, dedicated to review of information about the place of shortenings in English and Ukrainian languages in general and partially tries to classify shortened units outlining their main features. The second part is divided into 3 subparagraphs in which on the basis of newspaper materials we provide with the examples of the usage of shortenings in press.
CHAPTER 1. LEXICAL SHORTENINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN THE ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES
shortening english ukrainian press
1.1 Main peculiarities of lexical shortenings in the English language
Shortening of words is the way of new words formation by means of substituting a part of the word for a whole. The process of shortening words isn't narrowed only to words; many word-groups also become shortened in the process of communication. Therefore, the term “shortening of words” is to be regarded as conventional as it involves the shortening of both words and word-groups.
Shortened variants of words and phrases are used as independent lexical units. Some of them occur both in oral and written speech, others only in oral colloquial speech, e.g. «bus», «mike», «phone», on the one hand, and «trig», «math», «sis», on the other. Shortened words are structurally simple words and in most cases have the same lexical meaning as the longer words from which they are derived.
Abbreviations, acronyms, clippings, blendings, initialisms are all terms found in various studies and dictionaries in their attempt to classify the different types of shortened forms. These forms have many shapes which make their classification difficult. One of the rare properties of shortenings is that most authors agree upon the discrepancies in their typologies and a lack of clear-cut borders between the categories.
However, in this study, for descriptive purposes, we will refer to the four types of shortenings: clipping, blending, abbreviations, acronyms.
Clipping is the process whereby new words are formed by shortening other words by eliminating the initial part or the last part or both parts of those words. These ways of word abbreviation are called back clipping, fore-clipping, middle clipping, complex clipping.
Back clipping or apocopation is the most common type in which the beginning is retained [1, p. 238]. The clipped word may be either a simple or a composite. For example: ad (advertisement), cable (cablegram), doc (doctor), exam (examination), fax (facsimile), gas (gasoline), gym (gymnastics, gymnasium),memo (memorandum), mutt (muttonhead), pub (public house), pop (popular music).
Fore-clipping or aphaeresis retains the final part. For example, chute (parachute), coon (raccoon), gator (alligator), phone (telephone), pike (turnpike), versity (university). In middle clipping or syncope, the middle of the word is retained. For example, flu (influenza), jams or jammies (pajamas), polly (apollinaris), shrink(head-shrinker), tec (detective).
Complex clipping or a combination of apocope and apheresis forms are also used in compounds. For example, cablegram (cable telegram), op art (optical art), org-man(organization man), linocut (linoleum cut) [2, p. 325-330].
Sometimes both halves of a compound are clipped as in navicert (navigation certificate). In these cases it is difficult to know whether the resultant formation should be treated as a clipping or as a blend, for the border between the two types is not always clear.
Blendings may be defined as formation that combine two words and include the letters or sounds they have in common as a connecting element :
bio (logical) + (electro) nic bioic
wash + (caf) eteria washeria
sk(ateboard) + (s)urfing skurfing
miserable + flimsy mimsy
new + utopia neutopia
The process of formation is also called telescoping. The analisys into immediate constituents is also helpful in so far as it permits the definition of a blend as a word with the first constituent represented by a stem whose final part may be missing, and the second constituent by a stem which the initial part is missing. The second constituent when used in a series of similar blends may turn into a suffix. A new suffix -on is, for instance, well under way in such terms as nylon, rayon, formed from the final element of cotton.
Depending upon the prototype phrases with which they can be correlated two types of blends may be distinguished. One may be termed «additive», the second «restrictive» one. Both involve the sliding together not only of sound but of meaning as well. Yet the semantic relations which are at work are different.
The additive type, is transformable into a phrase consisting of respective complete stems combined by the conjunction and :
smoke and fog smog - a mixture of smog and fog
The elements may be synonymous, belong to the same semantic field or al least be members of the same lexico-grammatical class of words:
French + English Frenglish
Panjab + Afghania + Kashmir + Singh + Baluchistan Pakistan
breakfast and lunch brunch
transmitter and receiver transceiver
The restrictive type is transformable into an attributive phrase where the first element serves as a modifier of the second:
cine (matographic pano) rama cinerama
medical care medicare
positive electrone positrone
television broadcast telecast
An interesting variation of the same type is presented by cases of superposition, formed by pairs of words having similar clusters of sounds which seem to provoke blending:
motorist's hotel motel
slang language slanguage
spiced ham spam
Blends, although not very numerous altogether, seem to be on the rise, especially in terminology and also in trade advertisements.
Abbreviation is a type of shortening when words are formed from the initial letters of each part of a phrasal term. Abbreviations are pronounced as a series of letters, i.e. the alphabetical reading of the letters is retained. For instance, B.B.C. (The British Broadcasting Corporation), M.P. (Member of Parliament), P.M. (Prime Minister), T.V. (Television), Y.C.L. (The Young Communist League).
Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening of words and word-groups only in written speech while orally the corresponding full forms are used. They are used for the economy of space and effort in writing. Abbreviation is achieved by omission of letters from one or more parts of the whole:
abbreviation abbr. dozen doz/dz government govt. limited ltd.
building bld. New York State N.Y.
The oldest group of graphical abbreviations in English is of Latin origin. In Ukrainian this type of abbreviation is not typical. In these abbreviations in the spelling Latin words are shortened, while orally the corresponding English equivalents are pronounced in the full form: e.g. for example (Latin exampli gratia), a.m. - in the morning (ante meridiem), No -number (numero), p.a. - a year (per annum), d - penny (dinarius), lb - pound (libra), i. e. - that is (id est) etc.
Some graphical abbreviations of Latin origin have different English equivalents in different contexts, e.g. p.m. can be pronounced «in the afternoon» (post meridiem) and «after death» (post mortem).
There are also graphical abbreviations of native origin, where in the spelling we have abbreviations of words and word-groups of the corresponding English equivalents in the full form. There are several semantic groups of them:
a) days of the week, e.g. Mon - Monday, Tue - Tuesday etc
b) names of months, e.g. Apr - April, Aug - August etc.
c) names of counties in UK, e.g. Yorks - Yorkshire, Berks -Berkshire etc
d) names of states in USA, e.g. Ala - Alabama, Alas - Alaska etc.
e) names of address, e.g. Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr. etc.
f) military ranks, e.g. capt. -captain, col. - colonel, sgt - sergeant etc.
g) scientific degrees, e.g. B.A. - Bachelor of Arts, D.M. - Doctor of Medicine
The reading of some graphical abbreviations depends on the context, e.g. «m» can be read as: male, married, masculine, metre, mile, million, minute, «l.p.» can be read as long-playing, low pressure.
Initialisms are the bordering case between graphical and lexical abbreviations. When they appear in the language, as a rule, to denote some new offices they are closer to graphical abbreviations because orally full forms are used, e.g. J.V. - joint venture. When they are used for some duration of time they acquire the shortened form of pronouncing and become closer to lexical abbreviations, e.g. BBC is as a rule pronounced in the shortened form. [3, 76 p.]
There are three types of initialisms in English:
a) initialisms with alphabetical reading, such as UK, BUP, CND etc.
b) initialisms which are read as if they are words, e.g. UNESCO, UNO, NATO etc.
c) initialisms that coincide with English words in their sound form, such initialisms are called acronyms, e.g. CLASS (Computer-based Laboratory for Automated School System).
If the abbreviated written form lends itself to be read as though it were an ordinary English word and sounds like an English word, it will be read like one. The words thus formed are called acronyms. For example, from the initial letters of the words of the phrase North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the word NATO is formed. Similarly from the initial letters of the constituent words of the phrase unidentified flying object, the acronym UFO is formed. This way of forming new words is becoming more and more popular in almost all fields of human activity.
Borrowed acronyms are not deciphered in both in English and Ukrainian though they may have dictionary entries:
G.P. (General Purpose Vehicle) jeep (UA. джип)
lightware application by stimulated emission of radiation laser (UA. лазер)
Acronyms present a special interest because they exemplify the working of the lexical adaptive system. In meeting the needs of communication and fulfilling the laws of information theory requiring a maximum signal in the minimum time the lexical system undergoes modification in its basic structure: namely it forms new elements not by combining existing morphemes and proceeding from sound forms to their graphic representation but the other way round - coining new words from the initial letters of phrasal terms originating in texts.
1.2 The characteristic features of lexical shortenings in the Ukrainian language and their stylistic modifications
The process of the formation of shortenings has become more dynamic over the latest years because of the social, political economical changes that occur in Ukrainian society as well as due to the introduction of the computer technologies and interaction with Occidental culture.
In the modern Ukrainian language among the words formed by the means of abbreviation there is a certain group of shortened substantives like «спец» and «зав» and the like. The lodging to separate abbreviations and the shortenings of definite words resulted in the appearance of the term “contraction” in scientific literature. Contraction (or shortening) stands for the way of formation of new words by means of the existing ones.
There are several variations of this method of word formation. They differ in:
1) the part of speech which is shortened - the basis of a noun or an adjective
2) semantic correlation between a shortened word and a word stem
3) the nature of shortened segment ( morphemic or non-morphemic) [4 , p. 122].
Besides, the category of genre and the conjugation of reduced words in relation to a shortened unit should be considered.
1. Substantive contractions
This kind of shortening is widespread among the youth and in the vocabulary of technical shpere. Usually they are emotional and expressive formations mainly consisting of naming units. For example: «трансформатор» - «транс», «плексиглас» - «плекс», «лазер» - «лаз» (among physicists and chemists); «стипендія» - «стипа» або «стипа, «університет» - «універ» (among students); «дисертація» - «дисер», «сюрреалізм» - «сюр» (among researchers of various disciplines).
