Metapysical basis of sports as an optimum existence
The essence of the metaphysical foundations of sports. The concept of sport as the optimum existence. Metaphysics of its development in the history of philosophical thought. The conditions under which the processes of socialization in sport take place.
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Metapysical basis of sports as an optimum existence
The essence of metaphysical foundations of sport, meaning the collection of the most favorable conditions for solving the objectives, based on optimum life and theoretical foundation of the concept of sport as being optimum, its conceptual and categorical apparatus; Posted interpretation of metaphysics in the context of its development history of philosophical thought and analyzed the sport as a cultural phenomenon that is designed to convert natural human body in its cultural and executed physicality; The conditions under which the processes of socialization in sport and through sport; reveals the conditions under which sport takes a phenomenon and lyudynovymirne and conditions that contribute to the violation human dimension.
Key words: metaphysics, metaphysical principles, Sport optimum life and sports life, personal fulfillment, human dimension of sports.
Problem definition and its relationship with important scientific and practical tasks. Today, in the modem world, including in Ukraine, there is a re-evaluation of many social values, their new understanding in the context of new historical experience early XXI century, the underlying contradictions that occur in the context of globalization. When public consciousness under the influence of radical transformation of objective reality is incapable of rationally on the old theoretical basis to explain everything that happens there is a need to develop a new paradigm of intellectual breakthrough in recognizing the relations between human society and nature. Metaphysics (from the Greek. Metaphysic - that after physics) - the science of supersensitive principles and principles of life. At the history of philosophy, the term "metaphysics" is often used as synonym of philosophy. In the history of philosophy, metaphysics often means the actual philosophy. The subject of philosophy of sports as to the chronicle of M.Ibrahimov - teaching about the nature and meaning of sports life in the discourse of sociocultural phenomenon that embodies creation and reproduction in images of physical training standards of human physicality [1, p.54]. Optimum category as being metaphysical foundations of sport - a combination of the most favorable conditions for solving or goal path under certain conditions under which a possible maximum effect is achieved as a possible minimum.
Analysis of recent research and publications in which a solution of the problem to which the author refers. The term "metaphysics" was first introduced by Andronicus of Rhodes (1 c. BC), systematists works of Aristotle, who understood by metaphysics ontology. For Aristotle's metaphysics - is ontology, the study of life itself, that tries to explain the general properties of all existence, as calls metaphysics. The term "metaphysics" Aristotle not used, but the expression "first philosophy" or © Bilohur, Vlada, 2017 "theology" - "science of reality", that is the reality of the first and higher reasons related to substantive issues or knowledge of God. Aristotle built the classification of sciences, in which the first by value and values occupy the science of being as such or about the first principles and causing these things being what he called "first philosophy" or "theology" (doctrine of God). Unlike the "second philosophy" or "Physics", "first philosophy" that in the future he called metaphysics considers being regardless of the particular combination of matter and form. Metaphysics, according to Aristotle, is the most valuable of Sciences, existing not as a means but as the goal of human life and the foundation of pleasure. Etymological meaning in the history of metaphysics significantly changed. In the context of Aristotelian philosophy, metaphysics associated with being mad (Aristotelian Nous); in relation to Platon philosophy metaphysics associated with the world of ideas (Platonic ideas). Metaphysical core of our problem is the issue of the relationship and coordination of human nature (essence) and human existence (existence) metaphysics rooted to life. In the context of philosophical thought by metaphysic A.Shopenhauer understand the mental knowledge that goes beyond possible experience, that is, beyond the phenomenon of nature or objects you going to give a particular explanation as to what this world is predetermined and that the nature of this world; behind the nature and enables it to exist. Any opportunity to create a new world order, the order of things-in-themselves, indicating that it lost its meaning all the laws of this world phenomena. The more successful developing physics, the more there is a need in metaphysics, and the nature of adequately seen some things, so any study needs to explain the general and individual.
In this sense Friedrich Nietzsche initiated wrong doubling of the world, its division into the world of real and counterfeit world supersensitive and vulnerable, as inhibits the metaphysics of human freedom makes people obey the hidden idols in disbelief cultivates eternal values.
Based on the ideas of Kant (including teaching activity in the knowledge of the subject) Fichte and Schelling tried to build a positive model of metaphysics, linking their systems of thinking and being, metaphysics and science, reason and nature, they interpreted the dialectic of reason as the driving force development of knowledge. Considering the truth and the life as a process H.V.F.Hehel who created a system in which the truth emerges as the gradual development of mind and conflict is its essential moment. The source of the metaphysical method he saw in cognitive limitations of the mind as opposed dialectics and metaphysics as two different methods.
