Expressiveness of components of hope in connection with estimation of vital events
The analysis of social and psychological aspects of human life. Expression of hope at different levels of personal manifestation. decision making in the concrete social situations. Personal construction, definition of a way of "existence in the world".
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Expressiveness of components of hope in connection with estimation of vital events
Studying of a phenomenon of hope is impossible “outside of life”, isolated from social context in which a person exists. At the same time, only in some works the hope is marked as the characteristic of not only inner world of an individual, but also as the characteristic of interpersonal, group, social relations [2, 4, 6]. In this connection, reference towards a problem of the hope assumes the analysis of social and psychological aspects of human life. The hope finds the expression at different levels of personal manifestation: from decision making in the concrete social situations, accompanied with certain emotional experiences, to personal construction of life strategy, definition of a way of “existence in the world”. The analysis and generalization of works accomplished on a joint of social psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, medicine and psychotherapy [1, 3, 5, 7], allowed to make a conclusion that the hope is the integrated social and psychological characteristic of a subject including three structural components: affective, cognitive and conative; connected with estimation and perception of vital events. Considering that features of subjective interpretation of vital events, life situations, character of interaction with them, are a reflection of steady subjective preferences, values, relatively stable personal qualities, it is possible to assume, that structure of the hope, being one of the major modi of social life, reflects features of subject interaction with vital events, situations, other people, causing his attitude to life as a whole. In the majority of works it is marked, that there are vital events connected with sphere of interpersonal interaction, with change of social environment, change of professional and social statuses, etc.
It is necessary to note, that until recently in native social psychology the hope was not examined as an integrated phenomenon; there was not put a question on determination of expressiveness of components of hope by positive and negative vital events.
In our research we shall start with idea of the hope as the integrated, social and psychological phenomenon shown in a certain social context not only as an emotional status of a subject, but also as a generalized expectation of achievement of purpose, persistence and unyieldingness, aspiration and ability to find a way of achievement of purpose, personal control of time; connected with subjective estimation and perception of vital events and attitude to life. Thus, it is possible to assume, that forms of manifestation of hope distinguished at theoretical level, form its structural components: emotional-estimated and cognitive-active.
Proceeding from the aforesaid, the purpose of research is to study interrelations between expressiveness of components of the hope and estimations of significant vital events. Empirical object of research consists of 263 persons: 77 men and 186 women in the age of 18-68 years.
With the purpose of studying of a structure of the hope and definition of a degree of expressiveness of its components there were applied: scale of hopelessness by A. Beck (in modification of A.A. Gorbatkov), scale of dispositional hope by S. Snaider, questionnaire of achievement motivation by A.Rean, scale “personal control of time” from the technique by Newtten “Scale of attitudes to time” (in modification of K. Muzdybaev).
With the purpose of analyzing and adequate interpretation of the data received on their basis, procedures of factorial and correlation analyses have been applied and it was formulated a conclusion that the hope as social and psychological phenomenon can be presented in combination of two components: emotional-estimated and cognitive-active. Expressiveness of these components at the same subjects not always is interconnected: manifestation of “emotional hope” is not necessarily accompanied by comprehension of probability of achievement of object of hope, rational forecasting and converting activity, components of “cognitive-active hope”.
With the purpose of studying of estimations of vital events there were used the technique by L.F. Burlachuk “Psychological autobiography”, the technique of stressresistivity examination and social adaptation by holmes and Rage, modified by us. The data received on their basis were interpreted proceeding from results of the correlation analysis. Following conclusions were formulated: First, emotional-estimated and cognitive-active components of the hope presented by a status of hope, generalized expectation, persistence and unyieldingness, aspiration and ability to find a way of achievement of the purpose, are connected with a quantity (r=0,23), retrospection time (r=0,17) and anticipation of vital events (r=0,24), with an importance which a subject gives to various according to modality last (r=0,18) and future (r=0,26) planned events of life. Secondly, for respondents the most significant last events are connected with a change of social environment. The most significant future events are the events of personal and psychological type connected with “I” of a person. Thirdly, there were distinguished three groups of vital events according to their influence on the hope: 1) “vital events inspiring hope”; 2) “vital events depriving hope”; 3) “vital events which have no influence on hope”. Thus, the events inspiring hope are occurrence of the new member of family, birth of the child; wedding, marriage; change of a post, increase of work responsibility; an outstanding personal achievement; beginning or termination of education in a educational institution, etc. Group “vital events depriving hope” is formed by such events as death of the spouse, death of the close member of family; death of the close friend; imprisonment; broken relations with the spouse without registration of divorce, break of relations with the partner; strengthening of conflictness of relations with the spouse; dismissal from work. “Vital events which have no influence on hope” are trauma, illness; divorce; pensioning off; change in a state of health of members of family; reorganization at work; change of financial state; change of place of work; borrowing or a loan on large purchase; change of stereotypes of behaviour; change of social activity; change of individual habits, etc. Fourthly, the more sad events have happened in human life, the more significant they are and the more they are removed in the past, the less the hope is influenced by vital events, the less quantity of events is capable to inspire or deprive a person with the hope, the more the hope is steady against influence of vital events. Fifthly, the more a subject reproduces last sad events, the more importance get joyful events anticipated by him (r=0,35); the more sad events are removed in the past, the more time prospect of planning of joyful events are removed (r=0,14) and the more future events are significant for a subject (r=0,22); remoteness of planned joyful events in the future and a degree of their subjective importance are connected with a quantity of last joyful events in human life (r=0,16 and r=0,22, accordingly).
human life social existence
Beck A., Rush A., Sho B., Emery G. Cognitive therapy of depressions. 1979.
1. Bloh E. Tubingensk introduction in philosophy. Ekaterinburg: Publishing house of Ural State University, 1997. 394 p.
2. Gorbatkov A.A. Research of factorial structure of a scale of hopelessness of A. Beck. Psychological herald of RSU, 2003.
3. Grot N. Y. About scientific value of pessimism and optimism as outlooks. Odessa: printing house of P.A. Zelenago, 1884.
4. Diyakonov G.V. Dialogical methods of psychological research of feelings and emotions. Kirovograd: Code, 2004.
5. Fedyaev D.M. hope and hopelessness // Rationality of irrational / under the edition of V.I. Kolosnitsyna. Ekaterinburg: Publishing house of Ural State University, 1991.
6. Fromm E. Revolution of hope. Disposal of illusions. М.: Airis Press, 2005. 352 p.
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