Potential risks in law enforcement

Essence and types of risk, the concept of occupational risk. Professional risk to human activities. Professional tax risk. Practical recommendations for the use of gas weapons. Gas cans and recommendations for their application. Application of gas gun.

Рубрика Безопасность жизнедеятельности и охрана труда
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 04.10.2012
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1. Types of risk and the concept of occupational risk

1.1 Essence and types of risk

1.2 Professional risk to human activities

1.3 Professional tax risk

2. Practical recommendations for the use of gas weapons

2.1 Gas cans and recommendations for their application

2.2 Application of gas gun


List of references


Potential risks in law enforcement in the wild increases significantly. Therefore, the fight against crime, particularly in the area of taxation, of course, must be systematic. Measures taken in this struggle must be subordinated Forged system which implies the necessity developments strategies and tactics in this fight, the development of measures, especially at the operational and tactical levels of tax authorities in accordance with the STA in areas Crimea, DPI, that certainly minimize the risk of professional employees of the DPS. While practitioners on these administrative levels often in a state of occupational risk, the potential level is extremely high, due to the growth tion of crime tends to increase.

These reasons suggest that the solution of phe but sions th risk and safety of workers DPS requires scientific support, while EID ACTORY signs that reflect the content-structural essence of the concept of occupational risk of tax police and other departments of DPS, as well as the concept of why an article, should give priority, as this aspect of the problem profryzyku tax day in scientific li that ra that cut enough not illuminated.

The purpose of the essay is to study the occupational hazards and recommendations on the use of gas weapons.

1. Types of risk and the concept of occupational risk

1.1 Essence and types of risk

Risk (R) - quantitative characterization of risk, which is determined by the frequency of hazards, the ratio of the number of cases of danger (n) to the number of possible cases of danger (N):

R = n / N

Risk - dimensionless quantity, it is usually defined for a specific period of time.

The risk is mainly assess the probabilistic characteristics (dimensionless quantity from 0 to 1), but can be used and the frequency of risk. The frequency of - a number of cases of possible manifestations of risk over time.

It is known that the risk inherent in a stimulating and protective functions. The catalytic function is constructive (create tools and protective devices) and destructive (adventurism, voluntarism) aspects. Protective function also has two aspects: historical and genetic (search for remedies) and socio-legal (law on the necessity of "Legal Risk"). VV Glushchenko proposed to allocate two risk function: compensatory (with an extra profit) and socio-economic (selective - the selection of efficient owners).

Types of risk:

Individual risk - the risk that characterized risk to the individual.

Collective risk (group, social) - the risk of manifestation danger of any sort for the team, a group of people for a particular social or professional group of people.

Acceptable (acceptable) risk - this is a minimum value at risk, which is achievable in terms of technical, economic and technological capabilities. Thus, acceptable risk is some compromise between the level of security and opportunity to achieve it. The magnitude of this risk depends on the type of industry, occupation, type of negative factors, which it is defined. It is now accepted that the actions of man-made hazards in general individual risk is considered acceptable if its value is less than 10 - 6.

1.2 Professional risk to human activities

Professional risk - the risk associated with professional human activities.

The study of occupational hazards - types of technological risks is especially important. This is primarily due to the formation mechanisms of insurance compulsory social insurance against industrial accidents and occupational diseases, the formation of mandatory occupational pension systems.

With other types (segments) social insurance these insurance institutions share common goals, principles of organization, methods and implementation of the most important functions of social protection: compensation for lost earnings (in the form of pensions and allowances), medical care, rehabilitation (where possible) damaged health and lost efficiency, as well as preventive measures to reduce occupational hazards. To create conditions for the establishment and effective functioning of these insurance institutions involves solving a number of difficult problems.

Firstly, it is necessary to develop a new quality system for our country analysis of occupational risks (scientific instruments risk, insurance mechanisms for their detection, federal and regional assessment centers and accounting risks, relevant scientific and information infrastructure).