With criticism of metaphysics and metaphysical method were positivism and Neo- Kantianism. However, attempts to revive the old method of metaphysics as one of the necessary approaches to reality inherent in a number of other movements - phenomenology, existentialism, the philosophy of science in the context of building communication and interpretation of all things.
Interpretation of metaphysics as a transition from the old concept of "first philosophy" to the concept of general philosophical nature research method, provided F.Bekon whereby metaphysics as physics, analyze natural processes. Reveals the essential laws of nature, called forms. The purpose of metaphysics - in the discovery of patterns in constant apprehension of existing foundations, but causes fluid due comprehension where you can get in-depth knowledge of the essence of nature, body and soul.
Instead Absolutized metaphysical substance as being characteristic forms the subject B.Spinoza introduces the concept of substance as universal as the activity of the world, as the substance of nature ( "God" or nature). Thus B.Spinoza overcome the dualism of God and nature, soul and body, creating the concept causa sui, as the interaction of all things.
Leibniz recognizes active substance inside the source activity can only be spirit, while the body (matter) is a passive principle. As a result of this fit each monad being in an active spiritual principle of the whole world, included as part of the world as a whole. But so monad is a spiritual individual, the nature of spirituality reduced to form individual consciousness - perception (perception), ideas, thinking, according to which the world as a whole can act as a system only if the independent activity of monads brought into harmonious coordination God. But postilky monad is a spiritual principle, its spiritual nature is reduced to such forms of individual consciousness as perception (perception), ideas, thinking and metaphysics revolves rational psychology. Postilky as a spiritual individual monad in itself is closed, then the world as a whole can act as a system, and only autonomous activity of monads come to a harmonious reconciliation of God. Only the French materialism of XVIII century .. consistently ridiculed and the end of metaphysics, and psevdonaukovist its relationship with theology. Once science moved from studying certain things to study their movements, processes of their emergence and development, metaphysics as a method of understanding uncomfortable was forced to go to the back seat and join the dialectic. Destroyed and materialism of the French Enlightenment XVIII century., Metaphysics has experienced a substantial restoration in German philosophy and the philosophy of Immanuel Kant is a system of pure reason in its systematic communication as a necessary completion of the entire culture of the human mind.
M Heidegger, calling his philosophy of "fundamental ontology", sees its main task is to find a concrete decision on the meaning of life, the truth of being, which in the epoch of metaphysics was not delivered. Metaphysics in the interpretation M.Haydehhera represents not only a philosophical concept, but historically certain way people related to nature, to each other, in which reality appears as something objective, in the context of which man as the creator of the material world and the primary subject and unity object split. M.Haydehher at work "What is Metaphysics?" Believes that it should be treated with caution, as the whole tree grows philosophy of metaphysics. It is in metaphysical form is primarily appeal to being to being. It is in our view - this being the sport that has influence on key areas of human, social position, creates fashion, ethical values, way of life.
Bold unsolved aspects of the problem, which the article. Problem situation. Metaphysical dimensions of sport being reduced to that in the context of the interaction of nature and human society increasingly adopted the idea that the essence of human nature is characterized by perpetual aspiration to go beyond himself and his world, while trying to circumvent the laws of nature and history. This characteristic of human nature that is the law of building relations with the outside world, poses the problem of dualism transgressive art: it is positive, as expanding the scope of personal fulfillment and negative, as often destroys created. Therein laid the foundations problematisation of human dimension of sports as the main threat faced by an athlete may arise where the athlete passes the limit at which he entered the world of nelyudynovymirnyy, which face the culture, nature and man. Because sport is regarded as the main social factor, can withstand a cheap culture, stupid and destructive habits. Sport is the "glue" that can "glue" the entire nation that can not nor religion, nor especially diplomats indicating that sport is the only national idea and national acts hobby that unites believers and unbelievers and centrists and radicals hobby that can fill the vacuum in ideology.
The goal of the article - to form the theoretical foundation of the concept of sport as being optimum in the context of metaphysical principles.
This goal is realized by the following problems:
- to interpretation of metaphysics in the context of the history of philosophical thought;
- analyze sport as a cultural phenomenon that continues to act as part of a larger sphere - the sphere of physical culture, which aims to transform the natural human body in its cultural and executed physicality, that transform the morphological characteristics of the body in accordance with the existing cultural ideal;
- determine the conditions under which the processes of socialization in sport and through sport and the conditions that contribute to the violation human dimension.
