The paradigm of multiculturalism is the basic philosophical concept of socio-cultural development of modern society
The definition of the criterion of cultural and political rights of nations and nationalities in the era of globalization. Philosophical analysis and explanation of the concept of multiculturalism as a synthesis of the ideals of communism and liberalism.
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The paradigm of multiculturalism is the basic philosophical concept of socio-cultural development of modern society
Gasimova Narmina Vagif gizi, Senior Lecturer, Department of Social Sciences, Azerbaijan State University of Oil and Industry, PhD student, Department, Social Sciences, Azerbaijan University
The article is devoted to the socio-philosophical analysis of cultural and political problems that arise in modern societies in the context of globalization. The aim of the article is to clarify the paradigms of multiculturalism in terms of actual need for time. It is noted that respect for other cultural identities, not the actualization of radical-ism, terrorism, extremism, religious fundamentalism and racism, which can lead to disruption of the system of ethnic and political relations of multi-ethnic societies in the era of globalization.
The methodological basis of the study is dialectical, logical, comparative philosophical, social, historical and political methods.
The scientific novelty of the article is the definition of the criterion of cultural and political rights of nations and nationalities in the era of globalization in the framework of international norms and rights.
From the philosophical point of view, the concept of “multiculturalism” was analyzed and explained as a synthesis of the ideals of communism and liberalism. It was emphasized that multiculturalism as a humanistic ideology reflects the equality propagated by communism and respect for the individual other cultures and religions that the liberals talk about.
The article emphasizes the cultural analysis of multiculturalism in the work of S.S. Huntington's “Conflict of Civilizations and the Reconstruction of the World Order. ” It emphasizes the fact that culture is essentially a stable, indispensable and conservative social phenomenon, emphasizing the role of culture in social development in this area.
Summing up, in the conclusion of the article, the author emphasizes that the transformation of the paradigm of multiculturalism into the main philosophical and political concept of modern societies in the context of globalization and the organization of political doctrine is an important world- creating aspect for many countries.
Given the positive qualities of this process, multiculturalism has been declared a priority of state policy in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The policy of multiculturalism is a policy aimed at preserving, developing the cultural diversity of people of different nationalities and religions, as well as the integration of national cultures of minorities and states.
Keywords: multiculturalism, democratic society, culture, national relations, ethnic diversity, political doctrine, dialogue of civilizations, tolerance, pluralism.
Стаття присвячена соціально-філософському аналізу культурних і політичних проблем, що виникають в сучасних суспільствах в умовах глобалізації. Мета статті принести ясність парадигм мультикультуралізму з точки зору фактичної потреби в часі. Відзначається, що повага до інших культурних ідентичностей, які не актуалізація радикалізму тероризму, екстремізму, релігійного фундаменталізму і расизму, які можуть привести до порушення системи етнічних і політичних відносин поліетнічних суспільств в епоху глобалізації.
Методологічною основою дослідження є діалектичні, логічні, порівняльно-філософський, соціальний, історичний і політичні методи.
Наукової новизни статті становить визначення критерій культурних і політичних прав націй і народностей в епоху глобалізації в рамках міжнародних норм і прав.
У статті з філософської точки зору поняття «мультикультуралізму» було проаналізовано і пояснено як синтез ідеалів комунізму і лібералізму. Особливо підкреслювалося, що мультикультуралізм як гуманістична ідеологія відображає рівність, пропагується комунізмом, і повагу особистості, інших культур і релігій, про які говорять ліберали.
У статті підкреслюється культурний аналіз мультикультуралізму в роботі С.С. Хантінгтона «Конфлікт цивілізацій і реконструкція світового порядку». Підкреслюється той факт, що культура по суті є стабільним, незамінним і консервативним соціальним явищем, підкреслюючи роль культури в соціальному розвитку в цій галузі.
Підводячи підсумки, в вивідний частини статті, автор підкреслює, що трансформація парадигми мультикультуралізму в основну філософсько-політичну концепцію сучасних суспільств в контексті глобалізації та організацію політичної доктрини є важливим міросозідающего аспектом для багатьох країн.
З огляду на позитивні якості цього процесу, мультикультуралізм був оголошений пріоритетом державної політики в Азербайджанській Республіці. Політика мультикультуралізму - це політика, спрямована на збереження, розвиток культурного розмаїття людей різних національностей і віросповідань, а також інтеграцію національних культур меншин і держав.
