Actual problems of management

Conditions of success in implementing changes in the organization. Reasons for resistance to changes in domestic enterprises and methods. The method of "Alps" principles Paretto and Eisenhower. The possibility of involvement in decision-making in Ukraine.

Рубрика Менеджмент и трудовые отношения
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 08.02.2012
Размер файла 20,0 K

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A. Under conditions of rapid technological development and technology, dynamic changes in consumer properties of products and services, unprecedented growth of communication and interdependence in the management of principal importance of gaining commitment to organizational change and innovation as possible to prevent congestion and ensure efficient use of available resources. The main source of all these features are management, purposeful activity, competence and enterprise managers. Create conditions for this to rationally based organization management.

Manage change is impossible. But they can stay ahead. Clearly, changes related to loss and risk and also require a huge labor. But if the organization no matter what - business, university, hospital or any other, does not put a boldly designed to meet the changes and fast change with the outside world, it is doomed to vegetation. In periods of radical structural reforms survive only change leaders - those who sensitively captures trends and quickly adapt to them, using a the good opportunities offered.

Therefore, the central task of management is to make as many changes to the leaders of organizations. The leader considers changes every change as a new opportunity. The leader changes purposefully looking good for a change and know how to make them most effective for external and internal organization. It requires:

A. Policy aimed at creating the future.

2. Methods of finding and predicting changes.

3. Strategy and changes in domestic and in foreign organization.

4. The policy, which allows to balance change and stability.

Politics, which creates the future

To become the leader changes, you must develop a policy that makes the present work for the future.

The first principle of this policy, the foundation for all others, can be formulated as follows: we must stop live yesterday afternoon. Task number one - the release of resources used to support those activities that do not enhance productivity and efficiency. You can not create a future without getting rid of yesterday. Save that goes forever, requires a tremendous expenditure of time and effort. In support of technology and production yesterday of spending their rare and precious resources and above all the time and the most experienced and highly skilled workers, and always to no avail. Because any new endeavor, not to mention the initiative is quite unique, always interfaced with unforeseen difficulties and should be led by the best specialists. But experts who are busy fighting for the preservation of yesterday, can not make tomorrow.

So the second principle of policy changes at the level of implementation is reflected in the planned, organized liquidation.

Organized liquidation

implementing change paretto decision

The leader changes regularly checks the viability of each product, service, process, market, distribution channel, every customer and end-use form.

Questions that eliminate and how to eliminate the need to place systematically. Based on the previously drawn schedule. Otherwise they will be permanently deferred, so that they never povyazuyetsya "popular" policy. Meetings are held on the Elimination of all levels of government, from top management and ending with the dispatchers. Each of these meetings is considered only one area of ??activity: for example, the first Monday of the first month at a time considered the services provided by the Company, in the first Monday of the second month - areas in which the company operates, in the first Monday of the third month - organizational matters services, etc. within the company, thus, it examines his work, including personnel policy, and of course, taken three or four important decision that can change in services companies and one or two decisions on how to do it. In addition, during the year as a result of these meetings offer a three to five new ideas. The decision to change what else - whether the elimination of services or elimination of the former way of some work, or the decision to implement some new proposal - reported monthly throughout the structure.

Planned improvements

The next principle of policy change: planned, organized better.

All that the company does in the domestic and external environment, should systematically and continuously improved: goods and services, production processes, marketing, service, technology, training and education of personnel, use of information. Improvements must be made according to planned annual percentage.

Using success

This principle of policy changes is that success should be used.

The most convenient opportunity for successful change is to use their own achievements and to convert them to base further work.

The best example - is probably the Japanese company Sony. She hands achieved world leadership in several areas of systematically using their achievements and successes, large and small, without missing any. I can not say that sensations are one by one, but new products always caused interest from buyers. Since each product based on the success of the previous company was minimal risk, even if the product was detected failure, the company lost almost nothing. As a result, Sony has created quite a few successful products, not only to become one of the world leaders, but also enter the number of some of the few companies whose success remains stable for a long time.

As continual improvement of success sooner or later lead to true innovation. There comes a time when small steps to improve turn into a big, fundamental change, in other words, something completely new and unique.

Initiating change

The subject today is paid too much attention. Perhaps most businesses much more importance are organized liquidation, the planned improvement of success. Moreover, without these principles: elimination, improvement and use of success - no organization can hope for successful innovation.

But to succeed as a leader of change, the organization should develop a policy of systematic innovation. And the main reason is probably not that leader needs to change continuously recovery (although this is true). The main reason is that systematic innovation creates a relationship to the organization as a leader of change, in other words, forms the image of the leader changes.

