Pace pacopoo ce

, , , . Ooaee opx pacopo a cxeax.

24.05.2016
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. ,

, , , , .

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cepco opaoa ay Pecy aaxca

ocoo-aaxcac ocyapce exec yepce . .Cepaea

aye opaox exoo epe

aepa popocpoee aoaa exooecx poecco

ypcoa paoa

ca: Oco epo

ea: Pace pacopoo ce

oa:

c. p. 14-C-1

?aeoa E..

poep:

aepoa ..

c-aeoopc 2015

Beee

p c ca ooa. o o poc, opoo c aooca, a c, pc oa-o cca aoa. a c poac p c.

ce -- o epooe ycpoco, yeaee ooc caa. eee ooc xooo caa pocxo a ce peopaoa ep coa a ep xooo caa. opa caa p yce oa coxpac e cyecex cae. pacop cxea

p pao e ee oao: o oee aoo paeo aa a oe e oe o oo a. Eeeo, o oe ooo aa oo oo pee e o ep.

apep, a paee ao pee pee oo o aa, o pe, a oa o opoa ap eoo oa. o aae, ao ee o oo.

ce coyc :

- oeca oep p epeae opaox cao a oe pacco ;

- oecee pao pecppyx ycpoc;

- coa opax yco ocp opa eoeo . . Hapep, oecee pao poooopee yea-oepa, a pao, peyec yce, a a ocyae o coo yoe ca e eocaoy ooc.

o ycaeo epeco ee paa yce ooc, ape oa. Koe epea yce o ooy yaax epecx apaepo, a pao, oo oe e. o py apaepa oe epea yce oe ee e. Oao y cex ycee o opeee oe epea o ooc oe oe e. p oceoaeo coee acao x oe yce epeoac. C ey acaa oe aaeco, eoco pacoaopo.

o aaoy ycaex aco yce ec a yce ocooo oa (YT), yce o (yoo) aco (YH), yce coo aco (YB) cepxcooacoe yce (CB). Ayo-acoa xapaepca YH ee p yaca: oac x aco o f=0 o e aco f; oac cpex aco o o f o coo aco f (ooca poyca 2f) oac cox aco o f e, p o a cox aco oe yce o ape KU opaaec ac coca pacopa, .e. cee oea epea (pc. 1). a pax acoax f f ycee o ape yeaec pa, cooecye ce xoo ooc a x acoax a paa.

o pea pao paa ee eee yce. ex ycex ypo xox xox cao a ( oypooox eeo Um < 0,1 B) ooy ce ee yce p oec ax epeex cao xapaeppyc eo acoc ey oa poe ape. Ec aya caa ea (Um > 0,1 oypooox eeo), o ea acoc ey oa ape apyaec -- yce epexo ee pe pao. Yce accpy ae o cy acao, o aae, o ooce ycaex aco 2f, o xapaepy ycaeoo caa . . K ooe apaepa yce ooc: oe oeoo ec, opeey o coa a ooc, eee cae, accy, aap . .

B cxeoexe ycee a pacopax oo e p ocoe cxe, a ocoe oopx cpoc oee coe cxe. p cooa opx pacopo paa: yce c o epo (0), yce c oe ao (0) yce c o oeopo (0). o epeeoy ape x cxeax c opyco yce coeec, cooeceo, ep, aa oeop pacopa.

1. Oe cbee

1.1 Kpaa acca

poaao, o aao c aoo o o aa oypooo poo. Copo aa coco y co. po coo - pacp, (y cpay coac pacopaop) oaa pa, popaoa, poc. A opa ooa coa aoa coo pcop, - a pc c, ocoo coco oopo pco copo.

pacop coy yce cao coo, poeyoo o aco, eeppoa oea, a ae cxeax peopaoa epee cao.

ao pacpocpao opa, oopy o pacop, c yc pc cao. o o coc po pa, ca ca c pooa ao ocac.

c a pyc paop : ca ca c a ooc ap o aa ooo yc o ao c, o oy y opa a pa. A o y ooc coo co, a oop cya co a. ooy pocc yc coc oy, o c oo oo coo p, oyo o oa a, oy oy o caoo ooo caa. py coa aooo oo oc ypa o ooa p.

cooe ooaee oypooox popo coco eeo: ep -- ya pa, ooaaa cxo aepa popa; popo, peaaex ycpoc pooo pee, coyc y -- epaex popo, -- peex; opo -- ya, ooaaa acc pyy popo ( -- pacop, -- pee yepcae yce o, -- apa, -- pee co o); oex pacopo eco y (pacop) coyec ya (oeo); pe -- pa, yaaa aaee epece coca popa; eep ee -- yxaoe co (o 01 o 99), yaaee a opo oep papao; -- ya, yaaa paooc a ao py popo (oo pec y A, , , . . o aay).

apa -- o ceao cocpypoae o, eoc oopx eec acoc o poeoo ocooo ape./ [2,cp 65-98]

1.2 op pacop

cpc p pacpa a p pc. ca a ac ypa, aa a, ca cpay a p-n pa.

c pc a y a p, y pacp y cpyypy n-p-n. A a ac a cyc aca n a, yac pacp cpyyp p-n-p.

cp p aa a, cy pa a a ay : ypa aca, cya ac a a, a , p p.

cc, c c p a ac p n p . a aa ac, p c: p, aa, p. a pacp aac p, cy cyc a a c apa, - p p. Cac ycpc pacp aa a pcy 1.