Secondly, it should form a system of interrelated organizational, medical, social, financial and legal management mechanisms occupational risk.

As for the first problem - analysis of occupational risks, the scope of issues that need to be addressed due to the complex nature of, their considerable variety, and often difficult to predict long-term consequences. Thus, experts have identified more than 150 forms of occupational risks and about 1 thousand of species that represent a real danger to two thousand different trades. It is assumed that this classification is incomplete and covers only some aspects of occupational safety and health.

Such dissemination of occupational risks due to high levels of industrial labor, when the active use of engineering and technology, chemical and biological agents, various types of energy and penetrating radiation leads to the fact that virtually all spheres of human activity (including non-productive) literally permeated risks. Many scientists say that completely avoid risky situations in the process of labor in material production today is impossible.

In this regard, the definition of occupational risk factors, fundamental and applied research of their effects on employees, monitor health and safety in the workplace, the organization works on studying accidents and occupational diseases at the state level and a number of other issues outside the scope of tasks rated by professional risk.

Space occupational risk should be borne by the spectrum produced world practice defense mechanisms: legislative and control functions of the state, organizational and technical work of enterprises, compensation and rehabilitation activities of social insurance against industrial accidents.

An objective assessment of the effects of occupational hazards can make recommendations for the design of equipment, processes (ergonomic approach) and strategic objectives - to develop investment programs.

The management professional risk include a set of mechanisms and institutions to manage working environment, safety, hygiene and health workers. Influence the management in the context of occupational risk includes choice of priorities, decisions and actions to prevent and eliminate the causes of occupational injuries and health disorders, prevention of accidents, occupational and industrial-caused disease.

At the enterprise level management professional risk includes a set of different techniques: measurement of dust concentration and its content of chemical substances in the air of working zone of biomarkernoho monitoring event registration.

If you use the language practices of insurance, the analysis of occupational risk include task definition, identification and assessment of the extent of his danger, and management of this "phenomenon" - a set of mechanisms and institutions that help to reduce, compensation and risk control.

Professional risk is closely associated with uncertainty and probabilistic characteristics of object-subject relationship: a manifestation of a complex set of interrelated factors, working conditions and labor process (of a technical system to humans), the biological condition of the person and his or her health (perception of risk) of development mechanisms and institutions against risks (health and medicine work, social security and rehabilitation provisions). Each of the areas of risk - the risk that creates professional (technical system), perceives risk (professional group of employees) and manages (Institute of Engineering Safety, and Occupational Medicine, insurance) - it is important to study both separately and in combination: in the form resulting synergies existing types and levels of risk, business risk and "culture" of safety management.

From the standpoint of Occupational Medicine (occupational health and occupational diseases) professional risk is considered in terms of quantitative patterns of occupational diseases of workers and to develop mechanisms to prevent it. In this study the factors of production environment (noise, vibration, chemical and biological substances, radiation and other penetrating radiation and so on) and the labor process (labor intensity, pace of work, etc.) as a source of health damage. This approach is enshrined in determining occupational risk proposed by the World Health Organization: risk - a mathematical concept that reflects the expected severity and / or frequency of adverse reactions of human exposure to this harmful factors in the working environment. The risk level is determined by comparing the degree of spread of certain diseases in certain professional groups working in specific working conditions (exposure factors working environment hazard class of substances and excess concentrations in relation to sanitary standards).

From the standpoint of safety and occupational health and safety risk is considered in terms of identifying risk factors (technology, technology and type of production, labor organization, staff training and conduct preventive work on health) that affect the level of injuries and the development of technical and organizational measures to reduce it.

Thus, from the standpoint of medicine, health and safety, occupational risk assessment is an analysis of its causes and extent of impact on professional groups working in specific sectors of the economy.

Cause-effect relationships are analyzed as follows: working conditions - risk - accident - sorry. This qualitative risk assessment methods used for detection and identification of existing causes and types of risks, and quantitative - to assess the frequency or likelihood of serious consequences.