Discussion of the problem. Therefore characteristic of social realities in the widest sense of the words that appear on rights conditions of any collective action is lyudynovymirnist as the need to determine the extent to which a person has for its natural and artificial (cultural) property that is just a man possessed not only their own but also factors of development that fit the culture. This human dimension metaphysical principle of being is twofold dimension: First, the world is seen as a reality that limited human capabilities; second, the limitations of the individual, it is not limitless opportunities M. Petrov name of "human receptacle." Significant human dimension side of metaphysical principles in the field of sport lies in determining the degree of correlation is extremely pronounced natural data and culturally modified physical properties of the individual capabilities of operational and intelligence, and certainly mental characteristics of individual and their moral qualities (eg, sense of responsibility, sociability, duty - especially when it comes to team sports) correlated the principle of harmony and those that do not violate the integrity of the person. Sport as a specific cultural matrix process continues to act as part of a larger sphere - the sphere of physical culture, which aims to transform the natural human body in its cultural and executed physicality, that transform the morphological characteristics of the body in accordance with the existing cultural ideal. Through sports physical education serves human dimensions. For Physical Education, this feature is one of the components of its core functions and improvement of human physical- ity. For sport she is the main, expressing his nature
© Bilohur, Vlada, 2017 as sports become apparent through those physical and mental capabilities available to the people and created conditions metaphysical being.
Sport as part of the socio-ontological and metaphysical processes that have formed in the depths of ancient culture and preserved their sociocultural framework, based on the principles of universality and activism that underlie the whole diversity of specific meanings of sports activities and asked pathos and value dimensions. According to its main intentions riding a maxim multyontolohichnyh deployment process space is essential powers of man, preserving the natural integrity of the set, trying to create the possibility of expanding human capabilities. The ratio of "I- Other" in sport is a multifaceted, as it includes not just another opponent, but also a partner, judge, spectator stands against the central yet another rival. In relation to the opponent athlete is in a state of competition which within itself is able to fork "positive pole" - competition - (reciprocity itself), and negative - competition (self affirmation by another). Both these points are in a dynamic relationship. Outside this anthropological limits - out of the crisis, inhumane, destruction, since the presence of the competitive environment in the sport allows a person to fit in the modern market society for commercial or pragmatic interests. Modern sport that identify themselves with acts of aggression inherent focus on technocratic ideals machinery which provides for the redraw process and human nature by artificial means, at the same time create a "kvazilyudynu" through the use of modern supertechnology. Here again violated human dimension that accumulates humane orientation sports activities. Modern sport keeps the difference of social and cultural values, with different potential human dimension. On the one hand, sport embodies invariant competition in physical and mental capacities of man, a typical phenomenon of Western culture, which is activist and atonal character, which motivates the athlete striving for maximum results. On the other - a difficult sport practice spiritual and bodily perfection is based on a special type svtohlyadu that binds together the human and spiritual nature.
Metaphysical principles of sport as being optimum promote the formation of such qualities athlete as a whole person, affecting socialization process subject of sporting activities. Mastering social values and norms athlete thus integrated into the social environment, transforming a social individual. Sport represents each person a tremendous opportunity for self-expression, selfimprovement and self-affirmation. With adequate organization of sport can be a serious and effective tool in shaping social activity and a healthy children and young people (P.13-138). Sociological studies related to the relationship of the individual and the sport reduced to two fundamental problems. First is the problem of attracting young people to the sport, the formation of values related to personal health and efforts to improve its sports facilities. Secondly, it is a problem ambivalent impact on the individual sport athlete. The dominance of professional and group standards in the sports field on the pan is made in a particular sport subculture that is characterized by its own system of norms and values, ideology. Generalized social portrait of the characters of this subculture requires mandatory correction contents and forms of education in the field of sports. Transformation tsinnoctey sports in sports subculture often leads to the emergence of counterculture signs. Among the urgent problems of sports include difficulties in implementing its humanistic potential practical implementation of the principles of sportsmanship in sports. Numerous sociological studies show poor orientation of most athletes to comply with moral and ethical principles. An increasing number of parties is faced with a wave of violence, brutality, aggression on the part of not only athletes, but with slaughter on the stadiums during football or hockey matches. Results of studies conducted around the world show that the task of forming harmoniously developed personality often comes into conflict with the installation get results at any cost, by any means, far from humanity and morality, so the optimum being of humanity and morality converted into optimum aggression and violence. In addition, other important issues, far from humanity, is the problem of doping in sport, which translates into drug addiction. The pursuit of medals and records led to the emergence of negative phenomena in sport as aspiration to win at any cost, doping, early socialization, violence, abuse World Anti-Doping Code adopted by the World AntiDoping Agency March 5, 2003 in Copenhagen at the World Conference on doping in sport and the Copenhagen declaration against doping in sport largely combating this negative phenomenon in sport. These documents observed that doping puts at risk the ethical principles and educational values embodied in the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport of UNESCO and the Olympic Charter, said that the Convention against doping and its Additional Protocol adopted within the Council of Europe is instruments of public international law, which is based policies and of intergovernmental cooperation in the fight against doping
In the US, back in the 60's. XX century. Sports became a national fascination after the publication of the book R.Boyla "Sport - mirror of American life," was revealed model of American society. Since the 70-80's. XX century. Sport is a "second religion" in which most Americans believe.
