Change management

Changes and change management practicies. The research consists in studying Project Management Office roles and functions in change management activities held in the companies. Compare the Project Management Office roles and change management models.

05.07.2016
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Table 4: Project management office tasks (Artto et al., 2011)

Task category

Specific tasks of PMO

References

Managing practices

Monitor and control performance of the project management office.

Develop, implement and maintain project tools, standards and processes (methodology).

Implement and operate a project information system.

Manage project documentation archives.

Manage customer interfaces.

Provide a set of tools without efforts to standardize.

Implement and manage a database of lessons learned.

Implement and manage a risk database.

Develop and maintain a project scoreboard.

Ensure mandated processes are followed.

Project organizations and structure.

Standardize report forms.

Promote issue resolution.

Maintain a project workbook or library.

Improve accuracy and timeliness of timesheets.

Standardize project reviews.

Identify and document best practices.

Hill (2008), Hobbs and Aubry (2007), Letavec (2006), Marsh (2001), Pellegrinelli and Garagna (2009), Rad and Levin (2002).

Providing administrative support

Report project status to upper management.

Provide advice to upper management.

Execute specialized tasks for project managers.

Conduct networking and environmental scanning.

Recruit, select, evaluate and determine salaries for project managers.

Leverage economies of scale and scope.

Provide facilities and equipment support.

Support project planning.

Support customer relationship management.

Coordinate vendor / contractor relationship management.

Facilitate project kickoff meetings.

Track and record changes made to project requirements.

Support project closeouts.

Assemble project assets from across the organization.

Hill (2008), Hobbs and Aubry (2007), Letavec (2006), Marsh (2001), Pellegrinelli and Garagna (2009), Rad and Levin (2002).

Monitoring and controlling projects

Monitor and control project performance.

Manage benefits.

Allocate resources to different projects.

Conduct post-project reviews.

Conduct project audits.

Manage risks.

Evaluate and develop a reward system.

Measure and track customer satisfaction.

Hill (2008), Hobbs and Aubry (2007), Letavec (2006), Marsh (2001), Rad and Levin (2002).

Training and consulting

Develop competency in personnel, including training.

Promote project management within organization.

Provide mentoring for project managers.

Capture knowledge and enhance knowledge dissemination.

Supply experience and knowledge.

Facilitate re-use,

Career development.

Enhance team development.

Facilitate communication.

Provide consultations to troubled projects.

Create a project management training material.

Hobbs and Aubry (2007), Hill (2008), Letavec (2006), Marsh (2001), Pellegrinelli and Garagna (2009), Rad and Levin (2002).

Evaluating, analyzing and choosing projects

Coordinate between projects.

Participate in strategic planning.

Manage one or more portfolio.

Identify, select and prioritize new projects.

Manage one or more programs.

Evaluate project definition and planning.

Conduct cost/benefit analysis of projects.

Supervise funding submissions.

Assess competency, capability and maturity.

Provide project start-up assistance.

Hobbs and Aubry (2007), Hill (2008), Letavec (2006), Marsh (2001), Pellegrinelli and Garagna (2009), Rad and Levin (2002).

Thus, having described the main theoretical foundations of the study in the domain of change management and project management offices we can move on to the conceptual phase of the research.

  • Chapter 3. Integration of PMO and change mangement research
  • The research study consists of two parts. Firstly, on the basis of the literatire review and information provided in the previous parts, a comparative analysis of the change management models and PMO functions has been conducted. To reveal the possible functions of PMO in the procees of managing changes an integrative model has been created. It has been supposed that PMO, possible, can play different roles and has different functions while taking part in different kinds of changes. However, the underlying assumption is that PMO can perform its functions and be a useful tool in any type of changes. To confirm or disprove this assumption the field study has been carried out providing practical insights into the issue. Preliminary information has been collected by means of electronic questionnaires and analysed. Finally, the results have been described, some suggestions and recommendations about the ways how PMO could improve various change management process has been proposed.
    • 3.1 Comparative analysis
    • To provide a framework revealing the links between the change management process and PMO functions two theoretical models has been used. To characterize different kinds of changes and describe corresponding change processes the model proposed by Gareis (2010) has been applied. This choice is justified by the fact that the model mentioned is based on the main theoretical change management models and practical outcomes. Thus, the dimension of demand of change is related to the Levy and Merry's classification of the first- and second-order changes while the potential to change could be defined by organizational experience in managing changes. Various combinations of these dimensions distinguish different types of changes that usually need different approaches and allow an organization to choose its strategy depending on the situation. As well, the model describes different change management processes that could be applied to a particular change type. As it has been mentioned in the literature review, in case of organizational transformation the process is quite similar to a Kotter's model of managing changes that is supposed to be common in change management. Moreover, different functions deriving from these processes could be related with the possible functions of PMO. To describe these functions the classification provided by Artto et al. has been used. This choice is also explained by the fact that this model incorporates almost all the functions revealed in the researches by different authors. Having compared the models mentioned the integrative framework revealing the possible PMO functions in the process of managing different kinds of changes has been proposed (Table 5).

