Application of the projecting method in development of tolerance of teenagers
The method of projects as a form of corrective-developmental work aimed at the development of adolescent tolerance. Experience of the project activity of the Center for work with gifted children "Dar" in the field of the formation of tolerant relations.
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Application of the projecting method in development of tolerance of teenagers
Problems of extremism, international difference, acts of terrorism are inherently unique and have no analogs. The matter is that a couple of decades ago these problems simply didn't exist, but today they concern all spheres of our society: policy, economy, culture, education, science and even art. Who could think not so long ago that the city which went through 900 days of blockade would be covered with drawings of fascist swastikas, that in the center of one of the largest cities of the world they can impunity blow up two skyscrapers, having taken away lives of thousands innocent people; was it possible to imagine that they would attempt on the most sacred - maternity hospitals? And, nevertheless, today it is a part of our life. To a great regret, we have got used to this reality: we say that they have killed a black student again; they have blown up a market again. On all these acts they find the power answer which often is necessary, but not the only one. Though extremism has often political character, first of all, it concerns a category of psychological problems; it is a reaction on clash of opinions, faiths, traditions. It is closely connected with ethnic and confessional consciousness, with relation to culture, traditions and heterodoxy. For this reason in scientific works devoted to the analysis of sources of occurrence of extremism and methods of its overcoming, there is a concept of “tolerance”. According to the DEcLARATION of TOLERANcE PRINcIPLES confirmed by the resolution of 5.61 by general conference of UNEScO on November, 16th, 1995, “tolerance is the concept meaning refusal of dogmatism, of truth absolutization, and confirming the norms established in international statements in the human rights sphere”. Thus, tolerance is opposition to ideas of extremism, and development of this personality quality promotes expansion of views and world acceptance in all its variety. For this reason as an adequate form of contraction to extremism there should be prophylaxis of such phenomena in the rising generation environment, namely - tolerance development as steady personal characteristic.
Rostov-on-Don is often named as the caucasus gates. But it is necessary to notice that except geographical sense this concept also carries other meaning. More often they speak about Rostov as the caucasus gates when they want to underline riches of ethno-confessional structure of the city. Being the capital of the South federal district, Rostov-on-Don is in close political, geographical, historical and cultural contact with Adigea, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kalmykia, the Kabardino-Balkarsk, the Karachai-cherkess and the chechen republics. In conditions of wide circulation of such phenomenon as internal migration it involves formation of polyethnic, multicultural space of Rostov-on-Don.
In this connection special value gets creation of favorable psychological climate in education institutions where representatives of various nationalities and faiths study. School environment inherently is often represented by the child as a threatening one (and in psychology the environment which doesn't contain threats is used to be understood as safe environment): these are conflicts, both with contemporaries, and teachers, excessive intellectual charges and accompanying stress provoking conditions. If to add to these conditions such factor as polyethnicity, than the above named threats will only intensify: at childhood and teen-age identification more often occurs after external signs and the fact of belonging to other nationality can become the main for tearing away of a contemporary from a group. As a consequence, there takes place disadaptation of the rejected teenager's personality and generated attitudes of intolerant behavior of both parties.
Today's teenagers are children who have grown up in conditions of sharp international conflicts, perceiving the region as an arena of constant opposition. They have got used to steady opposition “own - stranger”, and in their consciousness it is generated a clear enemy image provided with certain ethnic and confessional features. For this reason we can speak about the civil society construction in the context of the city and region and the whole country, only having destroyed these dangerous stereotypes.
But how can we impart love and acceptance of the near to the rising generation? how can we explain to the teenager that it is impossible to divide people on black and white, bad and good? Teenage nonconformism, desire to contradict all in reply, can cause only return reaction on an explanation of such truths. Focusing attention on that it is necessary to be tolerant in relation to other unlike you people, it is possible to achieve that earlier not noticed distinctions will be carefully isolated. This is a specificity of this age and it is necessary to consider it: programs directed on development of tolerant attitudes of the teenager's personality should be carefully verified. For the teenager they should leave a notable choice and exclude any regulation.