In the process of risk assessment can be roughly divided into four stages: identifying hazardous and hazardous occupational risk factors from the perspective of their potential risk to workers' health, collecting data on the incidence and severity of occupational injuries and occupational diseases, the economic impact assessment of industrial accidents and occupational diseases, actuarial "sensing" occupational hazards and choosing a suitable model of insurance.

For the purpose of Social Security is important to consider that there are industries and enterprises where most accidents do not cause serious consequences, and those where a significant number of accidents entail serious consequences for employees (partial or total disability). Accordingly, it causes higher dimensions compensation volumes of medical and rehabilitation services. Furthermore, even with the same disability (depending on the type of occupational injury or disease) victims required different in character and value of services associated with the treatment, medical, vocational and social rehabilitation. Therefore, economic and natural indicators of occupational risks differ.

From the perspective of social insurance professional risk is the probability of occurrence for this professional group of employees insured events that are accompanied by loss of earnings (due to accidents at work and occupational diseases) and require the costs of treatment and rehabilitation. It is important to emphasize that is not insured by the risk of injury or occupational disease (which can not be reduced to zero, they can only lower), and loss of earnings due to accidents and extra costs for the treatment and rehabilitation of victims who thus arise.

The level of occupational risk is characterized by:

probability (frequency for this professional group of employees for a certain period of time) of the insured event, leading to the loss of earnings due to occupational accidents;

species (nosology) and duration of damage to health (disability);

set compensation, medical and rehabilitative services required for a particular professional group of employees.

It should be noted that the main characteristic of social insurance against accidents at work and occupational diseases is that your object of this type of protection includes economic and legal relations concerning the adverse social consequences of professional work.

In connection with this institute compulsory social insurance against industrial accidents and occupational diseases using as only his peculiar methods for assessing occupational risks primarily cost methods to determine the amount of required insurance payments (premiums) are sufficient to ensure insurance payments.

As for the statistics of occupational injuries and diseases, the assessment of individual risk factors professional who are subjects of health and Occupational Medicine and Safety, they used social insurance for the following tasks: ranking and classification of risk, develop preventive measures for their warning, forming the knowledge base and an appropriate infrastructure with risk management.

The object of study of occupational hazards is the workplace, where risky situation may show itself. For example, the workplace for employees with different probability can influence risk factors for chemical, physical and biological nature, as well as the risk factors of the labor process (severity, intensity and monotony of work).

According to the WHO, more than 100 thousand chemicals (often called numbers 500-600 thousand chemicals and more), 200 biological agents, physical factors of about 50 and 20 factors of the labor process, affecting people in various combinations and displays, form different the types and levels of risk situations. It appears these situations, depending on the measures to protect workers differently: the number of industrial accidents, occupational and industrial-caused morbidity and severity of their effects vary significantly. Therefore, measurement of probabilistic risk characteristics using different methods - a priori (predicted) estimates based on hygienic-normalized actions of individual risk factors and a posteriori, ie statistical estimates of actual events.

In determining the level of occupational risk assessment of the working conditions in the workplace to hygienic criteria is preliminary (wears predictions) and should be complemented by its effect on the actual health professional levels (production due) incidence and severity of their consequences, working with health statistics.

1.3 Professional tax risk

In law enforcement, which operates and the State Tax Service, the problem of risk remains a key in the process of law enforcement, that is, in particular, in the interest of criminal justice. In legal science the basic foundation for the evaluation and risk analysis is its legitimacy, ie naskil ing risky action based on the law, comply with legal requirements. In our opinion, this field applies to the general conclusion about understanding the risk. The finding that the most common and at the same time largely general meaning - it is about sional Fe risk is the risk profession as certain, in fact, mandatory structural ele ment work, the bearer of the risk profession is an employee - member of the labor process. An employee who risks the performance of job functions or a group of workers at risk of nicks individually or, respectively, collectively. The person who risks - is an employee who always sees or creates professional risks.