Ключові слова: мультикультуралізм, демократичне суспільство, культура, національні відносини, етнічне розмаїття, політична доктрина, діалог цивілізацій, толерантність, плюралізм.
Global problems covering different fields of society make the issue of conflict of civilizations based on differences among cultures, one of the actual problems of modern philosophy. In the philosophical context, the preservation of different cultures of human civilization, the transmission to future generations and the formation of interfaith and intercultural dialogue are essential. In general, the modern man does not just exist in the world together with other objects, he also creates a cultural and social environment around him.
All processes that can occur in the socio-cultural sphere of society is the basic investigation subject of philosophy. The problem of national identity posed as a severe problem in philosophy covers the ethnocultural origin and national identity of each member of the society since the twentieth century. Identity as a philosophical concept is the way of expression of man origin and national values, dignity, and identity of the person. A person's belonging to any culture, its socialization and religious choice according to that environment, the peculiarities acquired by the individual in his personality formation form the stages of the national identification process.
In modern civil society, the issues of multicultural- ism and tolerance are being developed alongside identity. In this regard, the purposeful activities of the Republic of Azerbaijan, which are not excluded from the socio-cultural and democratic processes in the world, are successfully implemented in the form of public policy. Successful state policies to continuously transform multiculturalism and tolerance into a functioning platform in society once again confirm the relevance of the chosen topic.
1. The text of the article and investigating methods of problem
Dialectical, logical, comparative-philosophical, social, historical and political methods are used as the methodological basis of the investigating of the text of the article and the problem of multiculturalism in modern philosophy. Being the research object of philosophy, the problem of multiculturalism is also based on the provisions of such sciences as sociology, culturology, law, and political science. Methods of observation, comparison, analysis and synthesis, abstracting, generalization, classification and analogy are used in the article
2. Review of recent publications on the subject
The concept of multiculturalism and identity has been the subject of research and analysis by many philosophers and politicians as a pressing problem of modern philosophy. The intersection of philosophy and culture is the reason for the emergence of multi- culturalism philosophical theory. In the philosophical perspective, the term multiculturalism is a general expression of cultures that social entities belong to, with a broad understanding of the various values. Currently, the protection of cultures, their transfer to future generations, and the emergence of interfaith and intercultural dialogue are of great importance. In the context of globalization processes in the modern world, mul- ticulturalism, which has become an important aspect of tolerance serves to bring the cultures closer and develop at a high level.
The concept of multiculturalism is a cornerstone of the theory of singularity by being part of a postmodern program that envisages the creation of a multicultural global community. At present, multiculturalism, which coincides with the values of postmodernism, has been evaluated as a philosophy of interaction based on cultural dialogue. What makes multiculturalism closer to the postmodern is that postmodernism, which characterizes mentality, coincides with pluralistic encounters. Multiculturalism is a humanistic outlook aimed at social tolerance in a pluralistic society. In the globalized world, multiculturalism, manifested as a new form of social and cultural behavior, is becoming more and more political.
The scientific and theoretical aspects of multicul- turalism and tolerance in both Western and Eastern philosophies, as well as in Azerbaijan's socio-philosophical thought, contribute to the development of intercultural and civilizational relations and the further development of peace in the world.
Multiculturalism and integration are phenomenon that require new approaches, explanations and understandings, perceptions and refinements, because there is no longer a coherence between their previous and present meaning. Therefore, scholars are looking for the ethical fundamentals and principles of the new multiculturalism policy.
It has great importance to emphasize outstanding foreign philosophers investigating various aspects of multiculturalism and national identity as J. Rolz, K.O. Apel, R. Bernstayn, E. Tiggens, R. Kastel, E. Moren, Ch. Teylor, Y.A. Habermas, V. Malakhov, O. Spengler, S.S. Binhabib, A. Fukuyama, M. Haydegger, M.S. Kaqana, V.A. Tishkov, S.S. Huntington, A.V. Sagadeyev, M.V. Tolstonova.
American sociologist and political scientist S.F.
