Psychology of teaching foreign languages

Psychological content of teaching foreign languages and its relationship with psycholinguistics, psychology and pedagogy. Modern tendency of foreign language education of the study process. Psychological features of speech acts of language learning.

Рубрика Психология
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Язык английский
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Lecture Thesises


1. Psychological features of teaching foreign languages

1.1 Psychological content of teaching foreign languages and its relationship with psycholinguistics, psychology and pedagogy

All scientists who deal with teaching foreign languages emphasize that in teaching foreign languages importance of the teacher's professional language competence, factors of accounting of educational subject's particularities and individual peculiarities of learners, especially motivation in learning foreign languages are equal. The process of teaching foreign languages consists of three equal components:

- the teacher and his professional skills;

- the learner and his aspiration;

- the subject which learner must acquire.

It is natural that in psychological-pedagogical analyses of education we must consider factors-components mentioned above. Thereupon in our opinion important factors and components of educational system are - psychological features of foreign language teachers; psychological features of learners of various age stages; psychological features of foreign language as educational subject; psychological analysis of speech activity as an object of mastering; pupil's educational activity in the process of learning foreign languages and the form of education.

Speaking about the factors which influence on successful learning foreign language it is necessary to note a close connection of psychology of teaching foreign language with psychological and pedagogical disciplines, particularly, with pedagogical psychology. All mentioned factors and components of education are the research subject of pedagogical psychology.

Pedagogical psychology - are the most important branches of psychology. The basis for allocation of this branch of psychology is the psychological aspect of concrete activity of teaching and studying.

Pedagogical psychology is in close relationship with developmental and age psychology, which study `age dynamics of person's mental development, ontogenesis of mental process and psychological quality of developing person'. Ontogenesis refers to the sequence of events involved in the development of an individual organism from its birth to its death. This developmental history often involves a move from simplicity to higher complexity. So all problems of development and age psychology are considered on the basis of accounting person's age features. Pedagogical and age psychology in their researching base on the theories of General Psychology, which opens the general psychological laws, studies mental processes, mental conditions and person's individual-psychological peculiarities.

Pedagogical psychology as independent branch started to form in the end of XIX century collecting experiences and achievements of pedagogical, psychological and psychophysical experiments and researches.

Pedagogical psychology includes - Educational Psychology, Upbringing Psychology and Teacher's Psychology.

In America this field of psychology is mainly called Educational Psychology.

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology is concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified in the US and Canada as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. This distinction is however not made in the UK, where the generic term for practitioners is "educational psychologist".

Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks.[1]

To understand the characteristics of learners in childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age, educational psychology develops and applies theories of human development. Often represented as stages through which people pass as they mature, developmental theories describe changes in mental abilities (cognition), social roles, moral reasoning, and beliefs about the nature of knowledge.

For example, educational psychologists have researched the instructional applicability of Jean Piaget's theory of development, according to which children mature through four stages of cognitive capability. Piaget hypothesized that children are not capable of abstract logical thought until they are older than about 11 years, and therefore younger children need to be taught using concrete objects and examples. Researchers have found that transitions, such as from concrete to abstract logical thought, do not occur at the same time in all domains. A child may be able to think abstractly about mathematics, but remain limited to concrete thought when reasoning about human relationships. Perhaps Piaget's most enduring contribution is his insight that people actively construct their understanding through a self-regulatory process.

Piaget proposed a developmental theory of moral reasoning in which children progress from a naпve understanding of morality based on behavior and outcomes to a more advanced understanding based on intentions. Piaget's views of moral development were elaborated by Kohlberg into a stage theory of moral development. There is evidence that the moral reasoning described in stage theories is not sufficient to account for moral behavior. For example, other factors such as modeling (as described by the social cognitive theory of morality) are required to explain bullying.

Rudolf Steiner's model of child development interrelates physical, emotional, cognitive, and moral development in developmental stages similar to those later described by Piaget.