As such program the projects directed on development of tolerance of teenagers are realized since 2007 in municipal educational space by the center on work with gifted children, the “gift”, of the Palace of creativity of children and youth of Rostovon-Don.
The method of projects has been selected as the basic in realization of programs of this direction not casually. Firstly, project technologies allow to include various forms and work methods, uniting various directions for aims achievement. It gives certain freedom in realization of a program and allows to build an activity more flexibly taking into account features and requirements of a target group. Thus, for example, at a significant amount of nonresident participants, the part of modules can be realized in a remote mode, and the part is to be spent in real time conditions. Secondly, audience of the project can be much wider than the group working under the concrete program. And, thirdly, the method of projects always assumes clear structure with the designated purpose and expected concrete results that allows to estimate its efficiency and expediency of the further realization.
In 2007-2008 the center on work with gifted children, the “gift”, realized the project “We are from the South by origin”, supported by the Ministry of general and vocational education of the Rostov region. The project included some blocks:
1) Diagnostics of a level of tolerance of senior pupils of educational institutions of Rostov-on-Don;
2) The school of socio-humanitarian projecting “We are from the South by origin” for senior pupils of educational institutions of Rostov-on-Don;
3) Youth scientific-practical conference “We create the new South together!”
Diagnostics of a level of development of tolerance of senior pupils was spent with use of the “Tolerance index” express questionnaire of g.U. Soldatova, O.A. Kravtsova, O.E. hukhlaeva, L.A. Shaygerova and the diagnostics of general communicative tolerance of V.V. Boiko. In the research there have taken part 67 senior pupils (49 girls and 18 young men), at the age from 13 to 17 years, of various educational institutions of Rostov-on-Don. Besides the age and sex in the questionnaire, accompanying techniques, the respondents were asked to specify a nationality. Answering this question 52 persons have written “Russian” that makes 74,3 % from the total number of respondents; 6 participants (8,6 %) have written “Armenians”. There was by a representative from the following nationalities: Nigerian, Arabian, Tabasarian, Tatar. Particular interest is represented by the remained 9 participants of the school of socio-humanitarian projecting “We are from the South by origin”: to some extent, all of them reflect such phenomenon, as blow up, formlessness or bifurcation of ethnic identity. Thus, one of the above stated participants has left empty the column “nationality”, one participant named herself a metis, another has written that she is a metis and has specified, having put a colon, that she is Uzbek and Ukrainian. Also in the questionnaires there were such nationalities as: “Ukrainian/Tatar”, “Russian-Ukrainian”, “Russian, gipsy, Ukrainian”, “25 % of Armenian, 25 % of Ukrainian, 50 % of Russian”. There are also such answers which can testify that a person has an idea about an ethnic belonging, but it is so unclear that he is not in condition even to reproduce the exact name of the nationality. For example, one young man has defined his nationality as “North Ossetia”, and one girl has written that she is Daghestan though it is known that such nationality doesn't exist, and such answer is similar to if the Russian person in the column “nationality” wrote - Russia.
Results of diagnostics on the “Tolerance index” express questionnaire has revealed domination of an average level of tolerance among senior pupils of the city (82,5 % of interrogated) that testifies to a combination of tolerant and intolerant features which are shown depending on a social situation. high level of tolerance which is characterized by expressed tolerant features of the person has been revealed among 25 % of respondents. Low level of tolerance has appeared to be characteristic for 2,5 % of the interrogated senior pupils that allows to speak about a satisfactory level of development of tolerance in the teenage environment.
Results of diagnostics of general communicative tolerance of V.V. Boiko revealed a range of points from 12 to 97 (at the technique's possible range from 0 to 135 points). Thus, it is necessary to notice that 88% from the total number of questionnaires have the point's sum in a range from 20 to 50 points that characterizes the average level of communicative tolerance. There have been revealed 3 questionnaires with lower points that characterizes these respondents as subjects with high communicative tolerance, and 6 questionnaires which points exceed 60. however, it is possible to name only one respondent as a subject of intolerant communication; his questionnaire took 97 points that testifies to low communicative tolerance.