Table 5: PMO functions in managing diffrent types of changes

Change type

Characteristics of change

Processes and phases of the change

Related PMO functions

Organizational learning

Continuous change

One or a few dimensions

Integrated in processes and responsibilities

Drive for improvement

No project required

Acquiring new knowledge:

1) Identifying new knowledge

2) Securing this knowledge

3) Providing the new knowledge to the employees

4) Unlearning old, not relevant knowledge Stabilizing the new knowledge

5) Stabilizing the new knowledge

Capture knowledge; Identify best practices Document best practices; Manage archives; Implement databases

Develop competency; Provide training; mentoring; consultations; experience and knowledge supply

Implement methodology, information systems

Further development

Repetitive change

A few dimensions

Standardized processes exist

Improvement of business results by implementing major improvements or innovations

One or several projects in a chain

Conceptualizing:

1) Analyzing and defining rough objectives

2) Rough planning Piloting:

3) Designing and testing

4) Applying Rolling-out

5) Rolling-out

Identify, select and prioritize new projects; Participate in strategic planning; Evaluate project definition and planning. Conduct cost/benefit analysis

Administrative support functions; Monitoring and controlling functions

Provide project start-up assistance.

Supervise funding submissions.

Manage one or more portfolio.

Organizational transformation

Periodical change

Most or all dimensions

Need and potential to learn

Redisigning the organization

Resistance to change

Projects and programmes

Planning the transformation

1) Interrupting the routine

2) Developing a vision and a plan

3) Making decisions Implementing

4) Implementing Stabilizing

5) Stabilizing

Evaluate, analyze and choose projects functions; communications Support project planning; Provide facilities and equipment support; Supervise funding submissions

Administrative support functions; Training and consulting functions; Monitoring and controlling functions;

Measure and track customer satisfaction; Facilitate communication; Support project closeouts

Radical new positioning

Unique change

All dimensions

No or little experience

Survival

Resistance to change

Projects and programmes on later phases

Planning the crisis resolution

1) Crisis definition

2) Short analysis and ad hoc measures

3) Detailed crisis analysis and planning

Performing the crisis resolution

4) Implementing the resolution strategies

5) Closing-down the crisis

Evaluating, analyzing and choosing projects functions; Support project planning;

Administrative support functions; Training and consulting functions; Monitoring and controlling functions; Measure and track customer satisfaction; Facilitate communication; Support project closeouts

Although the change types and processes have already been briefly described in the literature review we would like to discuss them more precisely and explain why and how they could be linked with PMO functions.

1. Organizational learning

Being a continuous process of organizational improvement that cannot be trasfered into projects or programms organizational learning may still require PMO efforts if we are talking about improvement of project management practicies.

In his work Gareis distinguishes five processes of oraganizational learning, including "identifying relevant new knowledge, securing this knowledge, providing the new knowledge to the employees, unlearning old, not relevant knowledge, and stabilizing the new knowledge(Gareis, 2010, p.320). As well he mentions that such tools as environmental monitoring, knowledge databases, exchange of experience workshops could be used in this type of changes.

If we look at the activities held by PMO the parallels could be easily drawn. In this case PMO can identify and capture best project management practicies or lessons learned, document them, manage archives and databases. As well, it can transfer the knew knowledge to the employees by providing training, mentoring and consulting facilities in this domain. To unlearn the old knowledge and practicies and stabilize new ones PMO could develop and implement project management standards, processes, methods and tools as well as specific information systems required. Thus, generally speaking, during the organizational learning in the domain of project management PMO could perform all the "managing practicies" and "training and consulting" functions described by Artto et al.