Developmental theories are sometimes presented not as shifts between qualitatively different stages, but as gradual increments on separate dimensions. Development of epistemological beliefs (beliefs about knowledge) have been described in terms of gradual changes in people's belief in: certainty and permanence of knowledge, fixedness of ability, and credibility of authorities such as teachers and experts. People develop more sophisticated beliefs about knowledge as they gain in education and maturity.

Each person has an individual profile of characteristics, abilities and challenges that result from predisposition, learning and development. These manifest as individual differences in intelligence, creativity, cognitive style, motivation and the capacity to process information, communicate, and relate to others. The most prevalent disabilities found among school age children are attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability, dyslexia, and speech disorder. Less common disabilities include mental retardation, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and blindness.

Although theories of intelligence have been discussed by philosophers since Plato, intelligence testing is an invention of educational psychology, and is coincident with the development of that discipline. Continuing debates about the nature of intelligence revolve on whether intelligence can be characterized by a single factor known as general intelligence, multiple factors (e.g., Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), or whether it can be measured at all. In practice, standardized instruments such as the Stanford-Binet IQ testand the WISC are widely used in economically developed countries to identify children in need of individualized educational treatment. Children classified as gifted are often provided with accelerated or enriched programs. Children with identified deficits may be provided with enhanced education in specific skills such asphonological awareness. In addition to basic abilities, the individual's personality traits are also important, with people higher in conscientiousness and hope attaining superior academic achievements, even after controlling for intelligence and past performance.

1.2 References & Suggested Readings

1 Bloom L. Language Development. - Cambridge (Mass.), 1970. - 564p.

2 Braine M.D.S. The insufficiency of a finite state model for verbal reconstructive memory // Psychonomic Science. - 1965. - V. 2. - p.132-138.

3 Bruner J.S. From communication to language // Cognition. V. 33. 1974-1975.

4 Carroll J.B. The Study of Language. - Cambridge (Mass.), 1953.

5 Carroll J.B. Language and thought. - Englewood Cliffs, 1964.

6 Chomsky N. A Review of Verbal Behavior, by B.F. Skinner // Language. V 35. - 1959. № 1.

7 Clark H.N., Clark E. V. Psychology of Language. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. - New York, 1977. - 165p.

2. Modern tendency of foreign language education and psycholization of the study process

2.1 Learning and cognition

1.Behavioral prespective

2.Cognitive prespective

3. Developmental prespective

4. Social cognitive perspective

Two fundamental assumptions that underlie formal education systems are:

a) students retain knowledge and skills they acquire in school;

b) students can apply them in situations outside the classroom.

But are these assumptions accurate? Research has found that, even when students report not using the knowledge acquired in school, a considerable portion is retained for many years and long term retention is strongly dependent on the initial level of mastery. One study found that university students who took a child development course and attained high grades showed, when tested 10 years later, average retention scores of about 30%, whereas those who obtained moderate or lower grades showed average retention scores of about 20%. There is much less consensus on the crucial question of how much knowledge acquired in school transfers to tasks encountered outside formal educational settings, and how such transfer occurs. Some psychologists claim that research evidence for this type of far transfer is scarce, while others claim there is abundant evidence of far transfer in specific domains. Several perspectives have been established within which the theories of learning used in educational psychology are formed and contested. These include behaviorism, cognitivism, social cognitive theory, and constructivism. This section summarizes how educational psychology has researched and applied theories within each of these perspectives.

1.Behavioral prespective

Applied behavior analysis, a set of techniques based on the behavioral principles of operant conditioning, is effective in a range of educational settings. For example, teachers can alter student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow classroom rules with praise, stars. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of awards in changing behavior, their use in education has been criticized by proponents of self-determination theory, who claim that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. There is evidence that tangible rewards decrease intrinsic motivation in specific situations, such as when the student already has a high level of intrinsic motivation to perform the goal behavior. But the results showing detrimental effects are counterbalanced by evidence that, in other situations, such as when rewards are given for attaining a gradually increasing standard of performance, rewards enhance intrinsic motivation. Many effective therapies have been based on the principles of applied behavior analysis, including pivotal response therapy which is used to treat autism spectrum disorders.

