Cognitive prerequisites for implementation of foreign verbal communication
Characteristics of cognitive preconditions for the implementation of verbal communication, the essence of which is the exchange of information, its storage and evaluation. Features of using the basic analytical and simulation abilities of students.
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UDC 81' 23
COGNITIVE PREREQUISITES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF FOREIGN VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Magdalyna V. Lyla
Ph.D. in Psychology, Assistant professor of Foreign Philology
and Teaching Methods Department,
SHEE «Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi State Pedagogical University
named after Hryhoriy Skovoroda»,
30 Suchomlynskyi Str., Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi, Kyiv reg., Ukraine, 08401
The article analyzes the cognitive prerequisites for implementation of verbal communication, the essence of which makes the exchange of information, its storage and evaluation. The success of verbal communication is ensured by the maximum use of students' analytical and imitative abilities, mobilizing of their internal resources; stimulation of speech activity and filling of the absence of a natural environment at all stages of education. Mastering a foreign language requires active participation in interactive communication. It is cognitive activity that is considered relevant for students to understand and use the language, despite their knowledge space and cognitive algorithms conditioned by the properties of the human psyche and the specific situation. Knowledge of cognitive prerequisites and application of cognitive approach to learning a foreign language contributes to the students' linguistic concept, knowledge which is understood as a type of mental representation of the perceived and treated verbal and nonverbal information.
Key words: perception of information, representations, associations, image, understanding, knowledge, knowledge, verbal communication.
КОГНІТИВНІ ПЕРЕДУМОВИ ЗДІЙСНЕННЯ ІНШОМОВНОЇ ВЕБАЛЬНОЇ КОМУНІКАЦІЇ
кандидат психологічних наук, доцент кафедри іноземної філології
і методики навчання,
ДВНЗ «Переяслав-Хмельницький державний педагогічний
Університет імені Григорія Сковороди»,
вул. Сухомлинського 30, м. Переяслав-Хмельницький, 08401, Україна
У статті проаналізовано когнітивні передумови здійснення вербальної комунікації, сутність якої полягає в обміні інформацією, її зберіганні та оцінюванні. Успішність вербальної комунікації забезпечується максимальним використанням аналітичних й імітаційних здібностей студентів, мобілізацією їх внутрішніх ресурсів; стимуляцією мовленнєво-розумової активності студентів, заповненням відсутності природного іншомовного середовища на усіх етапах навчання. Оволодіння іноземною мовою передбачає активну участь в інтерактивному спілкуванні. Саме когнітивна діяльність вважається релевантною для того, щоб студенти розуміли й використовували мову, зважаючи на сформований у них простір знань та пізнавальні алгоритми, які зумовлено властивостями психіки людини та конкретною ситуацією. Знання когнітивних передумов та застосування когнітивного підходу в навчанні іноземної мови сприяє формуванню у студентів лінгвістичного концепту, знання, що розуміють як тип ментальної репрезентації сприйнятої та обробленої вербальної та невербальної інформації.
Ключові слова: сприйняття інформації, уявлення, асоціації, образ, розуміння, пізнання, знання, вербальна комунікація.
verbal cognitive information simulation
КОГНИТИВНЫЕ ПРЕДПОСЫЛКИ ОСУЩЕСТВЛЕНИЯ ИНОЯЗЫЧНОЙ ВЕБАЛЬНОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ
кандидат психологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранной филологии и методики обучения, ГВУЗ «Переяслав-Хмельницкий государственный педагогический университет имени Григория Сковороды»,
ул. Сухомлинского 30, г. Переяслав-Хмельницкий, Украина, 08401
В статье проанализированы когнитивные предпосылки осуществления вербальной коммуникации, суть которой заключается в обмене информацией, ее хранении и оценке. Успешность вербальной коммуникации обеспечивается максимальным использованием аналитических и имитационных способностей студентов, мобилизацией их внутренних ресурсов; стимуляцией речемыслительной активности студентов, заполнением отсутствия природного иноязычной среды на всех этапах обучения. Овладения иностранным языком предполагает активное участие в интерактивном общении. Именно когнитивная деятельность считается релевантной для того, чтобы студенты понимали и использовали язык, несмотря на сложившиеся у них пространство знаний и познавательные алгоритмы, обусловленные свойствами психики человека и конкретной ситуацией. Знание когнитивных предпосылок и применения когнитивного подхода в обучении иностранному языку способствует формированию у студентов лингвистического концепта, знания, которые понимают как тип ментальной репрезентации воспринятой и обработанной вербальной и невербальной информации.