Since it is known that professional risk law enforcement agencies, including tax authorities, most often in areas defined by extreme necessity and self-defense, action operatives in self-defense, extreme necessity in the performance of their official functions in the state professions tion risk require sophisticated penal settlement.

Uncertainty, unpredictability, surprise situations that arise in practice, extremely fast, their development also requires operative worker extremely high professional and physical training, the formation of his operational tion thinking ability in extreme conditions to make the right decisions at any time to adjust thereof, without departing from the ethical, legal and praxeological (they contain tactical aspect) criteria justification to sham trades tion of risk. The cases of occupational risk, in our opinion, there is not necessarily simultaneously with the emergence of criminal (procedural) relations, and before that, for example, when there are operational and investigative attitude. It is extremely important for practice because operating officer, based on certain applicable laws for legislative and regulatory acts of rights and obligations is to use all legal institutions and mechanisms applies to professional risk. Certainly, he mos contains in itself creative, and if special equipment (equipment) and technical assis you pitch. Note that these aspects of occupational risk can manifest itself in criminal work, because the duties of the pattern can be justified in situations that do not contain any surprises, chance, uncertainty. The essential factors com for understanding differences in risk spherical deci search operations and relations professor sions-rate risk (the latter concept is much wider) is, in our opinion, some basis of their expression. Firstly, professional exposure as there is with the emergence of criminal law Closed (procedural) relationship between law enforcement and the criminal, whereas by identifying operational risk is of investigative operations local relations operatives subdivisions additionally police and persons who are reasonably suspected of preparing or committing a crime. Another significant feature of the opera tive rate risk is addressed by unpublished in terms of implemented measures. The third features include power tools and methods used in criminal activity where the risk emerges as a means to an end, facing investigators. Given the above it can be argued that professional risk occurs simultaneously with any legal relationship - criminal process al them operational devel shukovymy et al., Including enforcement (Article 19 of the Law of Ukraine "On the State Tax Service of Ukraine "dated December 4, 1990 № 509-XII). But some features of operational activities set him apart in a professional risk in the operational-search relationship.

Thus, employees of tax authorities, by virtue of their professional duties, liabilities knitted take actions related to overcoming the danger of prejudice to the interests of that ohoro nyayutsya law, including his own. The only question to solution to problems lated extra mal, an extraordinary situation that arose was within self-defense or extreme necessity, that the actions of the order to be considered pravomir them, in any case should not go outside these institutions.

Thus, there are three main groups of related attributes, which should reflect the content structure of the concept of occupational risk of tax services. The first signs of a more general group - those that are characteristic of professional risk DPS employees as law enforcement. Among them: a) uncertainty, unpredictability, unexpected situations that arise in practice, b) a threat to the security of the state, its economic sector (economic security) or personal or public safety, or material values, a man of law his rights and interests, c) the probability of undesirable consequences. Second game pa has a specific color and typical cases of occupational risk, detection is associated with the implementation of the tax service highly specific function of monitoring compliance with tax laws: a) a threat to the current system of taxation, which is a combination of taxes and duties procedure (procedure fool) of their collection, b) implementation of actions to monitor compliance with tax legislation tion in accordance with the powers and duties set by the legisla stvom. The third group of signs is in the nature of mandatory requirements and concerns directly vestments very much the same tax officials in extreme, emergency situations - situations vestments tion: a) the legality of action taken, including the benefit of criminal judicial chynstva, b) limited -zhenist action in risky situations outside of extreme necessity and self-defense.

Learning situations profryzyku when making tax enforcement activities ARRANGEMENTS accumulated empirical evidence to overcome it, the above mentioned content-struc tourn signs allow, based on previously proposed definitions of occupational risk of tax militia DPS and other law enforcement agencies to identify risk professional staff divisions tax police authorities of tion Tax Service of Ukraine as the uncertainty of results (consequences of the) activities undertaken pursuant to the objectives in the implementation of operational, criminal procedure and security functions under general but accepted ethical norms and requirements legislation in a dangerous but sti, where there is a real threat to the tax system, life or health - their own or another person - security of society and the state, the interests of individuals and legal entities, which are protected by law, to prevent, combat or elimina tion for such storms, prevent and detect violations of tax laws, even with the injury, but less significant for abstract or corresponding danger pechnosti infringement of tion or environment protection.