Population economically related to their health, knowing that a personal capital, from which every life depends much: career, personal happiness, bright future, which is the basis for optimum life. It is in the sport most manifest such important values it as equal chances of success, success, aspirations first, and physical education are treated as an integral part of the culture of life personality. People who were "school sports", convinced that sports helped them cultivate faith in their abilities and capabilities and their ability to be used, sport teaches to make sacrifices for the sake of victory. Lessons learned young athletes on the sports field, and then usually help in life. Many athletes assert that this sport has made one man capable of becoming osobystistyu.Cherez dispute mediation implemented the principle of modern life - "rely on yourself", which means that success depends primarily on private, individual qualities - Initiatives , diligence, patience, strong-willed skills [P.140].
According to their nature, sport, despite the inherent competition is humane, postilky it promotes personal development, helping to reveal the unknown possibilities of the human body and spirit. Rationalization humanistic potential of sport does not happen by itself, depending on which view society sports uses or produces conditions for the development of sports not only professional, but also mass; or cultivated implementation metaphysical approach to sport as being optimum; or consider sport as a factor aimed at the formation and development of the individual. It is known that the involvement of the individual in a holistic and balanced sports debugged system serves as an effective means and method of multidimensional educational practice. Real shaped impacts of sport on personality may be different and even diametrically opposed: 1) if its field dominated by relations that are consistent with the principles and norms of human morality, sporting activities may be in considerable measure to contribute to their strengthening and consequently strengthen the moral foundations of personality manifestations, postilky in sport are formed are formed and are strengthened certain personal qualities and traits of behavior, including such as fair attitude to the opponent, the ability to maintain the dignity of the human in e stremalnyh confrontation situations, a kind of nobility and courage; 2) However, if the system is unbalanced relationship, and the more distorted, the competitive and other properties can affect the person is not in the best direction that opens the way to all permissibility and contributes to the strengthening of anti-social behavior.
The analysis shows that the optimum being sports related with preservation of health, physical improvement, enhance physical fitness, sports influence on the intellectual, moral, aesthetic development of man and not reject it. To determine the optimum being associated with the development of metaphysical foundations of sport, should trace the relationship needs, interests and positions. Analysis of the content and quality requirements, rational and emotional reasons for their occurrence should understand why people develop in the context of real or illusory values, why these values are differentiated, create system and hierarchy of values. Therefore, the optimum being the sport itself includes the operation of sports as a social value system: 1) social ideals; 2) subject-embodied value; 3) personal values. In the metaphysical aspect of man should be considered: 1) the manufacturer values; 2) as an evaluation; 3) as a value.