Ключевые слова: восприятие информации, представления, ассоциации, образ, понимание, познание, знание, вербальная коммуникация.
Подано до редакції 25.12.2016 Рецензовано 02.01.2017 Прийнято до друку 04.01.2017
The entry of Ukraine into the world community is inextricably linked to the improvement and reformation of the educational system in line with the international standards. Therefore, there is need for qualitative assessment of existing approaches to learning in general and foreign languages in particular, in terms of the adequacy to the new life realities of the twenty-first century. Among the variety of approaches leading to acquisition of knowledge there is a cognitive approach which implies a conscious learning of foreign language, based on understanding of language units, the ability to make choices and take the necessary word in the process of communication.
The cognitive approach to learning a foreign language is becoming increasingly popular and promising, since its implementation leads to optimization process of mastering it, stimulates intellectual development of student's individuality, activates his potential capabilities, forms a critical thinking, creates, develops and improves linguistic and conceptual world view.
Analysis of previous researches and publications
During a long time the representatives of cognitive psychology conducted different researches in the field of cognitive processes: perception, attention, memory, thinking, imagination. The expediency and need for cognitive approach to learning a foreign language are based on the achievements of cognitive linguistics highlighted in the works of national and foreign scientists, including J. Apresyan, N. Arutyunova, A. Vezhbytska, S. Vorkachova, K. Holoborodko Zahnitko A. Zalevska, S. Zontova, V. Karasyk, V. Krasnyh, O. Kubryaka, L. Lysychenko, V. Maslova, L. Matsko, O. Selivanova, I. Sternin, V. Teliia, O. Tyshchenko, G. Ufimtseva and others.
Very important researches focused on the semantics of lexical units in implementation of communication, are represented by American scientists: Dzh. Lakoff, R. Lanhaker, R. Dzhekendoff, Ch. Fillmor, L. Talmi, A. Goldberg, John Taylor, J. Fokonye, Rudzka-Austin, A. Chenki etc. The connection between semantics and psychology is proved in the work «Semantics and cognitive activity» by R. Dzhekendoff (1983). The attention is paid to the fact that in perception of speech a person uses the same mechanisms as in the general perception of information (visual, auditory, etc.). Types of frames and semantics of understanding are reflected in scientific papers of S. Zhabotynska (1999) and Ch. Fillmor (1988). The role of cognitive and communicative approach in the optimization process of teaching a foreign language is shown in studies of N. Marchenko (2011), N. Sura (2003), A. Cherpak (2011) and others.
Numerous scientific and methodical explorations, which offer various technologies for foreign language teaching the pupils and students, confirm the priority use of cognitive approach in learning communication.
Presentation of the basic material
The achievements of modern psychology point to the importance of cognitive approach to learning a foreign language, which involves solving the problems of: a) perception, knowledge and understanding of reality; b) acquisition, processing, structuring, storage, and application of knowledge; c) study and explanation of cognitive processes and mechanisms.
Language is perceived as the linking element between the individual and mentality of the nation to which it belongs. It is a tool by which the information is received, generalized and enriched knowledge. However, it makes for a man not only informative load, but also emotional one. We can guess about spoken in foreign language by intonation or emotional coloring (joy, anger, anxiety, etc.). Emotions thus appear as a motif, internal motivation to knowledge of objects and phenomena. Language has all means for displaying emotions, including phonetics - an intonation (strength and tone of voice, pitch, pauses, etc.) vocabulary - synonyms, antonyms, metaphors, phraseologisms etc.; in grammar - prefixes, suffixes, temporal forms, etc.; syntax - stylistic figures and so on.
