Devices for storing and retrieving information from the computer

A random access memory. Examples of peripheral devices: expansion card, video card, image scanners, tape drives, microphones, speakers, web and digital cameras. Network or shared printers. Print three-dimensional objects. Printing 3D models from STL file.

Рубрика Программирование, компьютеры и кибернетика
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 09.12.2014
Размер файла 51,1 K

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Національний технічний університет України

«Київський політехнічний інститут»

Факультет інформатики та обчислювальної техніки

Кафедра обчислювальної техніки


з дисципліни «Англійська мова професійного спрямування»



студентка групи ІП-22

Опанасенко Є.М.


Козубська І.Г.

Київ 2014


peripheral scanner file

1. Peripherals

2. Printers

3. 3D printing

4. Modeling

5. Printing

6. Procesess

7. The da Vinci 1.0 All-in-One




1. Peripherals

A peripheral is a device that is used to put information into or get information out of the computer.

There are three different types of peripherals:

Input, used to interact with, or send data to the computer (mouse, keyboards, graphic tablet, touchscreen, barcode reader, image scanner, microphone, webcam, game controller)

Output, which provides output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, projectors, scanners etc)

Storage, which stores data processed by the computer (hard drive, flash drive, floppy disks, disk drive etc)

A peripheral device is generally defined as any auxiliary device such as a computer mouse or keyboard, that connects to and works with the computer in some way. Other examples of peripherals are expansion cards, graphics cards, image scanners, tape drives, microphones, loudspeakers, webcams, and digital cameras. RAM - random access memory - straddles the line between peripheral and primary component; it is technically a storage peripheral, but is required for every major function of a modern computer and removing the RAM will effectively disable any modern machine. Many new devices such as digital watches, smartphones and tablet computers have interfaces which allow them to be used as a peripheral by a full computer, though they are not host-dependent as other peripheral devices are. According to the most technical definition, the only pieces of a computer not considered to be peripherals are the central processing unit, power supply, motherboard, and computer case.

Usually, the word peripheral is used to refer to a device external to the computer case, like a scanner, but the devices located inside the computer case are also technically peripherals. Devices that exist outside the computer case are called external peripherals, or auxiliary components. Devices that are inside the case such as internal hard drives or CD-ROM drives are also peripherals in technical terms and are called internal peripherals, but may not be recognized as peripherals by laypeople.

In a system on a chip, peripherals are incorporated into the same integrated circuit as the central processing unit. They are still referred to as "peripherals" despite being permanently attached to their host processor.

2. Printers

Printer is a peripheral which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper or similar physical media. The two most common printer mechanisms are black and white laser printers used for common documents, and color ink jet printers which can produce high-quality photograph-quality output.

The world's first computer printer was a 19th-century mechanically driven apparatus invented by Charles Babbage for his difference engine. This system used a series of metal rods with characters printed on them and stuck a roll of paper against the rods to print the characters. The first commercial printers generally used mechanisms from electric typewriters and teletype machines, which operated in a similar fashion. The demand for higher speed led to the development of new systems specifically for computer use. Among the systems widely used through the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, and dot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced relatively low-quality output. The plotter was used for those requiring high-quality line art like blueprints.

The introduction of the low-cost laser printer in 1984 with the first HP LaserJet, and the addition of PostScript in next year's Apple LaserWriter, set off a revolution in printing known as desktop publishing. Laser printers using PostScript mixed text and graphics, like dot-matrix printers, but at quality levels formerly available only from commercial typesetting systems. By 1990, most simple printing tasks like fliers and brochures were now created on personal computers and then laser printed; expensive offset printing systems were being dumped as scrap. The HP Deskjet of 1988 offered the same advantages as laser printer in terms of flexibility, but produced somewhat lower quality output from much less expensive mechanisms. Inkjet systems rapidly displaced dot matrix and daisy wheel printers from the market. By the 2000s high-quality printers of this sort had fallen under the $100 price point and became commonplace.

Starting around 2010, 3D printing has become an area of intense interest, allowing the creation of physical objects with the same sort of effort as an early laser printer required to produce a brochure. These devices are in their earliest stages of development and have not yet become commonplace.

Personal printers are primarily designed to support individual users, and may be connected to only a single computer. These printers are designed for low-volume, short-turnaround print jobs, requiring minimal setup time to produce a hard copy of a given document. However, they are generally slow devices ranging from 6 to around 25 pages per minute, and the cost per page is relatively high. However, this is offset by the on-demand convenience. Some printers can print documents stored on memory cards or from digital cameras and scanners.

Networked or shared printers are "designed for high-volume, high-speed printing." They are usually shared by many users on a network and can print at speeds of 45 to around 100 ppm. The Xerox 9700 could achieve 120 ppm.

A virtual printer is a piece of computer software whose user interface and API resembles that of a printer driver, but which is not connected with a physical computer printer.