In professional risk workers search operations sub-diliv tax ing police in investigative should understand the uncertainty of results (consequences) of actions undertaken by the above mentioned conditions in the operational activities of its principles in order to obtain information to protect the system subject of taxation, tion ensure the safety of citizens, society and the state, stopping violations of tax legislation and in the interests of criminal justice.

Professional risk employees of other departments of the tax authorities do not cross borders, outlined the tasks and functions of tax administration. It is also associated with the profession tax, execution of their tasks and functions under conditions of uncertainty and danger, when implementing powers conferred on the current law lation is hereby divisions tax authorities.

2. Practical recommendations for the use of gas weapons

2.1 Gas cans and recommendations for their use

Gas gun - a hand weapon designed to destroy attacking spray or gas cloud containing strong autacoid irritant. For the distribution of the active substance used gas pistols (revolvers), the basis of which is the powder charge or the pressure of gas contained in the special gas cylinders.

The basic principle, which is incorporated in the gas weapon, is to find close to the attacker or hazodymnoyi aerosol clouds, comprising strong physiologically active substance irritant action. This substance causes severe pain in the eyes, severe heartburn in the nasopharynx, the interception of breath, and sometimes even loss of consciousness. Later in the striker, who was in the area of ??gas substances pass all the symptoms of malaise. Time spent in a dysfunctional state depends on the concentration of the active substance in a volume of air, which surrounds man. Practice shows that the resulting instantaneous aerosol toxicity person, which attacked, boasts plenty of time to ask for help or escape from the attacker, or take action regarding his detention. In some cases, the active substance toxic dyes added to both the gas failure "flag" for the next attacker identification and arrest. Gas weapons for structural characteristics can be divided into gas pistols, revolvers fired, gas cylinders and special gas assets in the form of mechanical dispensers.

What is important to remember when choosing a gas balloon?

Attention is drawn to the following the parameters: content cartridge (irrytant), volume spray, spray workmanship, the term of his life.

An important parameter is the volume of the container, because it is directly related to the time of complete spraying spray. Cartridges come in the following sizes: 100 ml, duration (full cuts) - 10-20 s., 65 ml - 5.10 sec., 25 ml - 6 p. Time must also be specified on the label cartridge, but the manufacturer is sometimes somewhat overstates its duration.

To figure out the substance from a container, it is advisable to purchase two cans - one for training and one for the case of an attack.

Any time of the cylinders for the same amount due to the speed with which sprayed the contents, and, respectively, and the range and number irrytantu who will get forward at the same time.

Time - an important parameter, but do not take into account the size and spray concentrations of irritating substance, given that the allowable amount of the substance is the same for all cans, and, accordingly, the lower cylinder, the more concentration it irritating substance.

1. Proper wear.

For effective use in case of a danger to carry container so that it could quickly pull out of your pocket, bag, cover.

To do this, follow these rules:

A. At least once a week Train habit of whipping out of sight and the gas cans in the imaginary face of the offender or a target to ensure that at the time there was a danger reflexively get it, rather than reflect, losing a second.

B. For the same reason, do not want to change the location of the container in clothing or bag, because at a certain skill you vyrobytsya reflex speed extraction of gas cans.

B. It should be "seasonal" factors as winter gas cans contents are less effective. So, summer, spring, fall container can be worn in outer pockets. Remember that in your pocket should not be anything other than gas cylinders. Seeds, coins, dirt can kill valve, leading to disability cylinder. In winter you can wear a tank or in the inner pocket from which container can be easy to get, but in dangerous locations (gateways, entrances, etc.) should not be lazy to take a balloon in hand or at least translate into an external pocket. In addition, the winter can be worn in the outer cylinder pocket, but with one condition - to keep his hands to avoid lowering the temperature of the cylinder, thus reducing its effectiveness when used.