1.

Paoa opoo pacopa, oe o oeoo pacopa, ocoaa a epeoce apo oopeeo yx o, oce oopx c epo p (o coa -- a). Cxeaecoe ycpoco pacopa oaao a opo pcye.

epo, o cpeey co, aa ao, epo, oe o e co, aa oeopo epo. C o pe o poooce ep oeop co e pa. o paec, p ooe pacopo, yye epecx apaepo popa o cyeceo paac cee epoa pec. ep co co epoa, oeop epyec cao, o oeceae oee oycoo oeopoo ape. ea poooo opaoo ape epoo epexoa epa, a a oo epox cxeax pacop paoa c pocee ep P-n-epexoo, poe oo, coe epoae epoo co oeceae yy e eocox ocee ao co, o yeae oe epea o oy cxeax c oe ao. poe oo, oa oeopoo P-n-epexoa p ooe eaec cyeceo oe oa epoo epexoa, o oeceae y cop eocox ocee aooo co yyae oe epea.

oe cpoec (acox apaepo) opoo pacopa oy aooo co yo ea oe, a a oo aooo co, o ce, opeeec pe poa (y epeox popax) eocox ocee, o, p ce o a, caec peeoe oeopoe apee, ooy oy aooo co pa cxo payoo opocca./ [https://ru.wikipedia.org]

Pcyo. Ooaee opx pacopo a cxeax

eco "" ooae ao xo, "" ooaae oa c oeopo, a "" - ep. apaee cpe y epa ec oe pao a pacopa (n-p-n p-n-p) yaae apaee oa epoo epexoa.

1.3 epo yce

epo yce -- yce epecx cao, ycex eeax oopoo coyec ee epeco poooc aax,ayye oypooax. epo yce oe peca coo a caocoeoe ycpoco, a o cocae ao-o aapayp -- paopa, aooa, epeoo popa . .

aca yce -- cye yce, coepaa o ecoo ycex eeo, e apy c c pey ocey cye. , , , , , .

aca c o epo -- aoee pacpocpa coco e, ooe yca ca o oy ape oopeeo, cae ay a 180, o ec ec eppy. Oco a c c co a , pa - pacop pcop . opa a coo acaa, oopo a c poa paoo o a oopoo oa coac co po ap a o c. Oca acaa o cooa po.

aca c oe ao -- ycae oo o ape, peec peo, ec aoee cooaco, ay e cae. apapc occ c o o, co oo c o ap p oo c o ooc. Ocooc c c o ao: aa cp p o c c apaa opaa c c oa a o p ocp pacopa. oo, ca c o ao ao aco coc ocpo cooaco c, ocoo p pa paoo aaoa aco pacopa.

Pcyo. Cyecye cxe e pacopo: a) c oe ao; ) c o epo; ) c o oeopo.

aca c o oeopo -- aaec ae oopee, ycae o, oca apee caa pa cxooy. peec aece yepoo yce. a coca oope c eo cooe xooe oe xooe copoe, ay e cae.

Pcyo - Cxea acaa yce c o epo

Pace cxe yce cea ec epao poecco, .e., oce pacea pea cex eeo, oe oea yce, oec eoxooc epepacea apaepo yce c yeo eoxox oppepoo. oa paccaec ooacaa cxea, o pace aaec c oeoo acaa.

Pace epoo acaa, oop ec peape, oo ocyec aaec paoaaec, coy o- aepe xapaepc pacopa. acao peapeoo yce peoeyec aaec pace, a ooo yce eoxoo cooa paoaaec eo.

Pace acaa yce oec, a pao, p aa: oea peex apaepo pao acaa op pacopa, pace o ocooy oy pace o epeeoy oy.

2. cxoe ae, pace

aa 1 -aa ypcooy poey o apay

apaa

Umx, B

E, B

E, B

R, O

R, O

10

5

0.1

12

120

3

Umx, B - ayoe aee ape a xoe yce

E- ayoe aee caa coa

E, B - apee coa ocooo ape e oeopa

R - ypeee copoe coa caa (ypeee copoee eepaopa).

R ,O - copoee e apy yce

FF ,- aao ycaex aco 20 - 20 000;

M = M = 1,18 - oe acox cae;

toop ,oC - paoa eepaypa yce;

2.1 ep aca

Pace yce o ocooy oy (c. poee A,).