The words are reduced by means of abbreviation and not on the morphemic base. Thus the derivated word has the same meaning as their full variants.
The greatest part of such words ends in a consonant, belongs to the masculine genre and is conjugated in the same way as nouns of masculine genre of the second declination. The words of this type hardly ever possess different structure. Consequently certain nouns take the inflection -а when denoting persons in the nominative case in the singular. For example, шизофреник - шиза. A quantitatively smaller group consists of feminine contractions in the nominative case in the singular ending -a (депра < депресія, кафа < кафедра, безка < безкозирка etc.)
The contraction of words is distinctive for its expressivity. This is a quality of colloquial speech which is characterized by the easiness and of the communication between interlocutors. Shortened words also occur in the language of the media. Thus, O.A Styshov in his monograph "Ukrainian vocabulary of the late twentieth century (based on the language of the media )" refers to the “derivatives formed directly from substantives by means of shortening of their segments “ :
фанатик, фанат - фан, професіонал - профі, кібернетик - кібер, депутат - деп. etc. The author notes that all the words of this type is a consequence of the law of language power economy, the desire to rationalize the process of speaking, pure pragmatism [5 , p. 141].
Frequently enough proper names become subjected to contraction. For example, Афганістан - Афган, Земфіра - Зема, Мерседес - мерс.
Commonly used shortenings of names could also be regarded as abbreviations: Макс - Максим, Марго - Маргарита, Люда - Людмила, Валя - Валентина and others. Of course, it is just an assumption due to the absence of adequate scientific basis.
At present, this method of word formation is progressing under the influence of West-European languages ??such as English, French, German which posess widely distributed all sorts of substantive bases reduction. Cf. English. doc < doctor, cap < captain, phone < telephone; French. prof < professeur, exam < examen others.
2. Adjectival contractions
In Ukrainian colloquial speech there are several types of shortened words derived from adjectives:
1) Shortening on a morphemic base. It is formed through semantic condensation of the pattern " adjective + noun " and reduction of adjectival base. Thus specific short nominations are created. In this case the derivative relates to the formal foundation of the adjective and semantically it corresponds to the whole phrase : фіктивний шлюб - фіктив, автоматичний залік - автомат and so on. This kind of shortenings applies only to relative adjectives.
Among the words formed in this way are those that coincide in form with nouns that were the basis for the formation of adjectives which are part of the basic phrase: дипломна робота - диплом, декретна відпустка - декрет.
An adjectival shortening does not have sharp stylistical coloring. They akin to regular nouns more than to substantive clipping as «дисер», «маг» and the like, which have the shade of jargon and slag language. Their existence is also " justified " by its greater semantic fullness as they are condensates, and not just repetions of the semantic base its generating word. These words are often used in professional lexicon of different spheres (сигнал < сигнальний екземпляр, коронар < корональна судина).
Professor A.A Zemskaya says that such words as банал < банальний, тривіал < тривіальний, примітив < примітивний, інтим < інтимний and more, should also be considered as adjectival shortenings. Although the majority of scholars tend to regard this process the result of back-formation.
Thus, G.I. Richter states: "The words примітив, норматив, стаціонар, нейтрал, occasionalisms наїв, монотон, a neologism інтим bring us back to their original sources - Latin and French adjectives primitivus, normatif, stationarius, neutralis, nayif , monotone, intime. These borrowings have been adapted to Ukrainian in with the heip of such suffixal forms as -н, -ий (інтимний, нормативний etc.) [6, p. 118].
2) Non-morphemic shortenings. To this type of adjectival contractions belong the words which are synonymous to phrases. Word combinations which are widespread in some or other professional sphere (e.g. academic, scientific) became the material for their formation. The most stylistically neutral and frequently used is a group of s names of institutions, faculties and departments. For example, мед (медичний інститут), пед (педагогічне училище), Політех (Політехнічний університет).
Non-morphemic shortenings are not distinguished by its high productivity. It could be explained by the fact that the generating base of the shortened words is represented by relative adjectives, which are numerically smaller group of lexemes than nouns. Consequently substantive shortenings are more rich and numerous.
3. Thematic groups of contractions
Shortening still remains an unproductive way of word formation in the Ukrainian language, since only the minor part of contracted words belongs to the common usage. However, these "catchphrases" are widespread among young people, and therefore, this is the thing of the future.