D. Women are not recommended to wear spray in the bag as needed for a long time to retrieve it, but its often than bags just nowhere to put. If the container is placed in a bag, you put it in a separate pocket, preferably outside, and always one that easily unbuttoned.

D. The use of special covers for gas canisters. Some are attached at the waist, some - a special clamp directly on clothes. Choosing the case, do not hesitate to exercise, stretching spray. If the rate of extraction is low, or cover design failure - refuse cover.

2. Total tactic application.

The general principle of using spray cans is reduced to two points. First you have to spray the contents of spray into the eyes of the offender, then immediately go back and to the side, not letting him catch you. At the same time continue spray irrytant from a cylinder in his face.

For efficient use of inkjet cartridge, including a narrow stream of irritant substances, you must exercise at a target. Also note that for use in transport only suitable inkjet cylinders.

We now turn directly to the tactics.

In any situation, first of all, think - could effectively leave the field of the future battlefield? You need your family alive and healthy. Cans are not a panacea for bullies - it just gives you an extra chance.

In case of a suspicious situation namatsayte bottle in his pocket and place it in the palm of your hand, if necessary to apply it instantly.

Not demonstrate their balloon opponent until its use - it can simply dodge or close sleeves clothing outspread hand. Act quickly, use the surprise effect - unscrew the enemy shouting or actions, cover his face with a bottle. Then proceed as appropriate. The best option - a pair of strikes finally bring the enemy down, or at least immobilize.

The most effective use of spray small distances, no more than a meter. Applying the "close" several tens of centimeters, suddenly the attacker can be very effective, but needs to come to him on a dangerous course.

If you used all irrytant and through various circumstances can not leave the field of battle, and opponents still have to continue you fight, you can use the "additional" function cylinder.

Once the tank is empty - shpurnit his face offender, diverting his attention, and then attack it or his accomplice (if any), or run from the place of attack.

Be prepared for the fact that there may be situations in which associates are on the side of the victim, especially if he did not hit you. In such cases, too, do not expect the solutions best to just leave the scene.

2.2 Application of gas gun

risk professional tax weapon

Proper gas gun should be based not on its external resemblance to military weapons, and on the understanding that gas pistol and gun battle - a tactical antipodes. This idea seems very strange when holding in your hands the object, so like a gun. But it is.

Even the relationship of movement and shooting in these antipodes completely different. With a gun battle moving to shoot. A gas-fired, in order to move. Gas gun - a tool that provides us retreat.

Lone pedestrian, who was attacked should first make every effort to escape from the scene. But the flight could end badly if the enemy will be possible prosecution.

We can not just run away from attackers for two reasons. First, we stopped and released. Second overtaken. Not all run fast.

Here to help in these cases and is designed gas weapons. It is, firstly, to help us break through if we are surrounded, and secondly, to reduce the speed overtaking, ideally - the maximum. Battle as gas weapons do not allow to count on anymore.

To successfully with gas pistol decide "breakthrough" and "separation" to learn to shoot with it. And the biggest mistake here is a direct borrowing conventional pistol shooting skills.

Unlike combat, gas weapons for full success requires that the opponent did too little for his defeat. The opponent has to breathe the gas and forget zamruzhyty or cover his eyes. That he should do wrong action. And the main problem of efficient use of gas weapons is that for the full success of its application requires not only our skills, but very desirable and error striker. Otherwise gas event, but not the maximum way.

Gas guns fully effective only if the one who needs protection. somehow provoke missteps striker, in other words - only if the victim deceived him.

With gas pistol without cheating, no tricks shoot stupid. Most of the failures in the application associated with just misunderstanding this. A normal person is very difficult in a second turn into a villain and deceiver. And he loses time and chance, trying to cope with the invaders "human language".