KT201B

h21=30-90

I=0,1A

I=7A

U=U=0,6

I= h21 I=0,1*30=3A

I= I*10=0,1**10=A

UR = 0.1* E = 0,1*12=1,2

R = = =0,4*103 O

R===1,31*

R2=

R1=

R< R1, R2

aec pace yceoo acaa:

ep ao a o ae eoxoo pec apee coa caa eo ypeee copoee o xoy epoo acaa, .e. a aee apee copoee ecye a ae epoo pacopa. oo ae ey apaeoo copoe aoo e epeeo cocae xooo oa R o opye

==1,507 O

apaeo copoe R ye oeo xooe copoee o epeeoy oy pacopa, oopoe opeeec o xoo AX, a ooee ppae xooo ape oy, .e.:

apaeoe coeee copoe R R ye pao:

oa ae epee ca a xoe pacopa ye pae

Opee aoe acaoe aecoe aee xooo ape o opye:

aece xoe o:

Imin =0,12 A

Imax =0,6 A

aee paccae copoee apy, oopoe ye aeo pa:

a a copoee oeopo e eoc o epeeoy cay, eoxoo epeca ocpo aecy apyoy py, oopa ye poea o y oa a xoo xapaepce (poee ).

epa oa ocaec, a caecoo pea - oa . opa oa oa ea a opae I c o opye:

I==

Peao apyo aec aao, a ceye poe , ye axoc peeax yx ee aooo oa I1 I2. aao ee xooo ape ae ec ye, cooec c aeco apyoo po, coca U1 U2. oa, aec oe yce acaa opee pae

2.2 opo aca

Pace yce o ocooy oy (c. poee ,).

404

h21=30-80

I=4,1A

I=230A

U=U=0,5

I= h21 I=4,1*30=123A

I= I*10=4,1**10=A

UR = 0.1* E = 0,1*12=1,2

R = = =0,0097*103 O

R===0,42*

R2=

R1=

R< R1, R2

aec pace yceoo acaa:

ep ao a o ae eoxoo pec apee coa caa eo ypeee copoee xoy epoo acaa, .e. a aee apee copoee ecye a ae epoo pacopa. oo ae ey apaeoo copoe aoo e epeeo cocae xooo oa R o opye

==0,035 O

apaeo copoe R ye oeo xooe copoee o epeeoy oy pacopa, oopoe opeeec o xoo AX, a ooee ppae xooo ape oy, .e.:

apaeoe coeee copoe R R ye pao:

oa ae epee ca a xoe pacopa ye pae

Opee aoe acaoe aecoe aee xooo ape o opye:

aece xoe o:

Imin =3,4 A

Imax =4,3 A

aee paccae copoee apy, oopoe ye aeo pa:

a a copoee oeopo e eoc o epeeoy cay, eoxoo epeca ocpo aecy apyoy py, oopa ye poea o y oa a xoo xapaepce (poee ).

epa oa ocaec, a caecoo pea - oa . opa oa oa ea a opae I c o opye:

I==

Peao apyo aec aao, a ceye poe , ye axoc peeax yx ee aooo oa I1 I2. aao ee xooo ape ae ec ye, cooec c aeco apyoo po, coca U1 U2. oa, aec oe yce acaa opee pae

Paccae peaoe ycee:

aee

p oe ao ypcoo pao papaoa yce a pacopax KT315A KT361E, (pacca a acaa cxee yce). oyea paa epeca cxea yce. Co cea paoaaec eo pacea (c. poe A,,B,). Papaoa peapey cxey yce c aa apaepa.

peyae oe ypcooo aa paopac pax pao yce epecx cao ayc pacca aca peapeoo yce, opa cooecy yce ee. ypcoo paoe ocaea aaa yceo peea.

Ccok tepatp

1. eo .A. epoe e pocxeoexa: eoe ocoe yo. eocap: -o ya. -a, 2004.-780 c.

2. eyxo .. oypoooe pop. pacop. ooee opoe: Cpao. - Pe, Pao c, 1995 - 288 c. .

3. yyo A.. epoa cxeoexa - oca eoc AP», 2002.

4. axapo .. Pace epecx ee o opoa paa pxoa: Ye. ocoe. eocap: -o ya.y-a, 2006. 128 c.

5.eo .. epoexa epoa: e (P)/..ee. - .: -o , 2004.- 504 c.

6. Capea .A., yeaA.. epoa pocxeoexa. ac 1. epoe ycpoca opaoo aoa: e /o o.pe. A.A. pacopoco. - .: c. oa, 1989 -431 c.

poe A

Bxoa o-aepa xapaepca pacopa KT201B

poe

xoa o-aepa xapaepca pacopa 201A

poe

xoa o aepa xapaepca pacopa 404

poe

xoa o-aepa xapaepca pacopa 404E

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