2.Cognitive prespective

Among current educational psychologists, the cognitive perspective is more widely held than the behavioral perspective, perhaps because it admits causally related mental constructs such as traits, beliefs, memories, motivations and emotions. Cognitive theories claim that memory structures determine how information is perceived, processed, stored, retrieved and forgotten. Among the memory structures theorized by cognitive psychologists are separate but linked visual and verbal systems described by Allan Paivio's dual coding theory. Educational psychologists have used dual coding theory and cognitive load theory to explain how people learn from multimedia presentations.

The spaced learning effect, a cognitive phenomenon strongly supported by psychological research, has broad applicability within education. For example, students have been found to perform better on a test of knowledge about a text passage when a second reading of the passage is delayed rather than immediate (see figure). Educational psychology research has confirmed the applicability to education of other findings from cognitive psychology, such as the benefits of using mnemonics for immediate and delayed retention of information.[25]

Problem solving, regarded by many cognitive psychologists as fundamental to learning, is an important research topic in educational psychology. A student is thought to interpret a problem by assigning it to a schema retrieved from long term memory. When the problem is assigned to the wrong schema, the student's attention is subsequently directed away from features of the problem that are inconsistent with the assigned schema. The critical step of finding a mapping between the problem and a pre-existing schema is often cited as supporting the centrality of analogical thinking to problem solving.

3.Developmental prespective

Developmental psychology, and especially the psychology of cognitive development, opens a special perspective for educational psychology. This is so because education and the psychology of cognitive development converge on a number of crucial assumptions. First, the psychology of cognitive development defines human cognitive competence at successive phases of development. Education aims to help students acquire knowledge and develop skills which are compatible with their understanding and problem-solving capabilities at different ages. Thus, knowing the students' level on a developmental sequence provides information on the kind and level of knowledge they can assimilate, which, in turn, can be used as a frame for organizing the subject matter to be taught at different school grades. This is the reason why Piaget's theory of cognitive development was so influential for education, especially mathematics and science education. In the same direction, the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development suggest that in addition to the concerns above, sequencing of concepts and skills in teaching must take account of the processing and working memory capacities that characterize successive age levels.

Second, the psychology of cognitive development involves understanding how cognitive change takes place and recognizing the factors and processes which enable cognitive competence to develop. Education also capitalizes on cognitive change, because the construction of knowledge presupposes effective teaching methods that would move the student from a lower to a higher level of understanding. Mechanisms such as reflection on actual or mental actions vis-а-vis alternative solutions to problems, tagging new concepts or solutions to symbols that help one recall and mentally manipulate them are just a few examples of how mechanisms of cognitive development may be used to facilitate learning.

Finally, the psychology of cognitive development is concerned with individual differences in the organization of cognitive processes and abilities, in their rate of change, and in their mechanisms of change. The principles underlying intra- and inter-individual differences could be educationally useful, because knowing how students differ in regard to the various dimensions of cognitive development, such as processing and representational capacity, self-understanding and self-regulation, and the various domains of understanding, such as mathematical, scientific, or verbal abilities, would enable the teacher to cater for the needs of the different students so that no one is left behind.

4.Social cognitive perspective

Social cognitive theory is a highly influential fusion of behavioral, cognitive and social elements that was initially developed by educational psychologist Albert Bandura. In its earlier, neo-behavioral incarnation called social learning theory, Bandura emphasized the process of observational learning in which a learner's behavior changes as a result of observing others' behavior and its consequences. The theory identified several factors that determine whether observing a model will affect behavioral or cognitive change. These factors include the learner's developmental status, the perceived prestige and competence of the model, the consequences received by the model, the relevance of the model's behaviors and consequences to the learner's goals, and the learner's self-efficacy. The concept of self-efficacy, which played an important role in later developments of the theory, refers to the learner's belief in his or her ability to perform the modeled behavior.

Over the last decade, much research activity in educational psychology has focused on developing theories of self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognition. These theories work from the central premise that effective learners are active agents who construct knowledge by setting goals, analysing tasks, planning strategies and monitoring their understanding. Research has indicated that learners who are better at goal setting and self-monitoring tend to have greater intrinsic task interest and self-efficacy; and that teaching learning strategies can increase academic achievement.

