Use of protective mouth guards for prevention of traumatizing of dentition system for the persons playing sports

Determination of the number of people who play sports and prevent sports injuries with the help of a dentist. Classification of personal protective equipment for the mouth in accordance with the sport and the criteria for choosing their optimal design.

Рубрика Медицина
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 17.04.2018
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Use of protective mouth guards for prevention of traumatizing of dentition system for the persons playing sports

Vitaly Borisov, M.D., Assistant Lecturer of the Department of Exercise Propedeutics of stomatological diseases Professor of surgery of the Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University


Use of protective mouth guards for prevention of traumatizing of dentition system for the persons playing sports.

Vitaly Borisov, M.D., Assistant Lecturer of the Department of Exercise Propedeutics of stomatological diseases Professor of surgery of the Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

In this article is presented a poll of students of dentistry faculty. They were anonymously surveyed. The goal of research consists in finding out the quantity of people, who are doing sports, the quantity of people, who are using protective mouth-guards for preventing teeth injuries and for f an injury of teeth and also to know personal opinion of every person about the mouth guards benefits.

Keywords: Prevention of injuries in sports; custom-fitted mouth protectors; Ethylene-vinyl acetate; biopolymers; multilayer mouthguards; good adhesion; protective mouth guards; type of sports.


Использование защитной зубной шины для предотвращения травмирования зубочелюстной системы у лиц, занимающихся спортом.

Борисов В.В., ассистент кафедры пропедевтики стоматологических заболеваний Первого Московского Государственного Медицинского Университета им. И.М. Сеченова

В данной статье представлены результаты опроса студентов стоматологического факультета. Они были анонимно опрошены. Цель исследования заключается в определении количества людей, которые занимаются спортом, и количества людей, которые с помощью защитных капп для зубов предотвращают травмы, а также узнать личное мнение каждого человека о каппах.

Ключевые слова: Профилактика травматизма в спорте, индивидуальные защитные зубные шины, этиленвинилацетат, биополимеры, многослойные защитные, хорошая адгезия, защитные каппы, тип спорта.

According to public-opinion poll of the All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion (ACSPO), in recent years Russian people became more active in playing sports. Apart from the fact from undoubted advantages for the organism, physical exercises are not seldom accompanied by injuries. About 40% of injuries of maxillofacial area are the injuries that are received during trainings and competitions [1]. The most widespread means of protection of orofacial area are protective mouthguards which allow to prevent any injuries of teeth and a parodont [2].

There are two types of protective mouth guards: unijaw , which basis is situated on the maxilla, covering teeth, part of the alveolar process and palate , with retentional points for the teeth-antagonists of the opposite jaw, and twojaws mouth guards, consisting of the basis covering alveolar processes of maxilla and mandibular. [2,3].

The ways of mouth guards production can be divided on executed to direct and indirect methods. To the direct methods refer standard mouth guards , which are consisted of thermoplastic half-finished products, individually adaptable in oral cavity. To the indirect methods refer production of one-layer or multilayered mouth guards in dental laboratory. The individual protective dental splint is the adaptation for prevention of injury of dentition from elastomeric or thermoplastic plastic with distinctive characteristics and signs in relation to dentures, shapes of jaws and types of occlusion. They are subdivided into two main groups: standard and individual. Every individual protective dental splint will surpass in several times the analogs in the way of standard preparations. In such parameters as: protection level, convenience and comfort in use, service life, possibility of application in combination with orthodontic and orthopedic constructions, not causing hindrances in the speech and breath, and also one of clear advantages of such protective dental splint is the increase of force and endurance of the athlete [1-4].

The individual dental split is well fixed on the top jaw and that allows to increase energy of blow dispersion and high speed of adaptation, besides there is no probability of foreign matter aspiration in respiratory tract.. Individual protective dental splits are helping not only to prevent injuries of teeth, such as chips, destructions or total loss of tooth, but they also provide protection of other organs and tissues. Protective dental splits can considerably reduce probability and heaviness of injuries of the head, neck and oral cavity. Such serious injuries as brain concussion, intracerebral bleeding, loss of consciousness, fractures of a jaw and injuries of the neck prevent from the situations when the lower jaw hits the top jaw [1-5]. Simplicity and convenience of use is connected with the differentiated approach in production of every dental split depending on the type of sport and anatomic features. Every dental split is used individually by and can't be used by another athlete. It is connected not only with hygienic reasons, but also with anatomic features.

Modern biopolymers, such as ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA), allow to create individual protective split according to all requirements and features of athletes and also to consider their wishes. It can be color, emblem or a flag of team and even level of protection [4, 5].

The most important feature of such protective dental splits is the number of layers. The combination of layers from ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) and production of laminate on its basis, allows to distribute energy of blow by 43% and to increase durability of the bend by 22% in comparison with the single-layer protective dental splits of the same thickness [6].