A 3D printer is a device for making a three-dimensional object from a 3D model or other electronic data source through additive processes in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control. It is called a printer by analogy with an inkjet printer which produces a two-dimensional document by a similar process of depositing a layer of ink on paper.

The choice of print technology has a great effect on the cost of the printer and cost of operation, speed, quality and permanence of documents, and noise. Some printer technologies don't work with certain types of physical media, such as carbon paper or transparencies.

A second aspect of printer technology that is often forgotten is resistance to alteration: liquid ink, such as from an inkjet head or fabric ribbon, becomes absorbed by the paper fibers, so documents printed with liquid ink are more difficult to alter than documents printed with toner or solid inks, which do not penetrate below the paper surface.

Cheques can be printed with liquid ink or on special cheque paper with toner anchorage so that alterations may be detected. The machine-readable lower portion of a cheque must be printed using MICR toner or ink. Banks and other clearing houses employ automation equipment that relies on the magnetic flux from these specially printed characters to function properly.

3. 3D printing

3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) refers to any of the various processes for printing a three-dimensional object. Primarily additive processes are used, in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control. These objects can be of almost any shape or geometry, and are produced from a 3D model or other electronic data source. A 3D printer is a type of industrial robot.

Early AM equipment and materials were developed in the 1980s. In 1984, Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corporation, - cite_note-AutoSQ-1-4invented a process known as stereolithography, in which layers are added by curing photopolymers with UV lasers. Hull defined the process as a "system for generating three-dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed." He also developed the STL file format widely accepted by 3D printing software as well as the digital slicing and infill strategies common to many processes today. The term 3D printing originally referred to a process employing standard and custom inkjet print heads. The technology used by most 3D printers to date is fused deposition modeling, a special application of plastic extrusion.

AM processes for metal sintering or melting (such as selective laser sintering, direct metal laser sintering, and selective laser melting) usually went by their own individual names in the 1980s and 1990s. Nearly all metalworking production at the time was by casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining; even though plenty of automation was applied to those technologies, the idea of a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer was associated by most people only with processes that removed metal, such as CNC milling, CNC EDM, and many others. The umbrella term additive manufacturing gained wider currency in the decade of the 2000s as the various additive processes matured and it became clear that soon metal removal would no longer be the sole occupant of the aforementioned paradigm. It was during this decade that the term subtractive manufacturing appeared as a retronym for the large family of machining processes with metal removal as their common theme. By the early 2010s, the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing developed senses in which they were synonymous umbrella terms for all AM technologies. Although this was a departure from their earlier technically narrower senses, it reflects the simple fact that the technologies all share the common theme of sequential-layer material addition/joining throughout a 3D work envelope under automated control. The 2010s were the first decade in which metal parts such as engine brackets and large nuts would be grown in job production rather than obligately being machined from bar stock or plate.

4. Modeling

3D printable models may be created with a computer aided design package or via 3D scanner. The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D scanning is a process of analysing and collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object. Based on this data, three-dimensional models of the scanned object can then be produced.

5. Printing

Before printing a 3D model from an STL file, it must first be processed by a piece of software called a "slicer" which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code file containing instructions tailored to a specific printer. Several open source slicer programs exist, including Skeinforge, KISSlicer, Cura.

The 3D printer follows the G-code instructions to lay down successive layers of liquid, powder, paper or sheet material to build the model from a series of cross sections. These layers, which correspond to the virtual cross sections from the CAD model, are joined or automatically fused to create the final shape. The primary advantage of this technique is its ability to create almost any shape or geometric feature.

Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution in dots per inch (dpi) or micrometres (µm). Typical layer thickness is around 100 µm (250 DPI). X-Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers. The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 µm (510 to 250 DPI) in diameter.

Construction of a model with contemporary methods can take anywhere from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model. Additive systems can typically reduce this time to a few hours, although it varies widely depending on the type of machine used and the size and number of models being produced simultaneously.

6. Procesess

Several different 3D printing processes have been invented since the late 1970s. The printers were originally large, expensive, and highly limited in what they could produce.

A large number of additive processes are now available. The main differences between processes are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used. Some methods melt or soften material to produce the layers, e.g. selective laser melting(SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM), while others cure liquid materials using different sophisticated technologies, e.g. stereolithography (SLA). With laminated object manufacturing (LOM), thin layers are cut to shape and joined together. Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks. The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, cost of the 3D printer, cost of the printed prototype, cost and choice of materials, and color capabilities.