Features of feelings, as noted O. Skrypchenko, lie in the fact that man distinguishes homogeneous stimuli of only certain strength, which is determined by the so-called difference threshold. This threshold is measured by the minimal difference between the homogeneous stimuli that a person is able to distinguish. This differentiation is necessary for recognition of sounds in speech stream, and to establish the differences between native and foreign language. Such differentiation is a necessary condition for the development of phonemic hearing. .
Lighting and video hardware provides visual information which in the process of training can perform various functions, such as: a) to serve as a means of support for understanding speech; b) to be a link between semantic and sound side of a words and thus facilitate memorization; c) to project on the screen different situations for learning speaking; d) to serve as feedback in the form of keys.
Perception is not a simple sum of sensations; it is a complex mental process in which together with feelings is involved the previous experience in the form of knowledge and ideas. Acquiring knowledge through the senses and perception of speech leads to formation of various images that arise in the mind. Imagination emphasizes, generalizes, and identifies the values of a particular image. The imagination merges image and value. The formation of a mental image in perception is a set of identification, understanding and comprehension, as well as allocation of an object to a particular category.
Analytical review of scientific literature gives reason to believe that image is a subjective specific phenomenon. In psychological researches numerous scientists use the term «verbal image», which plays a significant role in semantic sense of the word, and cannot be identified with visuality, because verbal image is always significant, the structure of which is determined by the essential for its value relations. Not every perceived by a person word is treated in the brain for visual representation. Reproducing imagination paints for us images, signified in the language by nouns. However, it has many words that represent not only images, but different relationship between them. Reproducing imagination is a process of spontaneous transformation of the perceived speech into visual representations with spatial organization of images, thereby providing understanding of speech.
Method of exemplifying association is a universal method of memorization that helps to convert conveniently each word into visual image or association. It is used as a part of other ways to remember other languages words and terms. In discussing the proposed topics or events, it is advisable to encourage students to engage into conversation, which aims at putting them in a situation under discussion, and interesting the issues, i.e. the formation of motivation to verbal communication. Here can be proposed some common tasks, such as:
What associations connected with the event appear in your mind... ? What is your attitude towards ...? What is your opinion about the phenomenon or event?
The process of perception occurs in relation with other mental processes of the individual, including thinking (the object of perception is recognized), language (named by a word), feelings (turns relation to it), will (by conscious effort is organized a perceptive activity). As a result of perception we have a complete image of the object.
At all levels of speech perception, the recipient tends to ascribe a meaning to verbal structures which he perceives. It has been already found that familiar words are seen as the integral elements, even if the familiar word contains an error, it often goes unnoticed. In the perception of sentences, a person pays attention to situations recorded in them, and they affect the storing of information.
The emergence of meaning is a product of «internal ideas» which is mediated by speech acts as well as practical actions, and in the process of communication a man learns the culture of a word, and cultural meanings are included into the internal «image of the world» in general and semantic structure of words in particular. Highlighting of certain aspects in the content depends on the individual qualities of the intelligence, which is a holistic, dynamic system. From the features of intellectual activity depends the structure of subjective meaning in the individual language consciousness, the specificity and methods of verbalization the meaning in speech activity.
Sensory display is a required side of knowledge, as it is the only direct source of all knowledge. This is the initial stage of understanding reality. But the perceptual understanding takes the status of knowledge only in terms of its functioning in organic unity with the activity of thinking, which is capable to bring it out of direct sensuality, generalize and deepen sensitive data about reality. Therefore, a higher level or stage of cognition is a rational one (also known as an abstract thinking). Thinking creates the opportunity to catch the internal connections and the relationship between objects and phenomena. In revealing significant relationships and patterns takes place a transition from sensory perception to abstract thought, which is the fundamental law in formation the concept, which represents a major clot of essential properties of the phenomenon or object «in concept the limit of phenomena is subdued and the essential aspects in their interdependence are revealed» (Rubynshtein, 2000: 329).
O. Rayevskyi, establishing a relationship between the sensory and rational in the sense of a word, concludes that in this generalization may be a variety of combinations like conceptual abstract, concrete imagery, sensual content of thinking and only as a result of disclosure of the identity of this combination will be possible a correct understanding of the semantic content of the word. Because of it, mastery the semantic content of words in the process of language human development requires as the basic prerequisite not only formal logical definition of the conceptual aspects of this content, but also awareness of the part which is a concrete-sensuous in it.