If we relate these functions to the existing PMO models it is possible to compare it with the Coach role proposed by Desouza and Evaristo. As well, according to Kendall and Rollins typology, it could be situated somewhere between the Repository and Coach roles as it includes training and consulting functions, which are absent in repository model, but lacks administrative support functions, existing in coach model.

2. Further develompent

As this type of change is targeted to the significant improvement of business results by implementing essential changes or innovations its performance could be managed by a project or chain of projects.

In this case, according to Gareis the process of change management consists of five phases which are analyzing and defining rough objectives, rough planning, designing and testing, applying, and rolling-out (Gareis, 2010, p.321). As well, it's mentioned that depending on the scale the three last phases could be replaced just by the implementation phase. Thus, the further development process could be transformed into traditional process of managing project. However, Gareis highlights that special attention should be paid to providing appropriate resources, top management commitment and aligning the projects with the organizational strategy.

Now, coming to the existing PMO and its functions it is possible to mention that it could play a significant role in the implementation of such type of change. First of all, during the analyzing and defining objectives phase such functions as identifying and analyzing projects, could be carried out, as well as the participation in strategic planning to align projects with strategic goals. During the planning phase PMO could directly support project planning, analyze and evaluate project definition, planning, costs and benefits during the designing and testing phase, and, finally, perform all the administrative support, monitoring and control and, possibly, training and consulting functions while implementing (applying and rolling-out) the project. As well in case of several initiatives implemented in organization PMO could perform portfolio management functions. Programm management function is not mentioned here as the further development projects are supposed to be not interrelated and, subsequently, not to be managed in programs.

3. Organizational transformation

Being a fundamental organizational change, involving almost all the organizational dimensions, organizational transformation is considered to be the most appropriate change to be manged by projects and programms. As well, it is necessaty to highlight that such type of changes requires hard cuts and new growth and faces social complexity, that arises resistance, high dynamics and time pressure. According to the Gareis' model, transforming usually consists of the following phases: interrupting the routine, developing a vision and a plan, making decisions, implementing, and stabilizing.

While interrupting routine and developing a vision and a plan phases PMO can perform a whole range of evaluating, analyzing and choosing projects functions. As well it could provide direct support in project planning, including planning the Quick Wins, and, that is extremely important in such kinf of change, facilitate communications to create awareness about the changes required. Coming to the implementation phase, first of all, it is necessary to mention thatfor this type of change "development of the individual and organizational transformation competences is required" (Gareis, 2010, p.321). Thus, the training and consulting PMO functions could play an important role. Although, PMO itself could provide trainings and consulting only for project managers and project team members, realising transformation, also it could initiate and manage projects aimed to providing new required knowledge to other employees. During the implementation phase PMO can perform all the administrative support and monitoring and control functions, as well some functions from "Evaluating, analyzing and choosing projects" group could be executed, such as coordination between projects and managing programms and portfolios in general.

As it has been mentioned above, in case of transforming, one of the most important challenge is the resistance to changes, so we would like to discuss this issue a bit more precisely. While investigating this issue in the literature review it has been mentioned that, according to Fiedler, from project management perspective resistance could be seen as the project risk. Thus, following this logic, it could be proposed that as PMO could execute risk management functions it could participate in managing resistance as well.

Finally, coming to the stabilizing and close-down phases it is considered that PMO can support projects' closeouts and facilitate communication to stakeholders about results. jffice consists hroject

Talking about this change type in general it is also possible to assume that PMO could perform managing practices functions that support all the project management activities in case if changes are transfered into projects and programms.

4. Radical new positioning

According to the definition proposed by Gareis, radical new positioning happens due to the external treat or crisis situation when fast short-term decisions and measures prevail the other, especially, at the first stages. Projects and programs, however, also could be applied but on the later stages when the possible damages are already minimized. Radical new-positioning process could consists of the phases crisis definition, short analysis and ad hoc measures, detailed crisis analysis and planning, implementing the resolution strategies and closing-down the crisis (Gareis, 2010, p.322).