Huntington first attempted to analyze the national identity in a philosophical aspect in his work “Who Are We?”. The author has analyzed the issue of identity in a philosophical context and has also provided an ethnic comparison of peoples belong to different nationalities in this scientific work. According to the author, national identity is, as a rule, a system of values related to historical, socio-economic development, political affiliation, ethnic culture, and citizenship; and it has a direct impact on the integrity of the society and the sovereignty of the state. Thus, the integrity of society depends on people's perceptions of common territory, common ancestors, common history and common laws. These ideas eventually lead to the creation and consolidation of common and important symbols of society, state and nation. The mere fact is that the influx of migrants and the transnational interests of business people, in terms of the protection of American national values, influence national identity [24, p. 558].
One of the prominent philosophers exploring different aspects of multiculturalism and national identity, R. N. Zhangoja philosophically has examined the Ukrainian scenario in a comparative analysis of multicultural and tolerant worldviews in a European area in his work called “Multiculturalism: proetcontra”. The author argues that, besides the Russians and Tatars in Ukraine, there are Hungarians in the Carpathian region, Romanians and Moldavians in Chernovtsi, and cultural cohesion and confessional pluralism prevail in Ukraine today. As a unitary state, the minorities in Ukraine are insistent on ensuring all rights other than territorial autonomy. The peculiarity of the Ukrainian experience of multiculturalism is that the ethnic and national conflicts in the polyethnic country are being resolved on the background of positivity [8, p. 179].
M.V. Tolstonova distinguished multiculturalism and cultural diversity as the current state of many cultural figures in the history of multiculturalism. According to the researcher, multiculturalism is a condition for updating the horizontal, rhizomatic manifestations that characterize the development of postmodern world culture [18, p. 88].
In his article “Globalization and Dialogue of Cultures,” V.S. Stepin identifies two dimensions of cultural dialogue in addressing global crises in the modern world. The first is a dialogue and mutual understanding of cultures, with the preservation of basic principles that the presence of universal components that serve humanity within cultures contributes to the cultural exchange, at this time. According to the second approach, cultures can change historically, while traditions also obtain new content during this period. The analysis of the tendency to change traditions has focused on their discovery. The gained values should create conditions to cope with global crises. New values should be based on a common outlook shared by all cultures while maintaining mental identity [17, p. 10].
А.I. Yakovlev has explored the issue of multicul- turalism in his work “Eastern countries in the era of globalization: the synthesis of tradition and modernity” from the point of various cultures and systems of values, and has concluded that the synthesis of cultures in the modern world is a pressing problem [25, p. 45].
In her scientific article “European Multicultural- ism - Comparative Politics”, V.A. Veretenskaya has attempted to reveal the essence of multiculturalism by using the comparative method, and to some extent has achieved this [21, p. 149].
In the work “Theory and Practice of Multicultural- ism,” I. L. Babich and O. V Rodionov have analyzed the views of V Kimilka, a political theorist with a liberal approach to multiculturalism. According to authors, V. Kimilka considers that chaos arises in public life when individuals cross the boundaries of society. But asking people to enjoy their individual freedoms does not fully meet the needs. It is the liberal democratic way of looking at diversity within universal human rights and freedoms [3, p. 205].
Turkish researcher Gulten Uchan, in her article «Building National Identity ...» argues that the main issue directly related to multiculturalism is that the wrong way of developing national identity can lead to ethnic terrorism, and she tries to prove her point with scientific facts [22, p. 19].
The issues of multiculturalism, tolerance and identity in the Republic of Azerbaijan, their importance in domestic and foreign policy, state-religious relations, as well as the purposeful activities of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Mr. Ilham Aliyev; the preservation and promotion of our national cultural heritage by Baku International Multiculturalism Center and Heydar Aliyev Foundation have been investigated by modern prominent philosopher and political figure
R. Mehdiyev, in his work “National Idea of Azerbaijan in the Global Transformation” .
I. Mammadzadeh, In the work “The concept of national identity and its main signs”, has investigated tolerance from the aspect of identity. The author concludes that ethnic identity is an essential component of the social identity of a person and is regarded as a psychological category as the perception of people belonging to a particular ethnic group. The more well- thought-out form of ethnic identity is the “national identity”. National identity or national self-identity expresses its sense of belonging to a particular ethnicity or nation as a key element of human identity. Although elements such as nationality and citizenship have a significant impact on the phenomenon of national identity, they are not necessarily identical [11, p.153].
In general, many prominent philosophers have given a socio-psychological assessment of the issue within their scientific explanations by examining the tolerance, cultural diversity, national identity and multicultural relations in the context of philosophy.