7. The da Vinci 1.0 All-in-One

XYZPrinting is taking the lead when it comes to all-in-one machines. The da Vinci 1.0 AiO was unveiled back in June by the company. Below are the general specifications of the new machine:

Printer Technology: FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication)

Build Size: 20 x 20 x 19cm

Printer Size: 46.8 x 51 x 55.8cm

Dual Scan Engine: 2M Pixel

Scan Volume: 15x15x15cm scanning volume

Display: 2.6” FSTN LCM

Layer Thickness: 0.4/0.3/0.2/0.1mm

The Da Vinci 1.0 3D printer review process revealed that this 3d printer is designed with safety in mind. The printing mechanism is fully enclosed, discouraging human contact with the heated elements, like the extrusion nozzle, during printing. The enclosure also prevents heat transferring outward, and filament fragments getting caught in the exterior features of the printer. But, hey, it's not all about keeping what's supposed to be inside, in; it's also about keeping what doesn't belong, out. Interference with a printer, during the printing process, is unlikely to yield desired results.

Although the printer is fully enclosed, it does give plenty of access through two large doors, one on the top (for an aerial view) and the other in the front (for easy removal of prints). The front panel also features a large window for easy viewing. In order to remind us to keep these doors closed during printing, the Da Vinci 3D printer comes with an integrated alarm system. If the printer's sensors detects that either door is open, an alarm will sound and a warning will appear on the LCD screen notifying you of the issue.

With 3D scanners often as pricey as a new 3D printer, as well as complicated to use, this machine will put new capabilities in the hands of hobbyists and businesses. It will certainly be interesting to see what new applications for this machine emerge over the coming months.

The da Vinci 1.0 AiO uses a proprietary scanning software called XYZScan. This software allows users to scan with the click of a button, preview that scan, edit it, and then print out a copy if they choose. The patent-pending proprietary scanning algorithm used will fill in voids to streamline the printing process. The high resolution scanner works in unison with diagonally placed laser sensors and a turntable, to perform a comprehensive scan within just 5 minutes.


I think that additive manufacturing and 3D printers is a new and modern way of technologies and with developing of it world have a good devices to use in many ways.

3D printing is already having an effect on the way products products are manufactured - the nature of the technology permits new ways of thinking in terms of the social, economic, environmental and security implications of the manufacturing process with universally favourable results.

One of the key factors behind this statement is that 3D printing has the potential to bring production closer to the end user and consumer. The customization value of 3D printing and the ability to produce small production batches on demand is a sure way to engage consumers and reduce or negate inventories and stock piling.

The wider adoption of 3D printing would likely cause reinvention of a number of already invented products, and, of course, an even bigger number of completely new products. Today previously impossible shapes and geometric can be created with a 3D printer, but the journey has really only just begun. 3D printing is believed by many to have very great potential to inject growth into innovation and bring back local manufacturing.

The developed world would benefit perhaps the most from 3D printing, where the growing aged society and shift of age demographics has been a concern related to production and work force. Also the health benefits of the medical use of 3D printing cater for an aging western society.






is a device that is used to put information into or get information out of the computer.

Периферійні пристрої


is an electronic visual display that the user can control through simple or multi-touch gestures by touching the screen with a special stylus/pen and-or one or more fingers.


Barcode reader

s an electronic device for reading printed barcodes.

Сканер штрихкоду

Game controller

is a device used with games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game.

Ігровий контролер

Floppy disks

is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles.


Hard drive

is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

Жорсткий диск(вінчестер)

Flash drive

is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface.



an electronic circuit on one plate of semiconductor material.



is a computer printer for printing vector graphics.



Internal peripherals

Devices that are inside the case such as internal hard drives or CD-ROM drives.

Внутрішні периферійні пристрої

Electric typewriters

Is electromechanical machine for writing in characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type by means of keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to transfer ink or carbon impressions onto the paper.

Електричні друкарські машинки

Teletype machines

is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages from point to point and point to multipoint over various types of communications channels.

Електромеханічна друкуюча машина

Line printers

is an impact printer in which one line of text is printed at a time.

Порядковий принтер

Dot matrix systems

is a 2-dimensional patterned array, used to represent characters, symbols and images

Матричні системи


is a reproduction of a technical drawing, documenting an architecture or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.


Laser printer

is an electrostatic digital printing process. It very rapidly produces high-quality text and graphics by repeatedly passing a laser beam back & forth over an electron-charged to define a differentially-charged image.

Лазерний принтер

Desktop publishing

is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer.

Комп'ютерна верстка

Inkjet systems

is a type of computer printing that creates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.

Струменеві системи

Virtual printer

is a piece of computer software whose user interface and API resemble that of a printer driver, but which is not connected with a physical computer printer.

Віртуальний принтер

Additive Manufacturing

refers to any of the various processes for printing a three-dimensional object.

Технологія адитивного виробництва

Slicer programs

is a free, open source software package for image analysis and scientific visualization.

Візуальні програми


At the same time.


Printed prototype

is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

Друкований прототип


a feature that renders something less acceptable.