2.2 References & Suggested Readings

1 Bloom L. Language Development. - Cambridge (Mass.), 1970. - 564p.

2 Braine M.D.S. The insufficiency of a finite state model for verbal reconstructive memory // Psychonomic Science. - 1965. - V. 2. - p.132-138.

3 Bruner J.S. From communication to language // Cognition. V. 33. 1974-1975.

4 Carroll J.B. The Study of Language. - Cambridge (Mass.), 1953.

5 Carroll J.B. Language and thought. - Englewood Cliffs, 1964.

6 Chomsky N. A Review of Verbal Behavior, by B.F. Skinner // Language. V 35. - 1959. № 1.

7 Clark H.N., Clark E. V. Psychology of Language. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. - New York, 1977. - 165p.

8 Diller, Karl Conrad. The Language Teaching Controversy. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House, 1978. - 239p.

3. Psychological features of speech acts and foreign language learning in stages

Psychology of Education and Upbringing are considered in such sections of age psychology as - psychology of pre-school, junior school, high school, middle school children and psychology of student age. Any of this branches may be differentiated to smaller parts according to the educational subject or discipline.

We pointed out the part in which we are interested - Psychology of Teaching Foreign Languages (PTFL) If we want to compare this two disciplines, Psychology of Teaching Foreign Languages and Pedagogical Psychology, first of all we must delimit two notions the research subject and object.

Pedagogical Psychology and Age Psychology have common research objects - growing, developing and forming person (child, teenager, young man). The research subject of Pedagogical Psychology is psychological laws of education and upbringing. So Pedagogical Psychology studies laws in mastering knowledge and skills and individual peculiarities in these processes.

1.Psychology of Education and Upbringing

As any other branch of scientific knowledge PTFL has not defined at once complexity and versatility of the research subject. At first times the research subject of PTFL were process of memorizing and mastering. Gradually expanding area of study PTFL includes a problem of the psychological analysis of general didactic signs, e.g. consciousness and problem of accounting specificity of foreign language in comparison with native language. At that time the necessity of studying person's motivation sphere was noted.

The research methods used in educational or pedagogical psychology tend to be drawn from psychology and other social sciences. There is also a history of significant methodological innovation by educational psychologists, and psychologists investigating educational problems. Research methods address problems in both research design and data analysis. Research design informs the planning of experiments and observational studies to ensure that their results have internal, external and ecological validity. Data analysis encompasses methods for processing both quantitive (numerical) and qualitative (non-numerical) research data. Although, historically, the use of quantitative methods was often considered an essential mark of scholarship, modern educational psychology research uses both quantitative and qualitative methods.

2. Ontogenesis of speech act

Facility of child's psychological and personal development.

The analysis of possibility of reaching the first educational aim - all-around development of child's personality expects consideration of one of the main conceptions of pedagogical psychology. According to this conception education is considered not only as condition, but also as base, facility of child's psychological and personal development.

This concept was accepted not only by Soviet scientists but also by cognitive psychologist J. Bruner.

L.S. Vygotsky wrote “ .. education and development are always in close relationship. Herewith education overtakes development, stimulates it and at the same time leans on actual development. Consequently education must be oriented not for past, but for future child's development.'

L.S. Vygotsky basing on the close relationship between education and development and formulated important for pedagogy and psychology concept about two levels of child's mental development: level of actual development and level (zone) of nearest development. According to L.S. Vigotskij, child reaches this level of psychological development in cooperation with adults not only by direct imitation his activities, but also by solving problems which are in child's zone of intellectual possibilities. On this basis in pedagogical psychology the principle of `overtaking education' was formulated. This principle defines effective organization of education which is aimed at strengthening, developing intellectual activities of children, formation their abilities in self-development and abilities independently to produce knowledge in collaboration with other children. Characteristics of child's mental development necessarily includes an analysis of the driving forces of this process. These are all sorts of contradictions:

- between child's need's and circumstances;

- between increasing opportunities and old forms of activities;

- between requirements generated by the new activity and opportunities of their satisfaction;

-between new performance requirements and unformed skills.