3. Presentation of main material
The leading leitmotif of the theory and practice of multiculturalism, which has become one of the main philosophical concepts of the global community, is the mutual understanding, co-operation and equal dialogue of parallel cultures. Approach to the issue from the actual need of time, in turn, requires a syndrome of respect for other cultural identities. Non-actuality of acts of radicalism, terrorism, extremism, religious fundamentalism and racism, which can lead to disturbances in the system of ethno-political relations of polyethnic societies, requires the adoption of comprehensive measures for a secure future in relation to ethnic and political subjects. In general, the main reasons for separatism, hatred, and discrimination in the religious, racial, ethnic and cultural contexts are not only not to accept anyone but also not to respect other cultures.
Multiculturalism is not only a specific element of a modern democratic society but also it is a political program. If we approach the issue from the philosophical aspect, multiculturalism is a humanistic ideology that serves humanity. When multiculturalism is implemented from theory to practice, it becomes politicized and converts into a priority and an integral part of any domestic policy.
In the philosophical aspect, the term multicultural- ism is a generalized expression of cultures that social entities belong to, with a broad understanding of the various values. The history of culture and spirituality is a system of philosophical views. At each stage of historical development, culture and spirituality are changed and renewed, depending on the form of social organization. People from different cultures form a collective society. Collective rights are, in principle, a collection of the rights of individuals. For this reason, collective rights and freedoms must recognize the rights of small cultural groups. Multiculturalism is a form of tolerance that representatives of different ethnic cultures live together through equal rights and a self-affirmative atmosphere within the same country .
According to the American researcher of multiculturalism S. Binhabib, multiculturalism is one of the directions of practical policy, such as political doctrine, and is based on the absorption of different cultures with no relation. Cultures exist within clear boundaries that are not subject to internal transformation. Identity is the belonging of individuals to national or any other ethnic community. In the cultural aspect, conflicts and the violation of human rights, liberal principles, cultural groups and the freedom and equality of all citizens of the country are the results of the “network multiculturalism”. Multiculturalism transcends the autonomy of identity and generally places the responsibility on the culture [6, p. 103].
As we know, there is a liberalist and communist approach to multiculturalism. A prominent representative of the liberal approach to multiculturalism, political scientist Vil Kimlika offers the concept of “Multicultural Citizenship.” In general, modern humanism as a socio-philosophical trend emerged in Western Europe in the middle of the nineteenth century. The organization of this process continued from the 1930s to the 1980s. Professor Chandran Kukathas of the London School of Economics described classical and modern liberal versions of multiculturalism, accordingly, as “weak multiculturalism” and “strong multicultural- ism”. He supports “weak multiculturalism” and considers Kimlika's theory “strong multiculturalism”. The difference between these two approaches is that the role and intervention of the state in weak multiculturalism is low. This concept was expressed in his book “Tolerating the Intolerable” [17, p. 39].
I.L. Babich and O.V. Rodionov, in their work “Theory and Practice of Multiculturalism”, have analyzed the views of the political theorist V. Kimlika who is a representative of the liberal approach to multicul- turalism. From the authors' point of view, according to V. Kimlika, chaos arises in public life when individuals cross the boundaries of society. But asking people to enjoy their individual freedoms does not fully meet their needs. But the liberal democratic way of looking looks at diversity in the context of universal human rights and freedoms [5, p. 205].
Charles Taylor, a prominent representative of multi- culturalism and author of “The Politics of Recognition”, emphasizes the recognition and equitable acceptance of different cultures by “The Politics of Recognition”. In his opinion, the policy of multiculturalism means “respecting the fact that everyone has one identity” by “recognizing what is specific to everyone” [9, p. 46].
