Psychological peculiarities of the development of professional competences in future teachers of higher school in the process of professional preparation
The psychological features of development of professional competencies of future teachers are revealed in the process of professional training. The tendency of higher educational institutions and the system of vocational education has been revealed.
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PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCES IN FUTURE TEACHERS OF HIGHER SCHOOL IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION
Svitlana M. Tanana
Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Assistant Professor,
SHEE «Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi State Pedagogical University
named after Hryhoriy Skovoroda»,
30 Suchomlynskyi Str., Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi, Kyiv reg., Ukraine, 08401
The article deals with psychological peculiarities of the development of professional competences in future teachers of higher school in the process of professional preparation; theoretical approaches to definition of the notion «professional competences» are analyzed. The general tendency of higher educational institutions and the system of professional education, directed on creativity and innovation, providing of appropriate learning experiences and participation in various important international researches, which prompt the students to activity in the social life of the country are revealed. The meaning and importance of the competence approach to formation of the competence system in future teachers in the process of professional preparation are revealed. Professional competences and control over the process of their obtaining are considered.
Key words: psychological peculiarities, professional preparation, future teacher, competency-based approach, professional competences.
ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ РАЗВИТИЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫХ КОМПЕТЕНЦИЙ БУДУЩИХ ПЕДАГОГОВ ВЫСШЕЙ ШКОЛЫ В ПРОЦЕССЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ ПОДГОТОВКИ
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент,
ГВУЗ «Переяслав-Хмельницкий государственный педагогический университет имени Григория Сковороды»,
ул. Сухомлинского, 30, г. Переяслав-Хмельницкий,
Киевская обл., Украина, 08401
Статья посвящена раскрытию психологических особенностей развития профессиональных компетенций будущих педагогов высшей школы в процессе профессиональной подготовки; проанализированы теоретические подходы к определению понятия профессиональные компетенции). Рассмотрены основные положения, которые являются основополагающими для большинства исследований, и особенности формирования у будущих педагогов системы компетенций в процессе профессиональной подготовки. Доказано, что современное состояние и тенденции подготовки педагога к профессиональной деятельности заключаются в компетентно ориентированном подходе, ключевые компетентности которого и аспекты их получения соответствуют определению, указанным в международных образовательных документах. Выявлена общая тенденция высших учебных заведений и системы профессионального образования в целом, предпочитающих творчество и инновации, обеспечивающие соответствующие учебные практики, участвуют в различных важных на международном уровне исследованиях, которые побуждают студентов к активности в социальной жизни страны. Акцентировано значение и важность компетентностного подхода в формировании у будущих педагогов системы компетенций в процессе профессиональной подготовки. Рассмотрены профессиональные компетенции, контроль процесса получения которых и является центральным для всех участников педагогического процесса.
Ключевые слова: профессиональная подготовка, будущий педагог, компетентно- ориентированный подход, профессиональные компетенции.
professional competence educational psychological
ПСИХОЛОГІЧНІ ОСОБЛИВОСТІ РОЗВИТКУ ФАХОВИХ КОМПЕТЕНЦІЙ МАЙБУТНІХ ПЕДАГОГІВ ВИЩОЇ ШКОЛИ У ПРОЦЕСІ ПРОФЕСІЙНОЇ ПІДГОТОВКИ
кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент,
ДВНЗ «Переяслав-Хмельницький державний педагогічний університет імені Григорія Сковороди»,
вул. Сухомлинського 30, м. Переяслав-Хмельницький,
Київська обл., Україна, 08401
Статтю присвячено психологічним особливостям розвитку фахових компетенцій майбутніх педагогів вищої школи у процесі професійної підготовки, проаналізовано теоретичні підходи до визначення поняття фахових компетентностей. Виявлено загальну тенденцію вищих навчальних закладів та системи професійної освіти, спрямовану на творчість та інновації, забезпечення навчальної практики, участі в різноманітних важливих на міжнародному рівні дослідженнях, що спонукає студентів до активності в соціальному житті країни. Акцентовано значення та важливість компетентнісного підходу у формуванні в майбутніх учителів системи компетенцій у процесі професійної підготовки. Розглянуто фахові компетентності, контроль процесу набуття яких і є центральним для всіх учасників педагогічного процесу.