Windows capabilities

You must be systematic - every six months or a year - the study of changes that may lead to new opportunities in areas that can be called "windows of opportunity".

These changes can be in:

- The needs of the manufacturing process;

- Changes in the structure of industry and market;

- Demographic changes;

- Changes in content and perception;

- New fields of knowledge.

Innovative activity - is difficult and hard work. And this work should be organized as a function of each unit of the enterprise and government at all levels.

P.Druker emphasizes three traps into which leaders change frequently get:

1) first trap - an innovative feature that does not meet the principles of the strategy;

2) the second trap - a true "innovation" is easily confused with "recovery";

3) The third trap - of easily confused with traffic.

These three traps are insidious that any leader can change again and again fall into each of them, and even in all at once. There is only one way to avoid them - organize training for change, or a pilot project.

Pilot project

Each organization is trying to limit if not eliminate the risk associated with the changes, using all available methods of market research and consumers. But to conduct market research entirely new undertaking is impossible. In addition, nothing absolutely new does not go well initially. Therefore, all the improvements and innovations must be tested on a small scale in the form of preliminary tests (pilot project). First, we must find the business person who really is interested in implementing this innovation. It should be people who respect and listen to opinions which, not necessarily from among the permanent employees of the organization.

If the previous test was successful, ie if the result were not only unexpected problems, and unexpected opportunities, the risks associated with the change is not too high. The examination also shows where and how to change to be implemented, which is considered optimal business strategy.

When impedance changes understand certain actions of employees, aimed at discrediting, delay or opposition to the implementation of changes in the organization needed to stage the implementation strategy. The main reasons for resistance include:

- Employees feeling of discomfort caused by changes (uncertainty, fear, uncertainty, threats to their work);

- Rejection of the methods changes (restriction of information, non-authoritarian style during change, limited participation of employees during the change);

- Employees feeling of injustice that is that the benefits of the changes carried out by them appropriated by others.

Resistance to change as do some individuals and groups of individuals. An individual behaves as if feels at risk, that is not confident of positive results and impact of the changes have to take risks, but it's not actually his nature, fear not cope with the new work, not able or willing to retrain. Managers also indicated, may resist change when their position as head of the organization are in danger: a threat of reducing compensation for their work, narrowed control over organizational resources, reduced impact on the decision making process and, consequently, reduced the prestige and reputation .

Group resistance has significant differences from the individual appears as a set of beliefs of group members and requires great efforts to overcome it.

Changes in the organization zmischayut line balance. Of the changes can be implemented by the following:

- Identify all the forces that enable the organization, and evaluation of their value;

- Increase capacity of supporting forces;

- Addition of new forces that support change;

- Weakening of the restraining forces;

- Elimination of certain forces that prevent change.

Following the change is the period of adaptation to their employees. It is often characterized by a decline in productive labor.

Other methods of reducing resistance include the following:

- Open discussion with staff the need for change to help them properly understand the initial conditions, scope and duration of changes;

- Involving employees, making resistance to the decision-making process for future changes that will allow them to freely express their attitude to change;

- In some situations, relevant and relatively more effective incentives on employees who resist change;

- Identify informal leaders in a group of people that do not support change, and providing them with leading roles in making decisions on the introduction and implementation of changes;

- Forcing employees to inhibit changes to support them because otherwise they may deny employment, advancement, professional growth.

Each of the methods has its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, managers must choose one or the other method depending on the situation created, and the possible consequences of their application.

2. Effective job manager is that he always finishes consistently and purposefully at a time per case. The preconditions are making definitive decisions on priority cases, drafting the list of priorities and respect them.

Prioritisation - is the decision of how the tasks should be given priority, and that secondary importance.

All things do not. Prioritisation is so commonplace, often carried out occasionally and even unconsciously. However, the necessary conscious unambiguous determination of priorities, consistent and systematic execution of scheduled tasks according to their priority.

Prioritisation of tasks allows the manager:

- Only work on really important and necessary tasks;

- Focus on performing only one task;

- Remove things that can do more;

- End of period scheduled to finish resolving outstanding issues;

- Do not leave unfulfilled feasible task.

The main criteria for prioritizing cases when planning personal work manager must be:

- Importance;

- Urgency;

- Fixation time.

Since the determination of priority cases is a very difficult task in management theory, there are recommendations that facilitate the selection of priorities.

Selection of priority cases can be performed by three methods:

1) Method "Alps";

2) the principle Paretto;

Eisenhower method.

Principle Paretto

In general terms, is that within a small set of individual parts are more important than it is in their proportion in the plural (ratio 80:20).