Cultural analysis of multiculturalism has been presented in the work of S.S.Huntington “Clash of Civilizations and Reconstruction of World Order”. He emphasizes that culture is essentially a stable, invariable, and conservative social event by recognizing the role of culture in social development, and offers the hypothesis of the “Clash of Civilizations”. From this point of view, the researcher believes that multi- culturalism in the philosophical and cultural context is a theoretical category and, in principle, as opposed to intercultural hierarchy. Multiculturalism is an idea that respects the different cultures, religions, races, and ethnic groups that exist in our environments. The development of multiculturalism and tolerance, in turn, prevents national, ethnic, religious, racial, sexual or other discrimination. This policy creates the most suitable conditions for the avoidance of social explosions. In a multicultural or cultural pluralistic society, above all, there is not a dominant culture, and the concept of “culture” is not associated with the concept of “ethnos”. Concepts such as “own” and “other” culture disappear in such an environment. At the same time, more than ethnic and cultural diversity, the basic idea of lifestyles and cultural pluralism is not the parallel existence of different identical cultures; it is interdependence, interaction, and transformation. By analyzing the philosophical basis of multiculturalism, he has reiterated that identity has been considered as the fundamental category of the hierarchy of existence since the time of the formation of Aristotle's metaphysical philosophical thoughts. Absolute identity, according to Spinosa, is not the cause of universalization, it is universalization”. This problem, along with the problem of philosophy, cultural anthropology, sociology, and social psychology, acts as the main category of social philosophy [20, p. 248].
A prominent researcher of multiculturalism V A. Tishkov in his work “Theory and Practice of Multiculturalism” shows that multiculturalism is a very complex and dynamic conception and it is vital to explore this phenomenon in the form of different models in the modern world. According to the researcher, it is possible to adapt the models to a particular country, but they cannot be applied in any other context, because any model is based on a certain value base that has been established for centuries [4, p. 68].
Multiculturalism is an essential aspect of tolerance by being a necessary tool for dialogue of cultures and civilizations. The ideology of multiculturalism is mainly characteristic for countries with a high level of development and is the main paradigm of modern society. Without learning the essence, characteristics, and history of different cultures, it is impossible to tolerate other cultures and establish a dialogue of cultures and civilizations without respect for their carriers. Ethnic, religious, and politically tolerant behavior concerning other cultures, as one of the fundamental principles of democracy, is the main target that liberal society wants to achieve. In the modern era, where multicultural- ism and tolerance have become one of the attributes of existence, everyone finally realizes that humanism, cultural understanding and humanity are the only way to develop. The history of multiculturalism and tolerance for global societies has not only become a necessity but also approaches various existences from the context of universal values. Well-known Russian sociologist Y. G. Volkov has analyzed national identity relationships in a social context and concludes that if each individual defines his or her identity in any culture, collective identity is formed in the context of the interaction between the state and the individual and society. Individual and collective identity should be developed based on traditions. For example, in Russia, which is the federation state type, is inhabited by various minorities and the national identity of nations has a specific nature in the Russian reality [19, p. 7].
The existence and value of cultural diversity and their political organization should be encouraged by the state in the form of multiculturalist policies. Canada, Switzerland, Australia, and Azerbaijan are considered multicultural countries in this regard. From this point of view, we can conclude that multiculturalism is a political program, not a feature of any society.
If the globalized modern world can create a model of the multicultural state, this policy will play an important role in solving many complex issues. Cultural pluralism and cultural diversity define the philosophical aspects of multiculturalism. The main focus of the multicultural society is to take on national identity, to adopt different cultures based on self-determination.
In societies where multiculturalism manifests itself as cultural policy, with high expected outcomes, such a legitimate view of ethnic and political relations arises:
1. The “dominant culture” that exists in a multicultural society and glorifies a specific image of the titular nation does not insist on its independence.
2. In such and similar societies, the concept of `culture' does not mean `ethnos'.
3. In such societies, individuals are given the freedom to choose the cultural pattern they want.
4. In such and similar societies, the strategy of multiculturalism does not only penetrate interethnic relations, it also seeks to regulate different life styles, ethnic and cultural behaviors and worldviews.
5. In such societies, a nation-state or a titular nation does not prioritize its historical duties and services over the historical services of other peoples and ethnic groups, and national history is considered as the common achievement of all nations that create it [6, p. 14].
Multiculturalism became increasingly popular in Canada and the United States in the 1970s as a demand for sociocultural society. People with modern and positive thinking which is typical for postmodern society realized that civilized attitude to nations and peoples is a prerequisite for ensuring and protecting the sustainable development of humanity, the balance of society. Multiculturalism, embodied in tolerance based on democracy and cultural pluralism, is a political theory that encompasses complex measures for a secure future. Multiculturalism is a real social movement. Multiculturalism is a way of life, ideology. This concept is an important model for solving complex problems. The role of multicultural relations is particularly important in a society or state where ethnic, racial, cultural and religious diversity is involved.