Ключові слова: психологічні особливості, професійна підготовка, майбутній педагог, компетентнісно-орієнтований підхід, фахові компетенції.
Подано до редакції 24.11.2016 Прорецензовано 10.12.2016 Прийнято до друку 13.12.2016
The process of globalization and integration of countries into the world and European community contribute to the rapid growth of the role of qualitative education for future development of the society in accordance with intensive reforms. This problem actualizes improvement of the quality of future teachers' preparation, including foreign language teachers, for increasing of their competitiveness which require application of the competence approach. Effective solving of these tasks is possible under conditions of educational content improvement and its procedural-methodical using on the innovation basis. The quality of future teachers' professional preparation depends on the content of modern education, which should include the full orientation on learning by students of the system of competences and constant renewal by improving mechanisms and their implementation in everyday practice.
A number of regulatory and normative documents on higher education defined the responsibility for professional development of teachers, which relies on all participants of this process, that obligate the institutions of higher education and state agencies for monitoring the quality of education as well as application of competence approach by students directly in the process of their preparation to professional activity. The significance and importance of competence approach in the process of future teachers' preparation lies in ensuring of general intellectual development, creation of conditions for realization of personality's rights for qualitative, complete and continuous education and promoting formation of graduates' professional competences.
Analysis of the latest investigations and publications on the problem of a research showed, that there are significant world theoretical and practical achievements in the field of competence approach concerning preparation of future teachers. Many scientists in Ukraine considered the problem of formation the competence of different profiles specialists. In particular, the problem of formation the professional pedagogical competence of teachers was explored by N.M. Borytko, S.O. Demchenko, L.O. Golik, L.D. Zelenska, N.M. Loseva, I.B. Mishchenko, R.K. Serozhnykova A.V. Shyszko and others; psychological-pedagogical competences of teachers investigated L.O. Kalmykova, M.V. Lyla, N.I. Lisova, M.O. Orap and others.
Solving of the problem that touch any competence formation is connected with using of specific technologies in teaching. According to the field of professional preparation in scientific literature are well represented the works on interactive technologies in teaching the future specialists of different directions. The peculiarities of using the interactive technologies in educational process are described in publications of H.D. Voronina, H.D. Kovalchuk and others;
different pedagogical technologies and their influence on formation of professional competence are shown in works by V.P. Bespal'ko, P.M. Volovyk, I.M. Dychkivska, S.O. Sysoeva and others. It should be allocated among national scientists those, who engage in a problem of the competence approach application into professional education, and highlighted this phenomenon close to its understanding: O.I. Lokshyna, O.V. Ovcharuk, O.I. Pavlenko, O.I. Pometun, L.I. Parashchenko, S.A. Rakov, O.Ya. Savchenko. A great amount of researches were carried out through collaboration with the Ministry of education and science of Ukraine and international organizations in creating of a series of publications on educational policy, where were also elucidated the main principles of competency approach (Professional Competences, 2002: 13).
The purpose of the article and tasks of the research lie in consideration of the main positions, which are fundamental for the most researches, and peculiarities of the system of competences formation in future teachers during their professional preparation; clarification of the essence of professional key competencies; revealing of significance and importance of the competence approach to the system of competence formation in future teachers in the process of their professional preparation.
Presentation of the basic material
It should be noted, that during the last decade the developed countries of Europe and the world, including Austria, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, Lithuania and others established the practice of thorough debate which still continues at the international level on how to give a person the proper knowledge, skills and competences for ensuring her harmonious interaction with technological society that rapidly develops. The well known international organizations which currently work in the field of education during the last decades study the problems connected with the appearance of competence oriented education. Among them - UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, Council of Europe, Organization of European Cooperation and Development, International Department of Standards etc.
According to modern teachers the obtaining of vitally important competences allows orientation of personality in contemporary world, information area, in terms of speedy development of the labor market and further development of education. The competency oriented approach to formation of the educational content became a modern conceptual guide for foreign schools and a point of discussions at the international and national levels in different countries, because the awareness of the concept of competence and the result of education is a very important thing.