At present no attempt has been done to classify thematic groups of shortenings. However N.V.Lebun suggests the following classification:
1. The contracted forms operating in software specialists and PC users lexicon : адмін < системний адміністратор; вінч < вінчестер; вір < комп'ютерний вірус; гіг < гігабайт ; інфа < інформація ; кіл < кілобайт; клава < клавіатура; комент < коментарій; комп < комп'ютер; лазер < лазерний принтер; лог < логін; мег < мегабайт; ноут < ноутбук (розм.);; прога < програма; проц < процесор; скан < сканер [7, с. 273]. This lexico-semantic group is being constantly updated which contributes to the overall trend of computerization in all spheres of human activity.
2. The names of clothing, footwear: блейз < блейзвер (кепка); джемп < джемпер; джини < джинси; кроси < кросівки; фура < фуражка; фуфа < фуфайка [8, с. 345]. This small group of words exist mostly among young people.
3. The words extracted from students' lexicon: абітура < абітурієнти; ботан < ботанік (an A student, a diligent pupil); гурт < гуртожиток; дек < декан; диплом < дипломна робота; кафа < кафедра; конфа < конференція; лаба < лабораторна робота; профа < професор; стипа < стипендія; студак < студентський квиток ; універ < університет; фак < факультет; шпора < шпаргалка [8, с.381]
A student vocabulary fully illustrates the use of contraction as a means of saving energy to create a speech. Some of the words in this group have long been included in the total consumption (диплом, універ) and now they are no longer regarded as slang items.
4. Names of vehicles : вел < велосипед; запор < «Запорожець» (a Ukrainian vehicle brand); мерс < «Мерседес».[8, с. 296]
5. Shortenings operating in musicians' lexicon (names of musical instruments, musical terms): бас < бас-гітарист; кавер < кавер-версія; конса < консерваторія; поп < популярна музика; ревер < ревербератор; репа < репетиція; сакс < саксофон; хард < хард-рок [7, с. 313].
In literature these words can serve for expressiveness of speech.
6. Names of jobs, occupations, military ranks : деп < депутат; зав < завідувач; загот < заготівельник (military); зам < замісник; лей < лейтенант; опер < оперуповноважений карного розшуку; прапор < прапорщик; реп < репетитор; серж < сержант (розм.). Shortenings of this type operate in lexicon of military men, the youth. Words such as зав, зам have lost the shade of jargon and have come into general usage.
7. Proper names and their derivatives : Афган < Афганістан (in the meaning of the place of military activity of the 1979-1989 [10, с. 40]; «Барса» < футбольний клуб «Барселона»; Дніпро < Дніпропетровськ; ерік < Еріксон (a mobile phone); Зема < Земфіра (a singer); Крішті < Кріштіано Роналдо; Мак < Макдональдс; Макс < Максим; Шева < Шевченко Андрій (футболіст) [10, с. 373].
8. Names of sports events and concepts: бад < бадмінтон; баскет < баскетбол; хав < хавбек; фан < фанат; чемп < чемпіонат [7, с. 325]. Shortenings of this thematic group use in their lexicon athletes, fans , and media in sports publications, reportages.
9. Names of people according to nationality, physical and mental characteristics: азер < азербайджанець (contemptuously); брит < британці; британ < британець; вундер < вундеркінд; дистроф < дистрофік; флегмат < флегматик; шиза < шизофреник.
Some of the shortenings mentioned above could at the same time belong to several thematic groups, since it is hard to mark a clear distinction between the groups. However, there are contracted words which in their semantics do not refer to any of the proposed groups. Because of the small number of such words, they are not divided into certain groups. To these words belong гума < гуманітарна допомога; демо < демонстрація ; корпоратив < корпоративна вечірка; магаз < магазин; фест < фестиваль [7, с. 305].
Thus, the contraction is somehow a driving force of the development of the modern Ukrainian language.The broad range of shortenings in Ukrainian is represented in the lexico- semantic groups of " The contracted forms operating in software specialists and PC users lexicon" and "Students' lexicon"." Generally, long language units that exceed the usual length and words of foreign origin are subjected to subjected to the process of shortening. Contracted words are characterized by their brevity and expressiveness. The shortened forms of this kind are widely used in modern Ukrainian literature and periodicals.
CHAPTER 2. MAIN FEATURES OF SHORTENED WORDS IN THE ENGLISN AND UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES
2.1 Functional and pragmatic peculiarities of shortenings in the English media texts
Within the scope of this paper it is necessary to illustrate functional and pragmatic peculiarities of shortenings, to reveal certain approaches of their application in newspaper texts and the characteristic features of their meaning considering a variety of extralinguistic factors. A functional analysis of shortenings and abbreviations in different types of print media would be the most appropriate to disclose the pragmatic potential of curtailed words.
For this purpose, quality newspaper texts as well as mass publications were analyzed including New York Times, The Sun, The Independent, Business week, Forbes, Newsweek, The National Enquirer, People, Bliss, Cosmopolitan, Glamour, Maximum etc.