In the context of globalization, developing modern society is emerging as the summit of the unified activity of various cultures. It is known that civilization, the highest form of culture, has been created as a result of the combination of local cultures. In the cultural context, multiculturalism is a compromise option in the process of intercultural dialogue. If we approach the model of the historical development of society from the point of view of the phenomenon of multiculturalism, the cultural consensus is the best practice for the comprehensive development of the modern world and the positive solution of political problems, in the context of globalization. Only through the harmonious existence of multicultural and tolerant ideologies is possible the coexistence of nations, ethnicities, cultural and ethnic groups.
The philosophical theory of multiculturalism and tolerance also serves to promote the cultural rapprochement of different societies. Solidarity and codevelopment of carriers of different cultures within a single space, within the context of concrete cultural pluralism, may be possible thanks to the high humanistic values of that society. Multiculturalism and tolerance, in turn, are philosophical teachings that contradict eco-nationalism, ethnocentrism and cultural imperialism. The philosophical and cultural aspects of multiculturalism and national identity include the activation of the search for developmental vectors of modern society, as well as the identification of national, cultural, and political models that respond to contemporary interactions. This, in turn, in the context of multiculturalism and tolerance in a globalized world, emphasizes the relevance of philosophical discourses of multiculturalism.
Multiculturalism as a humanistic and democratic philosophical theory is also an incarnation of tolerance. Tolerance is the harmony of cultural diversity. This term has moral, ethical, political and legal significance. In the context of statehood, tolerance is also a defense of the principles of lawfulness, administration, and fairness in judicial activity. In countries adopting multiculturalism as a state policy, every member of society should be treated as equal rights and provided with social and economic guarantees. A society where multicultural, tolerant principles are represented is a state-of-the-art model. The strategy of multiculturalism based on the tolerance of ethnic groups in polytechnic states can create a favorable environment for the rebirth of constructive cultural dialogue in the heterogeneous society and the adaptation of the cultural minorities to which they belong.
In civilized societies, multiculturalism as a co-operation of different ethnos in a peaceful environment within the boundaries of any state is conducive to the understanding and tolerance of ethnic groups, rather than the integration of ethnic groups._Multiculturalism is a model of the current integration process that meets democratic values. Multiculturalism is a policy that accepts cultural pluralism and promotes its development. This is due to respect for the rights and freedoms of the people of any country, regardless of their ethnic, racial or religious differences. In a multicultural society, every citizen has an equal right to develop their own culture, language, traditions, ethnic and religious values, open a school in their mother tongue, publish newspapers and magazines. This concept, which leads society from assimilation to integration, is welcomed by both national and religious minorities along with various sections of the population. As a result of the absence and implementation of a comprehensive concept of cultural integration policy, “non-adaptive strategies pose a threat to social and political stability” [10, p. 38].
The concept of multiculturalism demands a deeply philosophical approach to modern and actual issues of society. An analysis of the socio-philosophical aspect of multiculturalism provides the basis for the conclusion that there is no any alternative strategy to the policy implemented in this context that ensures peace, tranquility, cultural, political, and economic development in the world, and the formation of social consciousness within the principles of humanism. The modern world is not only a whole system but also a pluralistic one. The relationship between these groups and the relationship between the subject and the object in the process of identification is an important part of this strategy. In the multicultural society, the state is the main subject of the formation of identification relations. An important accent of the state in a multicultur- alist culture is to ensure that individuals act as subjects of identity, as well as to choose a way of interacting with the world.
S. Komissarenko in his work “Humanitarian Foundations of Cultural Dialogue in the Age of Globalization” has scientifically justified the problems caused by cultural diversity in multicultural societies stemming from the political and economic innovations that globalization brings. According to his scientific considerations, in a society based on mutual understanding and mutual trust, there is created a solid foundation and favorable conditions for innovation, modern projects in scientific, social, religious, medical, cultural and other fields. Under these conditions, the correct orientation of the society increases the desire for peace, political and cultural dialogue, and tolerance, and the basic principles of modern humanism are qualities such as human, its freedom, self-esteem, ideological organization, its relationship between other people or groups, and so on. Outstanding Russian philosophers, N.A. Berdyaev, J.A. Ilyin, S. Bilganov, P. Florensky and others have commented on philosophical thoughts and considerations about the importance of the traditions of humanity in the history of mankind [9, p. 302].