Talking about the possible functions of PMO in the process of managing this type of changes it is more reasonable to assume that it is more reasonable to involve PMO on the later stages as well. During the detailed crisis analysis and planning, implementation and closing-down phases PMO could perform the same functions like described for organizational transformation process. However, it is possible that some functions that could be applied at the early stages could be revealed in course of the survey.

  • 3.2 Field research
    • To investigate the PMO functions in change management process the following hypothesis has been formulated:
    • Project management office may contribute into change management process by performing various functions in any kind of changes
    • To confirm or disprove this statement the field research has been conducted to provide preliminary qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data has been needed to shed light on the functions that could be performed by PMO and what role it could play during change implementation while the quantitative data could provide an additional insight into the issue.
    • To obtain the empirical data needed the survey has been conducted by means of electronic questionnaires. The survey process has consisted of three stages:
    • 1) Developing questionnaire
    • 2) Respondents selection and questionnaires distribution
    • 3) Collecting responses
    • Talking about the first stage dedicated to the development of questionnaire, it has been decided to split it into four parts. The first part has been dedicated to the general information about the respondent (his/her position in the company) and the company described (including industry and organizational type). It has been supposed that these questions, firstly, would prepare the respondents for the following essential questions and also could provide additional information while interpreting the results.
    • The second part has been designed to get the information about the change faced by the company. The questions have been composed in accordance with the logic of Gareis (2010) model and have been expected to define the change type.
    • The following part has been targeted to identify the functions or tools that have been used while implementing this particular change. As well the respondents have been asked to choose the functions or tools that have not been used but, in their opinion, have been worthy to use. This step has been expected to reveal the PMO functions that could be used while implementing this type of changes.
    • Finally, some questions about PMO and its role in change implementation (if it exists) have been asked. These questions have been targeted to reveal directly whether the PMOs already perform change management functions in organizations.
    • The questionnaire consists of various types of questions, including factual yes/no questions, one-choice and multiple-choice questions, evaluative (ranking) questions and several open-ended questions. The questionnaire is presented in the Appendix 1.
    • To create the electronic questionnaire it has been decided to use Google Drive platform that allows to design questionnaires, as well as receive, collect and summarize responses in a convenient way.
    • Coming to the questionnaire distribution and data gathering, it is necessary to mention that it has been decided to conduct a survey among the respondents working not only in the project-based (organizations PBO). From the survey perspective, the main target is to reveal ALL the possible functions existing in change management process that theoretically COULD be carried out by the Project Management Offices.
    • Thus, the survey has been conducted among Russian and international respondents. As a result, 79 reliable responses have been received, except partial or false answers. The geographical distribution is represented in chart below:

Figure 3: Respondents' distribution by countries

Talking about the respondents' positions in the companies, it's possible to mention that almost all the categories, except program and portfolio managers, have been represented. The distribution of the respondents by positions is shown in the figure 4.

Figure 4 : Respondents' distribution by positions

The questionnaire has been distributed by Internet; it has been posted into several social networks (including the professional project management groups) and sent by private mails to some other respondents. For data collection the Google Drive tools have been used, as mentioned above. Finally, the infornation gathered has been analysed using the statistical methods and analytical tools. The resullts are represented in graphs and tables.

  • 3.3 Research findings and results
    • The following part is dedicated to the description of the results received and consists of four parts. In the first part, the general information about the companies analyzed is represented, including the industry in which the company is working and its organizational structure. In the second part information about the changes is summarized and described. The third part provides information about the functions and tools that have been applied while implementing the changes, as well as the respondents' opinions about which of them have not been applied but had to be. And, finally, the fourth part is dedicated to the PMO issue and the results about its participation in change management process (if existing).
      • 4. Companies' overview
      • The table below represents the companies'(respondents') distribution by industries.

Table 6: Respondents' distribution by industries

Advertising

2,5%

Aviation

1,3%

Automotive

3,8%

Consulting and audit

11,4%

Construction

3,8%

Energy ; oil and gas; nuclear energy

10,1%

Event

1,3%

Fashion ; clothing

1,3%

Finance; banking; insurance

10,1%

FMCG

8,9%

Government

1,3%

HR

1,3%

IT

7,6%

Manufacturing

8,9%

Media

5,1%

Pharmasuitical

3,8%

Services

3,8%

Real estate

1,3%

Retail

6,3%

Technologies

2,5%

Transport

1,3%

Other

2,5%

It is possible to notice that the most represented industries are Consulting and audit, Energy and Financial sectors. The following chart reveals the types of the companies which representatives have taken part in the survey.