The initial point was the study of the lexical and semantic basic structure of the most frequently occuring units and their stylistical characteristics. This analysis has made it possible to distinguish an extended class of shortenings different in its stylistic relatedness as well as in its pertaining to a certain part of speech. According to the stylistical classification there were stylistically marked and stylistically neutral forms of shortenings.
For the most part newspaper texts are aimed at fast provision of information so that their main criterion is to give maximum information with the minimum use of language means. Consequently, shortenings were created to generalize and concentrate the main content of a lexical unit. The usage of shortenings and abbreviations in newspaper discourse realize the fundamental principle of rational utilization of language means.
It should be noted that curtailed words used in modern British and American press manifest significant differences according to the degree of development in the language. The discovered shortenings became widely spread in the last decade Along with the units firmly rooted in the language, which have come to be paradigmatic cases or ,in other words, textbook examples such as doc - doctor, flu - influenza, pants - pantaloons, plane - airplane, photo - photograph, pub - public house etc..
On the one hand, these words are notions which existed in the language previously, however were intensified in early XXI century because of their greater relevance For example, the shortenings like terr - terrorist, high-tech - high technology, showbiz - show business etc…
On the other hand, these units appeared recently with the popularization of new realities such as moby - mobile telephone, digi - digital, blog - weblog, comp - computer, chick lit - chick literature etc...Such examples suggest an weighty part of extralinguistic factors in the formation and distribution of the analyzed units , as well as the acceptability of shortening as a method of nomination.
The major part of the analyzed shortened words make up stylistically marked units. To provide a few examples actively circulating in the press, bennies - benefits, bod - body, crim - criminal, celeb - celebrity, fave - favourite, info - information, mag - magazine, pic - picture, prez - president and others which in the lexicographical sources are recorded as "slang", "colloquial", "informal" words. This kind of shortenings is not used “spontaneously” in popular papers because in spite of the active absorbing of stylistically reduced vocabulary, nowadays a certain boundary between solid, " respectable" media and tabloid newspapers which are traditionally called the "yellow" press is preserved. Newspapers and magazines do not only acquire units of different styles and registers , but also adapt them to language needs of a particular publication, as well as individual articles.
The individual social group orientation of a printed issue determine the nature, the number of shortenings appearing in newspapers, journals and periodicals as well as their correlation with various thematic blocks. Informational products of female audience orientation are connected with the semantic fields of beauty, fashion, people relationship, love, lifestyle, well-being, housekeeping etc. That is why the most productive are curtailed words which depict the above mentioned living environments. For example, do - hairdo, boy - boyfriend, hub/hubby - husband, gyno - gynaecologist, mani - manicure, undie/s - underwear, veggie - vegetables, mayo - mayonnaise, bod - boddy etc.
Thematic spheres of the usage of shortenings in men's magazines are much more scanty. Generally, the male associative field is connected with sport, technique, both professional and military spheres. To provide you with several examples, ref - referee, footie - football, fella - fellow, champ - champion, techie - technician, loco - locomotive etc.
Male magazines, as opposed to women ones, contain a smaller group of shortenings. Besides, a number of the shortenings mentioned in this paper accounts for common lexical units which could also be typical for a women's magazine such as mag - magazine, pic - picture, photo - photograph, info- information, phone - telephone, pro- professional, telly - television, vibe- vibration, ed - education, rep - reputation etc.
It is to note that shortenings which are encountered in journalistic and newspaper texts are not limited by the mentioned above lexical groups. Within the covers of any printed matter there exist high probability of the appearance of shortenings connected with a variety of content-related categories.
As it has already been mentioned, abbreviations created by the model of shortening are often aimed at setting the connection with a target customer. A shining example of customer speaking habits orientation could be so called teen mags (teenager magazines) the style of which is based on the youth's speaking habits orientation.
A great range of the studied shortenings arise from the youth's language as the most fast-changing social unit characterized by posing a challenge to formal language. Consequently, it is the youth-oriented press where the predictability of the usage of shortenings is the most highlighted.
One of the characteristic features of the youth language is the usage of dynamic, expressive, “stylish” shortenings such as fave - favourite, gorge - gorgeous, lush - luscious, boho - bohemian, imposs - impossible, triff - terrific, mizzy - miserable, fab - fabulous, hols - holidays, probs - problems, rents - parents etc.
The majority of these shortenings has received large-scale nature of usage. Its popularity is being created and maintained by the work of the youth newspapers, texts of which simply abound with such a kind of curtailed words. Thus, the pages only of one newspaper could contain from 230 till 300 shortenings. To give a few examples (based on the materials from a famous british youth magazine “Bliss”): Going out with one of the most gorge guys sounds like heaven  ; Keep your holiday hair looking fab morning, noon and night.; Excess energy could be turned into something positive and used to mend parent prob.; To celebrate summer we've picked out the finest boys with the most gorge jaw-to-the-floor bods…
Sentences which are made of curtailed forms of words by 30 per cent could serve as a shining example, These celebs all started in showbiz, as hol camp entertainers.; The funniest pics will make it into the pages of your fave mag [ 26].