For a choice of optimal construction it is expedient to divide individual protective dental splits according to the level of protection and the type of sport in which dental split will be useful in use.

Light - the protective dental split with thickness 4 mm constists of two plates 2 mm each. It is possible to use such dental splits in bicycle driving and in cross-country racing,

Medium - the protective dental split 6 mm thick consists of two plates 2 mm and 4 mm each. It is possible to use such dental splits in acrobatics, basketball, field hockey, soccer, gymnastics, handball, ice hockey, lacrosse, badminton, hockey on rollers, rugby, shot put, parachute jumping, soccer, surfing, volleyball, water polo, heavy athletics. This type of the protective dental splits it is the most widespread among athletes and possesses good level of protection and not big cost.[6].

Heavy - the protective dental split 6 mm thick consists of two plates 2 mm and 4 mm each. In a combination with more hard strips which are made in the area of tooth neck and in the cutting edge. This combination allows to prevent injury in the most weak places and evenly to distribute loading on all surface of the protective dental split. To transfer her on the upper jaw with partially weakened blow force. It is possible to use such dental splits in boxing, cricket, fighting, skateboarding, cross-country skiing, squash [6].

One more variant of the similar construction is the protective dental split SuperHeavy where the role of hard layer plays the layer of the material 0.8 mm which is based on the copolymer of butadiene and styrene. The layer 0.8 thick mm completely closes front part of the teeth, blocks cutting edge coming to the internal surface. Such dental split allows to distribute loading 23,5% more effectively than Light split. To make this dental split that corresponds to all safety requirements and comfort it is possible using the materials of Dreve Dentamid Gmbh ERKODENT ERICH KOPP GMBH Company. Innovative techniques allow to make multilayered individual protective dental splits of different forms, colours and durability [6].

Despite of widespread use of sportive mouth guards in professional sport, they are extremely seldom recommended on amateur level.

We have made questioning of students of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University aged from 18 to 25 years. As a result of the poll 36% stundents had become injuries of dentition during sports activities. However only 10% of use regularly protective mouth guards. As a possible reason of refusal from using protective mouth guards 54% named discomfort, 18% - troubles with breathing, 18% - problems with diction, 10% - low esthetic problems.

Among the polled people the most popular (50%) are prepared, but individually adapted protective mouth guards. As a decisive factor of choice of protective mouth guards 36% named rate of protection 44% - comfort, 17% - esthetics, 3% - price.

In this way frequency of injuries caused by sport can be reduced with the help of using protective mouth guards. Variety of mouth guards sorts gives an opportunity of individual choice means of protection with the support of maximum comfort in use both for the professional sportsmen and amateurs. For increase of motivation of using gum-shields in amateur sport, it is necessary to inform properly the population, including indentistry lessons. Students-dentists should know recommendations about using gum-shields and be able to make them. The more dentists will know about the benefits of gum-shields, the less there will be a risk of teeth injuries.

sport dentist mouth injury


1. Bobyreva Y.N., Remizova A.A., Kogon B.A., Sevbitov A.V. Choice of optimal protection of dentofacial area in sport // Collected works of scientific-practical conference , devoted to fifth anniversary of SCS(Stundent Scientific Society) of dentistry faculty MMA (Moscow Medical Academy) «Dentistry XXI, relay-race of generations» generally edited by professor Makeeva I.M., professor Sevbitov A.V.,- Moscow, 2009 - Pages 31-33.

2. Kogon B.A., Novikov G.E., Bryzgalov A.S., Sevbitov A.V. Efficiency of individual sportive mouth guards in injuries in orofacial area// Materials of scientific-practical conference of dentists and dentofacial surgeons from central district in Russian Federation , with international participating «Technologies XXI century in dentistry and dentofacial surgery» - Tver, 2008 - Pages 69-70.

3. Sevbitov A.V., Kanukoeva E.Y., Borisov V.V. Prevention Of Injuries Of The Maxillofacial Region In Athletes // DENTAL FORUM, Moscow, - 2014, №1 - P. 43-44.

4. Sevbitov A.V., Achkasov E.E., Kanukoeva E.Y., Borisov V.V., Sultanova O.A. Individual protective dental splints for athletes participating in combat sports // Sports medicine: science and practice, Moscow, - 2014, №2 - P. 42-46.

5. Arent S.M., McKenna J., Golem D.L. Effects of a neuromuscular dentistry-designedmouthguard on muscularendurance and anaerobic power // Cambridge University Press, Comparative Exercise Physiology - 2010, №7(2) - P. 73-79.

6. Knapik J.J., Marshall S.W., Lee R.B., Darakjy S.S., Jones S.B., Mitchener T.A., delaCruz G.G., Jones B.H. Mouthguards in sport activities : history, physical properties and injury prevention effectiveness // Sports medicine - 2007, №37(2) - P. 117-44.

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