The second block of the project was carrying out of the school of socio-humanitarian projecting “We are from the South by origin” for senior pupils of the city. Within the limits of this module the organizers have prepared both theoretical and practical blocks devoted to problems of tolerance, and also history, culture and psychology of the people living in the South federal district. After lectures all participants of the School have been divided into four problem groups in which social projects have been developed. Each of groups had been offered one of problem spheres: research, cultural, publishing or educational project. The subjects for all social projects were the general - problems of tolerance and interethnic interaction. Besides the group project writing, the participants of the School have received knowledge on bases of social projecting and fundraising, and also have taken part in a psychological training devoted to development of tolerance as personal characteristic. “hour of national culture” became a culmination of this block, within the limits of which to each creative group it was offered to make 15 minutes performance in any format which would present the culture of one of the peoples living in territory of the South federal district.
The third block of the project “We are from the South by origin” was carrying out of the youth scientific-practical conference in which there took part students of universities of the South federal district, senior pupils of educational establishments of Rostov, representatives of youth public organizations and teachers working under youth programs in the development of tolerance sphere. As the primary aims of this conference the organizers saw assistance to development of tolerance and prophylaxis of extremism among the youth of the South of Russia and use of creative potential of the youth in decision of problems of local community and formation of a new image of the South in ideas of inhabitants of the region and the country on the whole. As the result of the conference work “We create the new South together!” there were resolutions carried by participants during discussion. According to the conference “We create the new South together!” participants, one of the most important questions to decision of which it is necessary to pay attention of public, power structures and scientific community, is introduction in educational process of educational programs, psychological trainings and discussion clubs directed on education of youth in a sphere of culture of the peoples, occupying the South federal district.
With a view to realize these decisions in 2010 the center on work with gifted children initiates creation of the “Voluntary service” youth club. clubmen are graduates of various programs and center projects (the basic kernel is formed by graduates of the educational project “The step to psychology”). clubmen realize the social activity in a form of individual projects organized by a principle “the equal to the equal”. One of such initiatives became the project of the pupil of the 11th form of the MEgE SSgE # 60 Anna Popova “We are together”, which was directed on development of tolerance and education of the youth in sphere of cultural variety of the South of Russia. Within the limits of this project the author has developed programs of lessons of tolerance for all steps of secondary education - from the 1st to the 11th form, and also it is planned carrying out of a research directed on revealing of age stereotypes connected with intolerance of personality: when they are formed and how they are shown at various stages of ontogenesis. By this time the lessons for 6th and 9th forms in two educational establishments of the city are already conducted. A particular advantage of this project is that about such difficult phenomena as “tolerance”, “xenophobia”, “extremism” with children and teenagers there speaks their contemporary who is easier to be understood and who is easier to be asked questions.
Academician B.S. gershunsky in the work “Philosophy of education for the XXI century” writes: “Each person is not simply a passive consumer of values which have been developed before him. he is also a generator, a producer of spiritual experience reflecting his individuality. The person is unique, first of all, under that contribution which he can bring into society's mentality. This contribution can be different depending on abilities, education and spiritual qualities of personality, but he is to be well-realized necessarily”. Organizing the project activity of teenagers, the center on work with gifted children, the “gift”, forms tolerant relation to the world and feeling of social responsibility among those in whose hands there will be a future of our city, our country.
adolescent tolerance project
1. gershunsky B.S. Philosophy of education for the XXI century (In search of practice focused concepts). - М., 1998.
2. DEcLARATION of TOLERANcE PRINcIPLES, confirmed by the resolution 5.61 of general conference of UNEScO on November, 16th, 1995.
3. Psychodiagnostics of tolerance of personality / Under the edition of g.U. Soldatova, L.A Shaigerova. - М.: Smisl, 2008.
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