Today in many countries of the world educational programs were reviewed and amended the changes directing on formation the background for basic results of study which should be based on achieving the required competences by future specialists. For example, in Canada, the most scientists say about the need to select and correctly identify the limit set of competences, which are the most important, integrated and professionally needed (Ruchen, 2003: 18). By implementing this approach, the foreign scientists have pointed on professional (the most important and integrated) competences that contribute to individual success in personality's life; enhance the quality of public institutions; correspond to different spheres of life.
Exactly the concept of «professional competence» is multifaceted as its definition and interpretation makes the matter of debates in a modern scientific world. The International Commission of the Council of Europe in its documents considers the concept of competence as general or key one, basic skills, and fundamental ways of teaching, key qualifications, cross educational abilities or skills, key ideas, support or basic knowledge (The Development of Education in Canada, 2001: 14). The competences include individual's ability to perceive and respond to individual and social needs and complex of attitudes, values, knowledge and skills (Professional Competences, 2002: 14).
Experts of EU countries define the concept of competence as the «ability to apply knowledge and skills» (Eurydice, 2002), which provides an active use of educational achievements in new situations. In last publications of UNESCO the notion of competence is treated as a combination of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, used in everyday life (Professional Competences, 2002: 13). According to definition of the International Department standards for teaching, achievement and education (International Board of Standards for
Training, Performance and Instruction (IBSTPI), the concept of competence is defined as the ability to carry out activities and perform tasks or work efficiently. Today, represented developments are based on certain provisions which are fundamental for many relevant researches conducted by institutions, organizations and professionals working in this direction.
The basic positions are: formation of competences is a result of many different factors interaction; modern life requires from a man a specific set or complex of competences, which are called key ones; selection of the most important general competences, called as keys, should be at a fundamental level, with taken into consideration the current outlook ideas on society and the individual and their interaction; it is necessary also to pay attention to the influence of cultural and other problems of a society or country; on selection and identification of professional competences influence subjective factors connected with personality, age, sex, social status; identification and selection of key competences requires extensive discussion among the various specialists and representatives of various social groups (Professional Competences, 2002: 14).
These conditions provide the selection, identification and further development of key competencies in population and determine indicators of the development. In a framework of Swiss Federal Statistical Department and National Centers for Education Statistics in US and Canada started the program «Definition and Selection of Competences: Theoretical and Conceptual Basis», «DeSeCo» (1997), which organized a group of experts from different fields - education, business, labor, health, representatives of international, national, educational, governmental and non-governmental organizations (Ruchen, 2003: 219).
The program («DeSeCo») made an attempt to systematize the experience of many countries. According to experts of «DeSeCo», the competence is manifested in activities of the individual in different contexts (for example, in social-economic and political environment). But not only school is responsible for acquiring by the individual of necessary competencies; on its formation influence family, work, mass media, religious and cultural organizations and etc.. Experts of the Programme «DeSeCo» define the concept of competency as an ability to meet individual and social needs successfully, and solve the designated tasks. Each competence is based on integration of cognitive relations and practical skills, values, emotions and behavioral components, knowledge and skills of all that can be mobilized for active actions. Monitoring of existing levels of competencies will serve as an important indicator of the educational system effectiveness (Ruchen, 2003: 145). Thus, the concept of key competencies (OECD) is used for determining of such competences, which allow the individual to participate effectively in many social areas and contribute to the quality of society improvement and personal success that can be applied to many areas of life.
Key competences make the basic set of the most general concepts which is necessary to convert into a complex of knowledge, skills, and values related to educational areas and life of students. One of the most important theoretical generalizations in a discussion around the concept of key competences was the definition by OECD on three categories which make a conceptual base. They are: autonomous activity; interactive using of tools; and the ability to function in social heterogeneous groups. This classification defines the criteria on which the main list of the key competences are based (Ruchen, 2003: 47). On intensification of the activity of future teachers as subjects of educational activity in the process of professional preparation is directed the competence approach, in the base of which lies the idea of actionable (active) character of educational content. This approach provides the formation of a system of learning competencies. Content of the last includes the personal attitude to objects and processes that are necessary for productive activity (Rolheiser-Bennett, 1991: 20).