This principle has suddenly found a lot of evidence in practice, particularly in economic activity. According to the inventory of 20% stocks of raw materials or products constitute 80% of its value, 20% of consumers in the restaurant provides 80% of revenue, 20% errors cause 80% losses and vice versa

Principle Paretto used in management.

Transferring this principle in a work situation manager means that 20% of labor costs on really important problems provide 80% result. In the remaining 80% of labor costs for minor problems account for only 20% effective. Thus the principle Paretto indicates unequal importance to managers solved problems, the priority targets of the important problems.

The method of selection of priorities by using the "Alps" based on the following patterns:

- The most important task (category A) is approximately 15% of all tasks performed by manager. The significance of these same cases in terms of contribution to achieving the goal of approximately 65%;

- The important task (category B) accounts for an average of 20% of 20% and also importance of tasks and to-do manager;

- Less important and unimportant tasks (category B) is 65% of the total number of tasks, but only 15% significance for all cases is to perform manager.

When planning personal work using the "Alps" manager should proranzhuvaty all cases of importance and enable them to plan as follows: Category A key task must be performed personally manager. They should pay 65% of the scheduled time, the important task of category B should be given 20% of the scheduled time. If these cases need more time, they can be delegated to subordinates. On less important tasks in the category must pay 15% of the scheduled time. Almost all these cases should be delegated to subordinates.

The longest part of the method "Alps" is a procedure for selection of priorities, ie, ranking tasks by category. Here, much depends on the professional level manager, his experience and personal qualities, situations, etc.. Therefore, there is always a danger of wrong priorities when, for example, is really important task will be classified in that fail to him properly.

For a more reasoned choice of priority cases using the "Alps" recommended the following question and the criteria for selecting tasks Category A:

- Due to implementation problems which I like most of nablyzhuyus to my main goals (year, month, week, day)?

- May I through the implementation of a problem to solve with a few others?

- By addressing problems that I can make the maximum contribution to achieving the objectives of enterprise, division, group?

- Carrying out tasks which will bring the greatest benefit to me, the greatest financial reward?

- Failure of which tasks can be naynehatyvnishi consequences?

Positive response to one of the submitted questions, criteria gives rise to the task attributed to category A in contrast to the method of "Alps", which is based on the selection of priority cases, depending on their importance, the U.S. president D.Eyzenhauer ordering problem on two criteria: importance and urgency. Depending on the degree of importance and urgency of the task there are four possibilities of their evaluation and implementation:

1) urgent and important matters. These tasks require immediate compliance manager personally;

2) urgent but less important matters. There is a danger that under the influence of the urgency of the task manager completely transferred to their execution, postponing all other perhaps more important. Because this case comes to less important matters, they should be delegated to subordinates;

3) less urgent but important tasks. Despite the importance of such cases do not require immediate implementation. However, the situation should be kept under control, so that if the delay problem can be urgent and require immediate compliance manager. Because of such problems it is recommended to charge all or part of another;

4) less urgent and less important matters D.Eyzenhauer believed that such problems be thrown in the basket. Minor and non-urgent tasks better get rid of, they should not do even subordinates.

Using the principle of Eisenhower has the following advantages for a manager who:

- Begins work on major cases and focuses only on them;

- Unloads itself to really important management functions and motivates the work of his subordinates, delegating to them some of their tasks;

- Increases the demands on their employees, can encourage those with relevant skills.

3. In practice, management, increasing attention is paid to the organization of group activities, including group decision making. Experience shows: the more employees participate in the governance process, the better the results of their work that makes it easier to enter a variety of qualitative changes in production.

Process management is impossible without the mechanism of coordination of individual actions and interests together to find the optimal functioning of the team. The most famous method of group decision making is the nominal group technique, which allows you to find and compare personal opinions, judgments, to develop collective solutions. The working group divided into subgroups of 5 - 10 people. Then the announced task. For example, to determine what action should take place in the team shop (area) in connection with the transition to rent. We give a little time (5 - 10hvylyn) so that the participants discussed conditions of the task specified purpose solutions. This period can be described as work instructions. Then the work is conducted by stages.

Also to attract workers to make decisions using the principle of "trylystnyka." This type of organizational structure, composed of three parts - or leaves. By definition, an organization "consists of a basic core of managers and employees as well - seasonal contractors and experts working part-time.

This model is often used to explain the movement of the main non-essential activities.

The first leaf shamrock is the main staff of the organization. These workers are generally highly skilled professionals who make up a higher level of management.

The next "piece" includes contractors - individuals or organizations - mostly people who once worked in the company, and now give it some services. They operate within the specified direction of the organization, but with sufficient autonomy to make decisions on their own, manage projects or even relegate the contract.