This self-regulation and self-correction of his sporting life - is that the semantic field of culture in which individual acts. Optimum being - this is always the first principle of life that fills the soul; the harmony of the soul with the world, each in need of truth, goodness, beauty, hope and love. The development of the sports life of the modern world depends on a free and creative self person responsible of interplication of becoming the world as a whole noosphere. The basis of the optimum being an athlete should be based on the realization of wisdom, focusing on the formation of creativity, justice, truth, beauty, goodness. Optimum being - a human understanding of the meaning of his life, space and harmonization of relations between man and nature, society, modern sports technology, information environment, between man and man, the realization of man through work, forming a really high sports culture, which is designed for high individuality, for which most importantly - the search for meaning in life, limit values - goodness, beauty, truth, away from destruktsiynoyi consciousness and identity, a truly integrated personality. Sociologists and philosophers believe that if material needs are met sooner or later, the man never presychuyetsya as spiritual sport needs are universal trends of individual existence. Spiritual needs - real levers of society and the people who contribute to the emergence of a new man and a new society and eventually anticrisis new society. Therefore, only through optimum detection will neorechevlene and new civilized society. On the contrary, the lack of optimum - a lead of the soul from the body, lead the soul from the spirit, the soul circuit in serving the needs of its physical shell sports tedious forms and save his life; This inertia of its cultural and historical existence, the loss of their ancestral essence advanced negative factor of authentic freedom, "not something" and freedom "from" - escape from authentic freedom. As M.Ibrahimov notes, "From a philosophical point of view, if we assume physical human physicality is not just a work of nature and culture and self- creative, there is in fact not a problem, since the concept of" sport "means not only as a sport of high achievements, but also mass sports, "sports for all" conditioned sport, sports, etc. applied, that is an approach that would meet our synonymous with the use of the conventional concept of "physical culture". In this perspective, physical education - this means creating a culture of physical physicality and high sports achievements - it is a reference type. It demonstrates the art of transformation of human physicality and implementation of hidden potential and reserve existing physical and mental abilities. In other words, sport in the philosophical sense is transtsendentation from "nothing" to "determinate being" essential powers of man. As a sports person beyond his real life, ekzystentsiyuye because reveals its inherent internal intentions sublimuye sexual-creative energy to compete not only with the "other" and with yourself, soul antropological for himself against death "[1 P.52-53]
Currently, the sport becomes so high importance in society since formed the metaphysical foundations of sport as being optimum, then the possibility to consider it the main type of human activity. It is no accident there is a growing number of people who want to join the highest sports (Olympic, Paralympic).
Prospects for further research
- analysis of ontological, anthropological, axiological dimensions of modern sport and identify its problems related to the destructive phenomena in sports.
metaphysical sport existence socialization
Список використаних джерел
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7. Scott Kretchmar R.Practical philosophy of sport and physical activity. Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics, 2005.
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БІЛОГУР В. Є. - доктор філософських наук, професор, завідувач кафедри теорії і методики фізичного виховання та спортивних дисциплін, Мелітопольський державний педагогічний університет імені Богдана Хмельницького (Мелітополь, Україна) E-mail: email@example.com
МЕТАФІЗИЧНІ ЗАСАДИ СПОРТУ ЯК ОПТИМУМУ БУТТЯ
Розкривається сутність метафізичних засад спорту, що означають сукупність найбільш благоприємних умов для вирішення задач досягнення цілей, в основі яких оптимум буття, та теоретичні підстави концепту спорту як оптимуму буття, його понятійно-категорійний апарат; подано тлумачення метафізики у контексті її розвитку історії філософської думки та проаналізовано спорт як культурне явище, що покликане перетворювати природне тіло людини в його культурно-оформлену тілесність; визначено умови, при яких відбуваються процеси соціалізації в спорті і завдяки спорту; розкрито умови, при яких спорт розгортається як людиновимірне явище та умови, які сприяють порушенню людиновимірності.
Ключові слова: метафізика, метафізичні засади, спорт, оптимум буття, спортивне буття, саморе- алізація людини, людиновимірність спорту.
Билогур В. Е. - доктор философских наук, профессор, заведующая кафедрой теории и методики физического воспитания и спортивных дисциплин, Мелитопольский государственный педагогический университет имени Богдана Хмельницкого ( Мелитополь, Украина) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
МЕТАФИЗИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВАНИЯ СПОРТА КАК ОПТИМУМА БЫТИЯ
Раскрывается сущность метафизических основ спорта, которые означают совокупность наиболее благоприятных условий для решения задач достижения целей, в основе которых лежит оптимум бытия и теоретические основания концепта спорта как оптимума бытия, его понятийно-категорийный аппарат; подано толкование метафизики в контексте ее развития истории философской мысли и проанализирован спорт как культурное явление, призванное превращать естественное тело человека в его культурно-оформленную телесность; определены условия, при которых происходят процессы социализации в спорте и благодаря спорту; раскрыты условия, при которых спорт разворачивается как человекоизмерительное явление и условия, способствующие нарушению человекоизмерения.
Ключевые слова: метафизика, метафизические принципы, спорт, оптимум бытия, спортивное бытие, самореализация человека, человекоизмерение спорта.
Рекомендовано до публікації д-р філос.наук, проф. Пунченко О. П.
Дата надходження 15.04.2017
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Sports - passion, helpful and pleasant vacation, the value of sport for health, the establishment of good relations between people. The development of sport in Russia: stadiums, swimming pools, schools, societies and clubs. Popular sports in my family.
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Historical background, names of national sports, borrowed games. Problems and prospects of American sport. Professional sport. The business of sport. Olympic Games and the names of American heroes. Leisure sports. Sports at colleges. Unusual sports.
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