Well-known contemporary philosopher Alvin Toffler, while analyzing the phenomenon of modern societies transformation, to which may be included the implementation of competence approach, says: «The world which is quickly formed from the collision of new values and technologies, new geopolitical relationship, new styles of life and means of connection requires completely new ideas and analogies, classifications and concepts» (Ruchen, 2003: 17). For both educational approaches as a product of socialization processes, training, and general professional preparation to the fulfillment of the whole range of vital functions should appear the responsible individual, able to embody free humanistic oriented choice (Ruchen, 2003: 189).
Its main peculiarity, according to S. Adam, is the transition of accents from the learning process on its results, which are competencies. The last are not isolated units of the curricula, they embody the elements of academic and vocational education, the assessment of prior learning experience and trends for further development (Spector, 2000: 3).
According to the results of content-analysis it was found that competencies - an integrated personal actionable category, which is formed during education as a result of combination of the primary personal experience, knowledge, ways of life, abilities, skills, personal values and the ability of its use in the productive activities concerning the circle of things and processes of activity. We note that responsibility for professional preparation of future teachers must rely on all participants of the educational process. One of the tasks of modern higher school consist in providing interconnection between those social institutions, which like educational establishments direct their efforts at achieving national priority - the development of spiritual culture of the youth (Professional Competences, 2002: 13).
The successful formation in future teachers of the system of competences during the process of professional preparation is provided by conditions, when higher educational establishments and the system of professional education in general prefer creativity and innovation, provide the relevant educational practices, take part in different important on international level researches, that encourage the students to activity in the social life of a country (Rolheiser- Bennett, 1991: 25). The most difficult is the introduction of the elements of search activity in learning foreign languages. In learning foreign languages are not developed enough the problems of selfcontrol, in spite the work on mastering the skills of self-control is appropriate and possible. More and more important become the principle of knowledge usefulness for practical human activity, and hence increasing of instrumental- transformational role of experiential knowledge, that is knowledge, generated by the facts in its pure form (Human Resources Development, 2002: 43).
The problem of formation in future teachers of the system of competencies in the process of professional preparation is important now. The modern state and trends of teacher's preparation to professional activity consists in competency oriented approach, key competencies of which and the aspects of their obtaining correspond to definitions, reflected in the international educational documents.
It was found, that from 1997, under the Swiss Federal Statistical Department and the National Centers for Education Statistics in US and Canada started the program «Definition and Selection of Competences: Theoretical and Conceptual Bases» «DeSeCo», which function and improve today. In addition, was revealed the general trend of higher educational establishments and system of vocational education in a whole, that gives advantage to creativity and innovation, provide relevant training practices, take part in various internationally important researches which encourages students to be active in social life.
Perspective for further scientific researches in this direction we consider in more thorough studying of peculiarities and practical methods for implementation of the competence approach and its components into the process of future teacher's preparation, as well as the system of current control over the results of this approach implementation into higher education of Ukraine.
1. Alastair, I.S. (2002). Human Resources Development. Government of Canada: Canada's Innovative Strategy (Knowledge matters skills and learning for Canadians). 56 p. [in English].
2. Professional Competences. A Developing concept in General Compulsory Education (2002). Eurydice: The Information network on Education in Europe (pp. 1314). [in English].
3. Lowry C., Froese W. (2001). Transitions: Becoming a college teacher. 56 p. [in English].
4. Rolheiser-Bennett, C. (1991). Collegial support in a pre-service program and induction program : Building norms for professional growth. 25 p. [in English].
5. Ruchen Dominique, S. (2003). Professional Competencies for a Successful Life and a Well-Functioning Society. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. Germany. 206 p. [in English].
6. Spector, J. (2000). ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology Syracuse NY. Competencies for Online Teaching : ERIC Digest. Competence, Competences and Certification (pp. 1-3). [in English].
7. Glynn, L.K. (2001). The Development of Education in Canada: Report of Canada. In response to the International survey in Preparation for the 46 session of the International Conference on Education. Geneva. (September, 5-8). The Council of Ministers of Education. 15 p. [in English].
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