Three-dimensional object

is a geometric three-parameter model of the physical universe

Трьохвимірний об'єкт

Two-dimensional document

is the computer-based generation of digital images or text --mostly from two-dimensional models and by techniques specific to them.

Двохвимірний документ

Depositing a layer

is the term used to describe the different levels at which you can place an object or image file.

Осадження шару


Is a process of changing objects or data.


Еxterior features

is an intentional distinguishing characteristic of a software item.

Зовнішні особливості

LCD screen

is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties ofliquid crystals.

Рідкокристалічний дисплей

Layer thickness

Is a thick of a layer which print the 3D models.

Товщина шару


design or provide with a form that presents very little resistance to a flow of air or water, increasing speed and ease of movement.



is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to a digital image.


Liquid ink

is a liquid that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

Рідкі чорнила

An inkjet head

is a type of computer printing that creates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.

Струменева голівка

Fabric ribbon

Is a piece of textile.

Тканинна стрічка

Paper fibers

is a thin material, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

Паперові волокна

Physical media

Are used to transmit information in data communications

Фізичні носії

Carbon paper

was originally paper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or pigmentedcoating, bound with wax.


Solid inks

is a paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

Тверді чорнила


is a document that orders a bank to pay money from an account.


Toner anchorage

is a thin, invisible, chemical coating applied at the mill to the front of paper that will be used to make laser checks.

Тонер кріплення

The magnetic flux

is the amount of magnetic field passing through a surface.

Магнітний потік

Аdditive processes

Processes, in which are used successive layers of material are laid down under computer control.

Додаткові процеси

Industrial robot

is an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes.

Промисловий робот


is an additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology used for producing models, prototypes, patterns, and production parts up one layer at a time by curing a photo-reactive resin with a UV laser or another similar power source.



is a polymer that changes its properties when exposed to light, often in the ultraviolet or visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Cross-sectional pattern

is the formalization of a problem/solution pair, used to make an object-oriented design decision.

Шаблони поперечного перерізу

Digital slicing

is the process of dividing a digital composition into multiple digital assets.

Цифрова нарізка

Infill strategies

is the rededication of land in an urban environment, usually open space, to new construction.

Стратегії заповнення

Fused deposition modeling

a process by which a part is constructed by depositing material layer by layer. Is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used for modeling, prototyping, and production applications.

Моделювання плавленням

Plastic extrusion

is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.

Витіснення пластику

Metal sintering

is an additive manufacturing technique that uses a laser as the power source to sinter powdered material aiming the laser automatically at points in space defined by a 3D model, binding the material together to create a solid structure.

Металеве спікання

Wider currency

in the most specific use of the word refers tomoney in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

Ширша валюта


is a type of neologism that provides a new name for something to differentiate the original from a more recent form or version.


Metal removal

Is an electrochemical process.

Видалення металу

Sequential-layer material addition

is a thin film deposition technique that is based on the sequential use of layer for material addition.

Пошарове заповнення матеріалу

Engine brackets

is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.

Кріплення двигуна


a thin piece cut from a larger object.


G-code instructions

Are used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing for controlling automated machine tools.

Інструкція по G-коду

Printer resolution

the number of individual dots a printer can produce within a unit of distance

Роздільна здатність принтера

Contemporary methods

happening, existing, living, or coming into being during the same period of time.

Сучасні методи

Selective laser melting

is an additive manufacturing process that uses 3D CAD data as a digital information source and energy in the form of a high-power laser beam to create three-dimensional metal parts by fusing fine metallic powders together.

Селективне лазерне плавлення

Direct metal laser sintering

is an additive manufacturing technique that uses a laser as the power source to sinter powdered material aiming the laser automatically at points in space defined by a 3D model.

Пряме металево-лазерне спікання

Selective laser sintering

It is similar to DMLS; the two are instantiations of the same concept but differ in technical details.

Вибіркове лазерне спікання

Laminated object manufacturing

is a rapid prototyping system developed by Helisys Inc.

Пошарове формування об'єктів моделей з листового матеріалу

Dual Scan Engine

is an LCD technology in which a screen is divided into two sections which are simultaneously refreshed giving faster refresh rate than traditional passive matrix screens

Технологія подвійного сканування

Extrusion nozzle

is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.

Випускний отвір

Proprietary scanning software

Is an own technology of company.

Власна програма сканування

Laser sensors

is a device that detects events or changes in quantities and provides a corresponding output, generally as an electrical or optical signal.

Лазерні датчики



2. "3D printing: 3D printing scales up". The Economist. 2013-09-07. Retrieved 2013-10-30.

3. Housholder, R., "Molding Process".

4. Deckard, C., "Method and apparatus for producing parts by selective sintering".

5. Poeter, Damon (2012-08-24). "Could a 'Printable Gun' Change the World?.

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