Figure 5: Companies distribution by organizational types

As it follows from the chart, the majority of the respondents consider their companies as functional. However, at the same time, almost a half of respondents has identified that the companies they are working in have at least some projects in structure being either project-based or mixed. Nine percent of respondents could not identify the type of organizational structure. From our point of view, the distribution received meet the goals of the survey as it allows to analyze changes and change management functions in all the types of organizations and provide a relevant estimate of the possible change management functions.

  • 5. Changes' overview
      • Coming to the main part of the research it is also necessary to mention that, according to the data received, 58% of respondents has participated personally in the change management process while the rest 42% has not take active participation in changes:

Figure 6: Direct participation in changes

To provide more reliable data during the course of analysis it has been decided to limit the sample to the respondents who has directly participated in change process. Thus, during the following analysis only responses of these participants are taken into account.

Moving to the questions about the change their organizations have ever met the respondents have provided a wide range of changes (the list of the changes named is provided in appendix). Talking about the change characteristics it is necessary to highlight that the respondents have described the changes referring to all the targets distinguished. The change distribution by targets is shown in the chart below:

Figure 7: Distribution of changes' targets

As it is seen from the chart the majority of the changes, 57%, has been identified as belonging to the improvement of business results by implementing significant changes or innovations, 22%, have been referred to the continuous improvement process, while 17% of changes has been attributed to transformation and just 4% has been targeted to crisis or extreme situation resolution. It is possible to mention that the distribution almost follows the logic of frequency of different change types. The only surprising thing is that improvement of business results is represented twice more often than continuous improvement although it seems that due to the character the later one should happen more often. In our opinion this could be explained by psychological issues, as people suppose that they should try to describe something more significant that small daily improvements.

To identify more precisely the change types several questions about change demand and change potential have been asked. Having combined the results, it is possible to notice that the characteristics provided about the change generally suit to the combinations of characteristics used to describe each type of changes.

However it's necessary to mention that sometimes the combinations of characteristics provided differ from the combinations proposed by Gareis. Although this issue is not the target of our research and we are not going into deeper analysis, in general it could be seen from the graphs. Thus, comparing the graphs representing the change frequency, change scale, change targets and readiness for change it's possible to notice that the proportions characterizing the same change type differ. Especially, the problems arise while identifying the change frequency.

Figure 8: Change distribution by frequency

Figure 9: Change distribution by scale

In our opinion, it could be explained, firstly, by the different perception of the terms used or difficulty to estimate the issue but also by the peculiarities of a particular company and general character of the model. Thus, for example, insufficient changes aimed to the improvement of business process could happen in company quite rare due to the stringent technological requirements or to passive character of doing business.

Having analyzed the results received it has been decided to define the change categories taking into account the issues mentioned. Thus, the organizational learning has been characterized by small scale of changes, quite high readiness to change (4-5) and target of continuous improvement but its frequency could vary significantly. In its turn, further development has been described as the medium scale change with medium (3-4) and sometimes high readiness to change that leads to significant improvements or innovations, which frequency however could vary from medium to low. Coming to the organizational transformation it is possible to mention that it seems to be the best defined type of change. While describing it such characteristics as rare frequency, big scale and moderate or low readiness (2-4) are named in the most of the cases. And, finally, talking about the radical new-positioning it is also could be seen that it is usually characterized as a rare event involving almost all organizational parameters, targeted to the resolution of crisis situation, to which company is not much ready (1-2). To conclude about the identification of change type we would like to mention that the characteristics discussed usually divide clearly the first- and second-order changes, while the differences between the change types inside these categories remain to be vague and difficult to distinguish.

Based on the assumptions mentioned the following distribution of change named by respondents by types have been identified:

Figure 10: Distribution by change types

The other category includes several changes mentioned which type could not been clearly defined by the change types characteristics described above.