However, the “proximity” to the language tastes of a reader achieved by means of shortenings is just one of the particular manifestations of the functional and pragmatic specifics of the given lexicon. A more considerable reason for the appearance of shortenings in the columns of the English-language newspapers and magazines could be their increasing expressiveness, the ability of creating more intensive and emotional images, objects or phenomena. The shortening of words is not so much saving of space as creating of more emotionally colored forms. [8, p. 11]
The main motive for expressing emotional relationship is considered to be “unquenchable” thirst of expression in the language of personality". Expressivity of journalistic texts is especially important as the specific changes in consciousness and behavior of the recipient can occur only as a result of the expressive impact on his emotional state.
Obviously, there are some shortened forms have a gradation of emotional intensity: some curtailed words are strongly intensified, others have its weak manifestation. According to the presence of expressive and evaluating component it could be distinguished: neutral and stylistically or emotionally colored units. The first group includes shortenings which have lost their colloquial colouring over time and became widely used in the official language, almost displacing their full correlates. For example, such shortenings as bike - bicycle, advertisement, phone - telephone, math - mathematics, fridge - refrigerator are no longer perceived as stylistically marked by native speakers, and therefore these and the like words could hardly be a source of journalistic expression in the text.
These units become more familiar to a speaker (a writer) than unfold variants that is why they are chosen automatically and are defined only as a means of saving linguistic resources and space. This is evident by their active operation on the pages of popular publications, and in the quality press texts:
The 27 -year-old math teacher had hit the 20 -mile mark when his knees started buckling ; In Japan, Sharp's two 3-D screen phones have already sold more than 1.5 million units ; Chrysler is directing ads for the new models squarely at middle-age, male car-poolers...
In addition, there is no any evaluative criteria within the content of these units unlike, for example, the already mentioned above shortenings gorge, lush, glam, triff, mizz or fab which was originally designed to express the evaluative attitude to objects and events, not to mention the fact that they still belong to the stylistically reduced speech registers.
Consequently, in newspaper and magazine texts such language units implement double expressiveness. Compare, for example, the following sentences in one of which full forms of words are used and in the other we observe the substitution for its synonymous shortened version:
By the end it 's hard not to hope that she (Bridget Harrison) gets everything she wants: literary stardom. the gorgeous apartment, the equally gorgeous boyfriend - and more .; Summer is jam packed with opportunities to bag a gorge lad .
The given sentences are not equal by the manifestation of expressiveness: in the latter case the introduction of shortened variant contributes to a certain exaggeration of the estimated value of the adjective. In addition, stylistic marked shortening adds to the content special emotionality inherent to spontaneous speech. Relations of stylistically opposing elements create a heightened sense of stylistic properties of linguistic facts which is one of the most important sources of artistic expressiveness and stylistical language diversity.
Another way the expression of emotions through shortening consists of ading a diminutive suffix -y/ie to the reduced structure:
Veggie - vegetable, hubby - husband, moby - mobile phone, footie - football tummy - stomach, ciggie /y - cigarette, hankie - handkerchief, choccie - chocolate, comfy - comfortable, Aussie - Australian etc…
The suffixal manner of creating of shortened words refer to babyisms, imitating the children uttering of words. Their use of such babyish shortenings arise from desire to express approval, affection and favour not so much in relation to the object of the conversation, as towards the addressee.
It should be noted, however, that depending on the communicative intentions of a journalist such "inclusions" in the printed text may serve as a means of expressing an ironic assessment. So, for example, the author of the American tabloid “The National Enquirer”, telling about a husband of a notorious actress and model Anna Nicole Smith deliberately often operates a shortening hubby (рос. муженёк) instead of the full version of husband:
The Country's top Supreme Court lawyer lias filed papers supporting Anna Nicole's claim for a slice of ex-hubby J. Howard Marshall's cash... It really gave her a taste for grave-dodgers, 'cause her real-life hubby was old enough to be her pappy! . The usage of the shortening hubby in negative context brings to it highly ironic connotation.
Not only suffixal shortenings are distinguished in the press by its highly productivity but any other potentially expressive abbreviated unit as, for example, shortened anthroponimical forms: Jess - Jessica, Jen - Jennifer, Phil - Phillip, Nat - Nataly, Pcim - Pamela, Em - Eminem, Brit - Britney etc…Their pragmatic value is diverse and, as a rule, is determined by the context.Thus, in the semantic structure of shortenings additional shade of kinship and intimacy is included due to which the press columns acquire a “pet form” marking:
Thirty three and living in San Francisco, Jen already had a 10-month-old girl...[26, p.164] In other contexts, especially when referring to celebrities, the introduction of a shortened name may indicate some familiarity and often intended to reduce the distance between the "stars" and simple people:
Orli (Orlando Bloom) won his big break when he was cast as Legolas Greenfield Lord of the Rings.; Jess (Jessica Simpson) usually has to dress glamorously .