The third piece - specialists who work on a flexible schedule. Pain than ordinary employees to, despite the fact that they work part time - felt emotional involvement in the work performed, and thus ensure high quality of its own shares. The competence of decision-making in such workers are usually limited to their own problems.

As one method to involve employees in decision making, you can use a business game.

The purpose of role play:

1) development of algorithm for solving management problems;

2) the skills of collective decision making

Guidelines and procedures for business game

Manager's objective is to play the game, explains its initial conditions and tasks party. Each participant receives an independent game development solution for Arup, produces an opinion based on experience solving problems. Each team by mutual consultation produces a common view on the development of Arup. One member of the team (situational leader) reports and asserts his team


How do you know, art manager is to provide timely and promptly identify problems and implement solutions to them. The challenge is to determine the sequence of manager actions listed in the form of party games.

Blank poster game

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A description of the problem

2 Documentation of tasks

3 Identify possible solutions


4 Determination of the deviation of actual

The state of the desired

5 Evaluation of the degree of completeness and accessibil-fidelity Awareness

6 Execution of decisions

7 Development of options for solving problems

8 Definition of the problem of

9 Assessment of novelty problems

10 Control over the implementation of decisions

11 selection decision

12 Assessment of options for decision

13 Organization of the decision

14 Setting objectives Artist

15 Selection criteria of evaluation of options decision

16 Establishing the relationship of other problems

17 Problem

18 Determination of the causes of problems


where 1 - № order;

2 - the name of the (phases) making management decisions;

3 - individual score;

4 - group score;

5 - standard;

6 - individual error;

7 - A generic error;

8 - deviation of the individual errors of the group.

Rules of the Game

Of the 18 actions listed in the form of the participant need to consistently pass algorithm for solving management problems, which need to number of ordinal numbers from 1 to 18, beginning each player makes decisions independently, without any consultation with other players. All the strange question meets only manager game. Each player on the end of said arm raised, then all players are divided into teams of 5-7 people and the free exchange of views (the team) produce a general collective opinion of Arup. Teams do not exchange ideas with each other. On completion of the task reported by show of hands, a representative team, reporting to group decision has a right to protect its logical proofs; head game captures the adoption of both individual and group decisions.

Model Game

Leader explains the initial situation and the rules of the game. Players are dealt blank poster game. Orally given the necessary explanations to them. Participants decide the game for this task individually and then collectively in groups. Manager based on personal observation examines the work of participants in the game, said the results encourage the winners.

Rules of game

The game is made in one cycle. Estimated time steps Game: explanation of the game - 15 minutes, individual development of participants - 30 minutes, summarizing and announcement of results - 15 min.

Summing up the role play

Head game compares individual and collective decisions on the development of Arup, said the results of game analyzes the group activities of its members, correlating it with the result.

Evaluation Criteria

Time task, the accuracy problem solving - a typical problem in solving the problem in individual and group work. Each specific error is calculated as the difference between numbers of actions (steps) making management decisions. For example, the standard of "Choice decision - № 13", and according to the party game "Choice decision - № 9", so error is 4 units.

The only criterion - the amount of points. Time equivalent points obtained from the calculation: 1 min -3 points. One problem in carrying out the task estimated at 1 point. In individual and collective test overcomes the one who scored the lowest score. For example, when comparing the results of two participants in the game we get: I spent the first 15 min and allowed total error 18 and the second - 10 minutes and made a total mistake 22. The basis of calculation take 10 minutes. Then the first player in the end becomes 18 + (15 - 10) * 3 = 33 points, and the second - 22. Wins the second. Similarly, comparing and group work. Each violation of the rules shtrafuyetsya two points.

In an organization where I work to try to extrapolate the nominal group method. Stomat.poliklinika med.universytetu as other clinic has its own departments (surgery, therapy, pediatrics, orthopedics, technical laboratory). With each section (choose most employees) candidates in some people, organize groups for submission requirements and recommendations from the department. Defined in terms of p'yatyhvylynok months vysluhovuvatymu them and offer their ideas.

For example: the organization of working time in the clinic during the holidays. Thus, as clinic operates in two shifts, most people prefer 1-y change, but that does not violate the schedule will offer to create a schedule duty doctors on holidays in their choice to another year they rested, and their colleagues worked. I will give them the opportunity to coordinate among themselves their working hours on holidays, not to obdilyuvaty people in their right to choice and to encourage propose additional payment for working on holidays.

Used Books

A. Osovska GV, Kosovo OA "Management" textbook of 2005.

2. L.V.Balabanova, O. Sardak. "The organization works manager" 2007.

3. Derlou D. "Key management decisions," scientific thought 2001

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