  • 6. PMO functions used in change management process

Coming to the issue of change implementation process and functions related, first of all, it is interesting to mention in which way the changes are processed in the respondents' organizations.

Figure 11: Distribution of ways of change implementation

According to the data represented by chart above, the majority of changes, 46%, mentioned have been realized in the boundaries of functional activities while just a bit less, 43%, have been realized by means of projects or programs. However, still there are some more options called, e.g. full reorganization. It is interesting to mention that as we remember from the previous chart the majority of the respondents has identified that their organizations use projects in their activities. To investigate more precisely the links between the way of implementing change, change type and organizational structure additional analysis could be provided in the further research.

As well the question about the existence of specific departments or positions generally responsible for change management has been asked. According to the results received (see fig.11) specialized change management bodies exist only in 24% of organizations. According to the results of the open question, responsibilities for change management are carried out either by CEO, partners or top managers or by specialized departments, like organizational development department, business strategy office or project management department (PMO). Also, sometimes external companies take responsibilities about managing changes (outsourcing).

Coming back to the functions realized during the change implementation, the following results have been received while asking about the methods and tools used or that should be used during the change process:

Figure 12: Tools and methods related to PMO functions in CM process

As it follows from the diagram above all the respondents have mentioned that a range of tools and methods, which could be developed, implemented and maintained by PMO, either have already been used during the change implementation or had to be used. It is interesting to notice that in general almost all of the tools and methods already have been applied while implementing the changes. The less used categories include documentation archives and mentoring, however they are also not considered as worthy to be used by many respondents.

As well, it is necessary to pay attention to Nothing category, as we can see from the graph it has received quite many responses while asking what had to be used. However if we check the data it could be concluded that there is no respondents who consider that these methods and tools neither has been used nor had to be used. Thus, it could be concluded that tools and methods that could be implemented or maintained by PMO anyway are considered as useful for managing change.

Moving to the change management processes that have been carried out or should have been carried out the similar conclusions could be made. According to the results represented in the diagram below a general conclusion that in general all the PMO functions could be applied to change management process.

Figure 13: Functions related to PMO functions in CM process

As we can see from the diagram traditional managing processes, such as planning, resource search and allocation, monitoring and control, reporting to the top management, communications, analysis and control are generally used while implementing the changes. However, it is interesting to highlight such functions as risk management and monitoring stakeholders' satisfaction which have rarely been applied but are supposed to be worthy to apply. Talking about nothing category it is also necessary to mention that none of the respondents has rejected possibility to use all these functions during change implementation.

Finally, talking about the PMO functions in case of realizing several change initiatives, the following results have been received:

Figure 14: Processes related to PMO functions in managing several initiatives

Analyzing the results received it is possible to notice that while facing several change initiatives less functions have been realized during change process in comparison with the case of single initiative. As it is seen from the diagram above the most used functions relate to the identification and assessment of change initiative. While, according to the respondents' opinion a lot of functions aimed to the management of several projects, especially, such as coordination between initiatives, portfolio and program management had been missing and had to be applied that also highlights possible value of PMO functions for change management process. However, it is also necessary to mention that 6,5% of respondents still assumed that during the change process none of the functions has been applied and had not to be applied.

After making a general conclusion about the functions used in change management process that could be related with PMO it is necessary to analyze more precisely whether PMO functions are supposed to be used in context of any type of changes.

To achieve this goal the answers received has been sorted by change types defined in the previous steps. Next, in each group the functions mentioned has been examined and summarized. The results of the analysis are provided in the Appendix 2.

As it could be seen from the table, the results received differ from initial assumptions made about distribution of PMO functions across change types. According to the data almost all PMO functions could be applied to managing any change type. However, some interesting trends could be identified. Thus, talking about organizational learning it could be seen that functions related to managing practices and training and development categories are generally considered as important for this kind of change. At the same time, administrative support and monitoring and control functions are also represented in this type, although, initially the assumption about knowledge role of PMO has been made. In our opinion such results could be explained, firstly, by the more practical insight into the issue, as well as by shortcomings in identification of change types and confusion in characteristics. Anyway, it is seen that these functions are supposed less important than managing practices and training ones that is aligned with the theoretical assumptions. Talking about the functions used in management of several initiatives quite high results have been received. In our opinion it could be explained by the fact that while answering this question respondents have taken into account not only several changes of the same type but all the possible changes.