Attaching of an emotionally-colored suffix indicates a certain relationship of friendliness, love, sympathy:
It's an exciting time for Brad and Angie (Angelina Jolie), and we are really happy for them and the kids .
Another frequently exploited in the press group is created by shortening of toponyms such as Chi - Chicago, Pennsy - Pennsylvania, Ala - Alabama, Calif - California etc. In general, using these and the like units a speaker expresses his positive emotional-evaluative attitude towards the referent:
She could not face returning home to Pennsy because she was pregnant . By appearing on the front pages of newspapers or magazines, shortened toponyms attract readers' attention not only for its unusual shape but also its local colouring.
The introduction of shortenings in newspaper texts is quite natural and is of pragmatical predictability. The preference of curtailed words to the full set of specific correlates is explained by the functional and pragmatic possibilities of the latter to raise the emotional coloring of newspaper articles; produce naturalness and ease of conversation with the aim of establishing the contact with a recipient; implement positive or negative expression signal an ironic attitude towards the described events; create and maintain the language prestige of a publication. Finally, the widespread use of shortened words in the printed media texts is aimed at making an appropriate impact on a recipient.
2.2 Analysis of abbreviated new formations in the Ukrainian media texts
The Ukrainian language appears to be in a continuous process of development and especially it is reflected on its lexicon. Modern changes in society and politics, science and equipment innovations, development of the state administrative facilities give rise to the appearance of a considerable amount of new words.
The emergence of a quantitatively large group of compound words of social and political character is connected, first of all, with rough politicization of modern society. Rapid technological progress and the need to inform the public about the world of inventions and newly-designed products forces journalists to use specific terminology of different spheres, which is characterized by its semantic and informational content as well as structural space-saving: зерножниварка, ринкове ціноутворення, газогенераторний котел, прилад-тепловізор, фахівець-епідеміолог, гамма-ніж, нафтопереробний завод, водно-болотне угіддя, ноу-хау, кораблебудування, холодостійка культура, фахівець-інфекціоніст, хіміорезистентний туберкульоз, товарообіг, купівля-продаж, бензопила, магнітно-резонансний томограф, респіраторно -вірусні захворювання, подрібнювач-розкидальник, шумоізоляція etc. To give you several examples:
"Вони потрапляють в організм при контакті з предметами, що ними користувався вірусоносій" ; "Рослини можуть добре розвиватися на слабокислому або навіть кислому грунті, якщо він досить добре забезпечений поживними речовинами" .
The revival of Ukrainian international affairs, globalization and inter- nationalization tendencies contributed to the replenishment of Ukrainian lexicon with borrowings. It is observed that certain types of word-formation components, namely root morphemes, of Greek and Latin origin are especially intensified. Among these are: радіо- (радіотрибуна, радіотаксист, радіомікрофон), теле- (телепростір, телесезон, телеігроманія, телефетишизм), фото- (фотоматеріал, фото радар, фотомистецтво, фотожурнал, фотоконкурс,), відео- (відеоспостереження, відеофіксація, відеопродукція), аудіо- (аудіоспадщина, аудіокнига, аудіодоріжка), кіно- (кіноканікули, кінокомпанія, кіноепопея, кіноакадемія, кінофестиваль, кінереальність), авіа- (авіакатастрофа, авіабомба, авіалінія, авіапереліт, авіабудування, авіаспівпраця), авто- (автопарк, автопаркінг, автоаварія, автоперехід, автолюбитель, автопригода, авторозведення), еко- (екостежка, екосистема), агро- (агроформування, агросектор, агробізнесмен), біо- (біоземлеробство, біогеохімічний, біоетанол, біодизель, біогаз) etc. For instance:
"У Волинському обласному центрі зайнятості віднедавна надаються нові послуги: фоторезюме безробітних та відеовакансії роботодавців" 
The mass media language is becoming the object of language research of new processes in the lexicon. Mass media is not merely aimed at introducing all the recent changes appearing in social life to a wide range of public representatives but also continuous enrichment of various language innovations. To provide you with a few examples of lexical shortenings:
Власкор ''УМ'' став чемпіоном України із зимової риболовлі ; Деякі з них можна знайти лише у віп-номерах ; Причиною вилучення карти банкоматом може бути кількаразово невірно введений PIN-код ; Зустріч організував нардеп від НУ-НС .
From operational sources such as radio, television, newspapers, magazines, the Internet general population learns about new inventions and breakthroughs, about public events which are cultural phenomena of the educational plan, and also about life in all its versatility. It is mass media through which new words and catchphrases are spread and set in as well as public opinion about language norm is formed. As S.Y. Ermolenko puts it, "the language of mass media carries out the most orientating influence on the common language development. Also it forms certain language tastes, and fashion on word usage '' [9, p. 7 - 8].