In other words, driving forces of child's mental development are contradictions between achieved level of knowledge, skills and abilities development and types of person's relationships with environment.

According to L.S. Vygotsky mental development - is a quality of personality changes during which in different dynamics age new entities (новообразования) are formed. Development can proceed slowly and gradually or violently and rapidly.

L.S. Vygotsky also introduced the concept `social situation of development', which defines content, direction of this process and formation of the central line of development associated with new entities.

`Social situation of development' - is a system of relationship between child and environment. Changes in the following system are defined by main law of age dynamics. According to this law `force which move child's development at the defined age leads to the denial and destruction of age's developmental basis….'

L.S. Vygotsky always noted that mental development is a holistic personal development. But in our analysis we will proceed from the understanding that development may be considered as structural notion. So in personal development we can point out following lines of development:

- cognitive sphere (mental development, development of consciousness mechanisms);

- psychological activity structure(formation of goals and motives and development of their relationships);

- personality (directivity of value orientations, self-consciousness, self-appraisal).

In research works of L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, D.B. Elkonin, L.I. Bojovich child's personality development is defined by consistent formation of personal entities. L.I. Bojovich analysis mentioned entities through five periods of child's personality development.(Illustration - 1.1)

Illustration 1.1 - Child's personality development by L.I. Bojovich

psychological language learning education

The age periods considered by L.I. Bojovich match personal life crisis of 1st, 3rd and 7th year and two phases of teenage. General and the most important for pedagogical psychology deduction is that during educational process teacher must take into consideration particularities of personal development. It will help to overcome age crisis of pupil and prevent frustration and nervous breakdowns.

For better understanding of child's personal development in special interest are the early periods under 7 years. It is called personal genesis, i.e. formation and development of personality. One of the leading researchers of this matter V.S. Muhina considers this process as consistent, level, step-by-step formation of child's consciousness' structure.

Evolving as a person child forms as a subject of activity process. It is the 3rd line of child's mental development. During activity development, first of all, child learns how to arbitrarily set the link between motive and purpose, aim. Child learns to plan, organize his activity. On the basis of reflection self-verification and self-regulation skills are worked out.

The analysis of child's mental development shows that all tree mentioned lines are closely interconnected. Only in their correlated realization such complicated progressive process called personal, mental development is possible. At the same time all pointed concepts of pedagogical psychology pays attention on such important thing as developing education with the help of all teaching subjects and also of foreign language.

All of the above shows that PTFL as the branch of pedagogical psychology has its own research subject which bases on common to all pedagogical psychology's methodological and theoretical principles. At the same time, specifics of the foreign language as an educational discipline assumes determination of psychological principles, such as:

- communicability of education, i.e. inclusion communication as a form of relationship in educational process;

- personal significance of communicational subject, i.e. significance of communicational problem and subject for the student;

- satisfaction of a student with communicational situation;

- student's reflexivity;

- positive experience of the student's success of communication;

One more moment which we have to mention when talking about language learning is such comparatively young branch and connecting link between person (psychology) and speech (linguistics) is Psycholinguistics.

References & Suggested Readings

1 Bloom L. Language Development. - Cambridge (Mass.), 1970. - 564p.

2 Braine M.D.S. The insufficiency of a finite state model for verbal reconstructive memory // Psychonomic Science. - 1965. - V. 2. - p.132-138.

3 Bruner J.S. From communication to language // Cognition. V. 33. 1974-1975.

4 Carroll J.B. The Study of Language. - Cambridge (Mass.), 1953.

5 Carroll J.B. Language and thought. - Englewood Cliffs, 1964.

6 Chomsky N. A Review of Verbal Behavior, by B.F. Skinner // Language. V 35. - 1959. № 1.

7 Clark H.N., Clark E. V. Psychology of Language. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. - New York, 1977. - 165p.

8 Diller, Karl Conrad. The Language Teaching Controversy. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House, 1978. - 239p.