Coming to the further development it is possible to notice that although the managing practices and managing several initiatives functions still have remained quite important, although a bit less than in case of organizational learning, the importance of administrative support functions has increased significantly that is aligned with the supposed character of change. As well monitoring and control and training and consulting functions have been highly recognized.

Moving to the organizational transformation it is necessary to highlight even more increase in significance of administrative support functions. In comparison with further development the importance of training and consulting functions has also increased a little bit, while the managing practices functions have been evaluated on more or less the same level. However, the managing several initiatives functions have received much more attention. It is possible to notice an increased importance of strategic planning, coordination between projects and program and portfolio management that is also aligned with the characteristics of the change type.

Finally, coming to the radical new positioning, unfortunately it is not possible to make a reliable analysis in this case due to the very limited number of respondents in our case. However, looking at the results received it is possible to conclude that due to the extreme character of the situation a very limited number of basic functions have been chosen and, especially, applied. To investigate this type of changes additional research should be provided.

  • 7. Existing change management functions of PMOs
      • As the additional step of the survey it has been decided to investigate whether the PMOs existing in the companies (if any) already participate in change management and which functions they perform.

Figure 15: Existance of PMOs in organizations

According to the chart provided above, PMOs exist in 25% of organizations analyzed however 18% of respondents are not sure about the issue. Further analysis demonstrates that according to the respondents' opinion, only in 23% of cases the existing PMOs have participated in change management process.

Figure 16: Participation of PMOs in change management process

Among the functions performed by the PMO have been mentioned initiation, planning, resource allocation, reporting, administrative support, monitoring and control. In come cases PMO have been responsible for change implementation in general, while sometimes executed only some functions. Thus, it could be assumed that PMO already participate in change management process however due to the small size of the sample it is not reasonable to make a general conclusion on the issue but it provides an additional support to the conclusion made about PMO role in change management process. office consists project

To conclude it is necessary to say that in course of the analysis we have made an attempt to identify the relations between different change types and PMO functions, however the results received are not pretending to be verified, thus, to investigate more precisely on this issue further analysis should be provided. However, the general hypothesis about possible PMO contribution into the processes of managing different types of changes has received its verification.

  • Conclusion
  • In the study proposed the possible relations between project management and change management has been examined from the perspective of possible PMO roles and functions in the process of managing change.
  • In the first part a thorough analysis of the literature has been conducted that has allowed to shed light on the main theoretical issues of changes and change management. Various change typologies have been described and compared, as well as the main change management approaches have been identified and discussed. Moreover, the study has also touched the phenomenon of resistance to change and described several models proposed for managing resistance.
  • In the course of the second part the main theoretical issues about Project Management Offices have been discovered. On the basis of the literature review the existing types of PMOs have been described and compared. As well, the possible roles and functions have been determined and explained.
  • In the third part an integrative framework describing the possible interventions of PMO into change management processes have been proposed. As well, the survey aimed to verify or disprove the assumptions made has been described; the results received have been represented and analyzed.
  • Thus, the research has shown that the functions and tools related to Project management office could be used during the implementation process of different types of changes. Subsequently, if implemented in organization, PMO could become a useful tool in change management process executing various functions. However, to identify more precisely whether the functions should differ in different change types a more thorough analysis should be provided.
  • Talking about the possible implications of the study it is possible to mention that it may has both theoretical and practical implementation. From practical point of view it could provide useful information to practitioners working in organizations where PMO is already implemented or is planned to be implemented and, probably, improve change management processes.
  • From theoretical perspective the findings of the study could serve as a basis and trigger the further research on PMO roles in change management process and generally contribute into the area of relations between change and project management.
  • Bibliography

1. Benko, C., Mcfarlan, F.W., (2003), Connecting the Dots: Aligning Projects with Objectives in Unpredictable Times, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

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3. Crawford, J. (2010), The Strategic Project Office (2nd edition). USA: CRC Press

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  • Appendix 1. Survey questionnaire

http://www.allbest.ru/

Managing changes in organizations

1) Please, identify the area in which your company is working *

2) What is the type of your organization? *


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