A question concerning the general conditions of knowledge assimilation, practical application of the results of cognition is a part of the problem of understanding. Known in scientific researches settings on the above mentioned problem were linked with the idea of understanding as humanitarian human development of the world, understanding of another cultures, languages, texts, and results of human activity. The problem of understanding usually is analyzed in the researches as the understanding of a language - the basic form of practical mind. Language herewith is seen as a substantive mediator in communication, through which people transfer each other not only universal concept, but also personalized experience in all its diversity (Bystrytskyi, 1985).
Undrstanding of speech is a cognitive operation of reflection and learning the information array of message or text based on perception of statements semantic content, their mental treatment involving implicit plan of the text, memory procedures, that is addressee's own thesaurus and knowledge of the rules of communication inherent to a given culture. Speech understanding actualizes in cooperation with unconscious and conscious, verbalized and what can not be verbalized, and is not a mere reproduction of addressee's plan and content of his message, it is a creative process of verification of the perceived and information stored in the memory of the addressee with taking into account the categorization procedures as well as treating and processing the information that determine the formation of different from generated by the speaker content, albeit within defined meanings (Zasiekina, 2005).
Understanding is characterized by different degrees of depth and quality, including:
Initial, the overall level of understanding evidences about understanding of only the main point of expression, that is about what it is said. The listener can tell what was said, but can not reproduce the content of the utterance.
The second level - level of understanding the semantic content - determined by understanding of the entire statement, presentation of speaker's opinion, its development and reasoning. This level is characterized by not only understanding what it was about, but what was said.
The high level of understanding implies the understanding of not only about and what was said, but the most importantly what for the thought was expressed and what language means were used. Such penetration into semantic content allows the listener to understand the motives that allow speakers to say so. This level of understanding includes also the assessment of linguistic tools that have been used to express the speaker's own thoughts, desires, feelings, etc. (Druzhynyn, 2001).
Understanding of message, can be checked by tasks like: Figure out the problems raised in the dialogues; Comment on the sentence structure in «... » and what effect is achieved?; What words and phrases give atmosphere to the story in descriptions of human appearance, characters, and human relations, etc.
Another problem is speech generation. In particular L. Vyhotskyi believed that the essence of the process of generating speech utterances contained in transition from thought to word. He singled out three planes of verbal thinking: thought, inner speech and word. Defining the nature of the process of generating speech the scientist drew attention to the fact that in live drama of verbal thinking the movement goes from motive, which generates some idea, to thought design, to its mediation in the inner word, then - in values of external words and at the end in words (Vyhotskyi, 2001).
In speech production A. Zalevska identifies a number of intermediates: image results, semantic program and statements which are provided by starting point that controls all positive decisions at various stages of production. The first process is to build the image of the result of action, containing the dominant motivation, formation of the model of situation and taking into account the probable experience. The product of this process - the image of the result - is an incentive for the process of semantic programming (choice of semantic units and rule their combinatorics), resulting in semantic program that promotes the process of its implementation (choice of words, the strategy of transition to the external code, rules of words combinatorics and motor implementation). The product of this phase is an utterance (Zalevskaia, 2007).
Cognitive prerequisite in psychological readiness for mastering foreign languages is a psycho physiological prerequisite of language acquisition. It is necessary to mention that every person has its individual peculiarities in temperament, which are conditioned by the type of nervous system and characterize its natural organization. Typological peculiarities reflects the character of activity and capacity for work, communicativeness and social contact, movable properties or easiness to adapt to the conditions which are changeable.
The cognitive approach to learning a foreign language communication requires awareness and understanding of the language units, formation the ability to explain choices and the use of lexical units in the process of communication. Methodic feasibility of the cognitive approach lies in organization of active speech and thinking students' activity, which is provided by linguistic abilities as the individual specific features of a man, language and encyclopedic knowledge as well as abilities and skills, necessary motivation, communication environment and appropriate situations. It is possible to achieve the goals and objectives based on cognitive approach with a help of special exercises which will promote achieving the required level of automaticity in using foreign language knowledge.
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