4. Psychological features of speech acts and foreign language skills and habits on different age stages of learning

1. Speech act structure and speech function.

2.Speech development

Specificity of foreign language as an educational subject is determined by the fact that it being characterized by the features inherent to the language as sign system, at the same time is denoted by different from native languages peculiarities of possession and acquisition.

In consideration of foreign languages peculiarities we will talk about it through the analysis of particularities of acquisition of foreign language in comparison with native language. Foreign language acquisition differs from native language in following items:

1) according to the direction of language acquisition by L.S. Vigotskij;

2) according to the density of communication;

3) according to the existence of language in subjective-communicative activity;

4) according to the collection of functions realized by language;

5) according to the coincidence of foreign language acquisition with sensitive period of speech development.

Now we are going to consider foreign language acquisition particularities according to the following items in details.

L.S. Vygotsky was the first scientist who characterized different ways or direction of foreign language acquisition and native language acquisition. He defined this way to the native language as “from bottom to top” and to the foreign language inversely “from top to bottom”. “We can say that foreign language acquisition goes by the way opposite to the native language acquisition. A child posses native language unconsciously and without any purpose, but foreign language starting with purpose and setting goals. Because of it we can say that native language acquisition goes by the direction “from bottom to top” and foreign language acquisition “from top to bottom”. The concept about different direction of language acquisition must be first of all taken into account in foreign language teaching in school education.

Foreign language in school can no longer be the same extent as a native, to serve as a means of "appropriation" of social experience, an instrument of cognition of reality. Mastering a foreign language is most often determined by the 'satisfaction of learning and cognitive needs, or needs of understanding expressions of his own thought.''

As noted by L. Sherba, "Observation of the tongue are the observations of thinking ..." and "does this premise, compelling a person to stop the flow of his speech, and, therefore, thinking, to understand the relation these parts and compare them with each other and deepen their understanding of it.". And further assertion that learning a foreign language is a means of "development of dialectical thinking", which correlates with the intrinsic human need analysis form of expression, speaking as a tool for reflection.

Considering the three aspects of linguistic phenomena, L. Sherba pointed out a very important for foreign language teaching position. According to the author, language system and language material are just different aspects of this unique experience in speech activities". In other words, L. Sherba, revealing the heterogeneity of "linguistic phenomena, identified a source that lies at their core - namely, person's speech activity


Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently,

On the other hand, you might have offered a synthesis of standard definitions out of introductory textbooks: "Language is a system of arbitrary conventionalized vocal, written, or gestural symbols that enable members of a given community to communicate intelligibly with one another." Depending on how fussy you were in your response, you might also have included some mention of

a) the creativity of language;

b) the presumed primacy of speech over writing;

c) the universality of language among human beings.

A consolidation of a number of possible definitions of language are presented in Illustration - 1.3

Illustration 1.3 - Various definitions of “language”

These eight statements provide a reasonably concise "twenty-five-word-or-less" definition of language. But the simplicity of the eightfold definition should not be allowed to mask the sophistication of linguistic research underlying each concept. Enormous fields and subfields, year-long university courses, are suggested in each of the eight categories

Learning and teaching

In similar fashion, we can ask questions about constructs like learning and teaching. Consider again some traditional definitions. A search in contemporary dictionaries reveals that learning is "acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction." A more specialized definition might read as follows: "Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice" (Kimble & Garmezy). Similarly, teaching, which is implied in the first definition of learning, may be defined as "showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand." How awkward these definitions are! Isn't it curious that professional lexicographers cannot devise more precise scientific definitions? More than perhaps anything else, such definitions reflect the difficulty of defining complex concepts like learning and teaching.

Illustration 1.4 - Various definitions of “learning”

These concepts can also give way to a number of subfields within the discipline of psychology: acquisition processes, perception, memory (storage) systems, recall, conscious and subconscious learning styles and strategies, theories of forgetting, reinforcement, the role of practice.

Teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning. Your understanding of how the learner learns will determine your philosophy of education, your teaching style, your approach, methods, and classroom techniques.

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