The mass media language is dissimilar by its lexical structure, functional and stylistic features which is determined by its aspects(the printed media- newspapers and magazines, electronic media - radio, television), and a variety of genre (article, coverage, interview, newspaper story).
The mass media language is non-uniform on the lexical structure, functional and stylistic features that is caused as its versions (the printing periodical press - newspapers and magazines, electronic media - radio, television), and a genre variety (article, the reporting, interview, a sketch). Language of mass media is diverse and could be focused on professional (medical, legal, chemical and other directions), cultural and educational (art, sports, education, etc.) spheres [4, p. 34].
In the columns of modern periodical publications, in particular within the covers of newspapers and magazines, initial abbreviations have become widespread as they have the biggest capability to concentrate information, especially in written language. Compare:
ВНДІСЕ - Всесоюзний науково-дослідний інститут судової експертизи, НСОТ - Національна система організованої торгівлі, АДКОР - антидопінговий кодекс олімпійського руху, ДІКТЕД - Державний інститут комплексних техніко-економічних досліджень, ВОФК - Вищий орган фінансового контролю etc.
Initial abbreviations are certainly contributed to the rapid spread of mass media, but this information is not always clear the reader through the'' hidden meaning'' of this type of shortening. In addition, the abbreviations are not always a means of speech efforts saving. As long as it does not go down to the active vocabulary, it is served, of course, against the corresponding full-scale phrase. To provide you with a few examples,:
В Україні гостро назріла проблема постійного контролю та маркування вмісту ГМО (генитично модифікованих організмів) в харчових продуктах ; Сьогодні нагляд тут здійснюють Червоноградська та Нововолинська ДГТІ (державні гірничо-технічні інспекції) у вугільній промисловості ; Львівські пластуни записуватимуть аудіокнижки … на студії звукозапису ''УТОС'' (Українського товариства сліпих), залучаючи власні ресурси .
According to A.N Serebriakov, abbreviations lose their initial meaning without their proper explanation. If the word is understood as a sign, by an abbreviation we mean a sign of a sign. That is why, as a rule, most of the authors after applying an abbreviation for the first time immediately explain its full name [10, p.63].
N.G Avetisyan argues that language of the media plays a crucial role in the development and enrichment of a nation -wide language word stock, refilling it with new words, as it responds to the first innovations that accompany the progress of society [11, p.83].
At present the language of the media has become increasingly internationalized. The sharp acceleration of scientific and technological progress, radical changes in social relations gave rise to a huge number of new words, including many new foreign abbreviations such as DVD (ді -ві- ді ), ICTV (ай-сі-ті-ві), CD (сі-ді), PR (пі-ар), SMS (ес-ем-ес), VIP (віп), PIN ( пін) , NBA (ен-бі-ей), RTVi (ер-ті-ві), MTV (ем-ті-ві) etc. To give a few examples:
У Ліверпулі пройде фестиваль електронної музики та вручення європейських музичних нагород телеканалу MTV ; VIP-кати… Хто страчував? ; Вже встановлено, що на час аварії літака в аеропорту не діяла система ILS, яка допомагає пілотам здійснювати точний захід на посадку за складних погодних умов ; Нею було створено чергову сенсацію на турнірі WTA в Парижі ; Він вже ставив для NYSB композицію '' Русские сезоны'' ; HoReCa /Готель, ресторан, казино/ (the name of a newspaper).
O.A. Styshov believes that the use of foreign compound shortening which in texts are given in Latin and have the English samples of pronunciation does not meet the national language and cultural traditions. In the media texts these abbreviations should be accompanied with Ukrainian formulation (their graphical form and the way of pronunciation are to be add) [4, p.162]
It is generally known that moral and psychological state of society affects journalistic texts and their aesthetic value. Social and political changes of the last years have directly affected mass media language character and also have changed the general orientation and presentation of information. Outspokenness and expressivity of information materials became a sign of the latest era. Efficiency of response to important global events, as well as state ones, continuous search of expressive influential means promote creation of new nominative units are defining features of the XXI century mass media language.
In the language of the media many important processes relating primarily to lexicon are born, formed and developed at a later stage. Thus, the formation shortenings, however, more complicated ones, are not only a means of nomination, but manifestation of expression and paronomasia. It was found out that the quantity of such new growths in the print media and electronic media language is increasing gradually. For example: Українські вчені-радіофізики Харкова створили ГУРТ - гігантський український радіотелескоп ; Передвиборча програма виборчого блоку … УРА /Український регіональний актив/ ; Триває виставка «Нова українська мова», координатором якої є молодіжнагрупа «Р.Е.П.» /Революційний експериментальний простір .