In his article “Comparative Multiculturalism,” Canadian researcher Paul Dumouchell has described the political importance of multiculturalism as a priority of public policy .
As a model of multiculturalism policy, protection of ethnic, racial, religious and cultural diversity in society is one of the most important sources of social development. in this regard, in the first article of the UNESCO “Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity”, “Cultural diversity, the common heritage of mankind” dated On November 2, 2001, states: “Cultural diversity which is the source of exchange, innovation, and creativity is essential to nature. Therefore, cultural diversity is a common heritage of humankind and must be recognized and approved for the welfare of present and future generations” [14, p. 19].
According to the goals and objectives of the international political and cultural organizations, dominant nations within a particular country may fully utilize their cultural rights to indigenous peoples and representatives of ethnic minorities to gain and develop their national and social identity at the state level.
Given the positive qualities of multiculturalism and the fundamental principles of democracy, today multiculturalism in the Republic of Azerbaijan has been declared a priority of state policy. The equal development of multiculturalism and national identity serve to promote our national and moral values in the context of universal values. Multiculturalism is the state policy of the Azerbaijan Republic.
“The policy of multiculturalism is a policy aimed at the preservation, development, and harmonization of the cultural diversity of peoples and sects, the integration of minorities and nations into the national culture” [1, p. 242].
Globalization and modern technologies have added a new quality or seriousness to the problem of tolerance. The culture of tolerance is developed in conjunction with the “call for pluralism”, and the modern development of the society not only increases but also deepens the differentiation of individual interests. It is becoming increasingly difficult to find their common denominator .
Different states have already introduced a new security component into the national security doctrine (economic security, energy security, information security, environmental security, man-made safety. food security, etc.) that affirms and protects their existence. It can be called multicultural security and has a broad moral range. It can be said that Azerbaijan is also turning its multicultural security into a system today, and it is experiencing a critical and important period .
4. Scientific novelty of the article
How national minorities have their own culture and development in polyethnic space; socio-philosophical and political analysis of multiculturalism and national identity, which has become an important indicator of the globalized world; granting to ethnic groups all privileges under international law, taking into account the territorial integrity and national interests of States; the conceptual philosophical aspects of discovering various possible and new experiences have been analyzed.
The scientific novelty of the article “The paradigm of multiculturalism is the basic philosophical concept of socio-cultural development of modern society” is that a philosophical look at the polyethnic evolution of ethnic groups and national minorities in developed countries of the modern world and its multicultural and tolerant traditions; subjective interpretation of all forms of national, racial, ethnic, religious affiliation within international law have been presented. In the article, dangerous consequences of the violation of cultural rights of peoples and national minorities in the context of possible future conflicts in the society, the development of the scientific and philosophical theory of its realization in the context of modern political realities and its forms of social and political thought have been revealed.
According to the objectives of the international political and cultural organizations, dominant nations within a particular country may fully utilize their cultural rights to native peoples and representatives of ethnic minorities to gain and develop their national and social identity at the state level. It is scientifically and philosophically based on the fact that ethnic-national diversity and inter-ethnic relations are the priority directions in multi-vector state policies of polyethnic countries. Regulation of interethnic relations is a guarantee of the future progress of the state by being an essential condition of political stability in society.
Multiculturalism and equal development of national identity promote the development of national and spiritual values in the context of universal values.
cultural right globalization multiculturalism
The article “The paradigm of multiculturalism is the basic philosophical concept of socio-cultural development of modern society” is devoted to the actual problems of modern philosophy. The importance of multiculturalism and cultural dialogue in addressing global crises in the modern world has been indicated in the article.
The issue posed in the article is treated both in the global and the Azerbaijani context. Independence and sovereignty provide the Republic of Azerbaijan with the integration into the world community, and the policy of multiculturalism gives our country the opportunity to build mutually beneficial relations with all countries on equal terms.
In the article, it has been proven by the fact that multiculturalism has great importance in the establishment of peace in the world, in the regulation of ethnic and national relations, the convergence of cultures and civilizations, the dialogue of various confessions by being a priority of state policy. The article reviews the studies of local and foreign authors dealing with this philosophical problem, summarized the findings, and made generalizations, taking into account theoretical practical suggestions and recommendations.
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