It is always very difficult to determine the start of the bout. Situations may be infinitely many, but at least we can advise always control the space behind. The very attempt to come to you for a spin - this is the beginning of the war. From this moment you are fighting, no doubt. But the fire is not yet possible.

Never shoot a gas gun, if you went for a spin. We shoot for the departure, and when behind enemy nowhere to retreat. We make every effort to using yet "silent" phase of confrontation, move so that behind him was empty. Yes, it may be difficult or even unfeasible, but nevertheless, shoot, having someone behind is unacceptable. We should not hesitate to use cunning and acting.

Now the same shooting. When using a gas gun can do two types of shots. The first - a straight shot to the face. Second - is shooting to stage curtains.

The first type of shot seems quite simple, but it has an insidious feature. If at the time of the shot opponent time to hide behind your hands or just prymruzhytsya (a loud sound when shot eyes reflexively close yourself), your shot is likely to be lost in vain. In the face gets less than 20% charge, and the other, much of it simply fly past the ears forward and dissolved in the air.

We provide a complete surprise this shot, but better and something to distract the opponent, such as leaving it in the hands of a bag or anything. Usually one fixes attention on the fact that it can take many times this technique can be seen in the movie. Or do kind that behind him you saw something horrible. He always ozyrnetsya. Upon turning his head back and you need to shoot in the face.

Shot in the face must be completely unexpected for the enemy, otherwise it is easy to cancel its effect.

Inadmissibility threaten gas gun and even show it to fire is obvious.

A large proportion of unsuccessful applications of gas weapons, apparently, were the main reason it is a mistake to providing direct shot in the face. The fact that it needs to do, know all, and that without the full support of his surprise he usually useless, remember little.

So, those who initially lifted gas gun, threatening, shouting slogans, and then shot in the face for some reason completely to this opponent, and only then is telling: "I fired, and he though that!"

What if the enemy managed to obscure the face? It should be immediately clear that the first type of firing failed and quickly move to the second type, setting fire to curtains.

Under the veil should understand creating a gas cloud in such a way that its next move opponent was forced to do already in it. It should be slightly lower gun and shoot longer in the face and on the body, so that most of the charge came to clothes.

How to create a cloud around the striker? That shooting so permeate gas his clothes. Effective way to somehow fix the cloud around the figure no. Must take into account that cloud immediately after the shot goes up. And then every time its motion opponent vytrushuvatyme gas from the folds of clothing, gas will go up again in the face. Deciding that he successfully "squinted" from shot villain decides to go into attack Open your eyes and hold your breath and stop here it will be operational gas remaining in the folds of his clothing.

Clearly, this is a very conventional scheme and "treatment" gas clothes may not be as effective as treatment oysters with lemon juice. But exactly what gas clothes attacker is more useful than than the nearby bushes.

An important rule firing the gas gun is mandatory support each shot our movement back. Typically, the shooting itself is only to provide a retreat and provoke the enemy to attack you immediately in the gas curtain. It is impossible to give specific advice about the type of motion, speed and other details, because each situation is unique in its own way. But as a rule, true is the following statement:

With gas gun shoot only in motion and only for movement away from the enemy.

Direct shot too actually designed just for this and it in any case it should not be to "punish" the enemy or "that he became ill." This shot should be done only to ensure the capabilities are carefully shot to make curtains and unlock it yourself. So get the opportunity to start an energetic departure from this place. But it can only do if you observe your opponents obvious symptoms of damage active substance. Feel free to add, but no more than three shots each. If several opponents, shoot not "consistently" and "parallel". That "works" over all at once, instead of each separately, it is very important. And if you do not make a mistake in "diagnosing" their condition after shooting, you get at least 30 seconds. Do not flatter yourself, enemies can quickly recover, and use those seconds to escape with maximum entanglement route. Opponents example, may know where you live and try to intercept the road.

Thus, a direct shot in the face is actually a very simple and requires good possession skills of deception and disguise. So do not try to do it if you interfere or if the distance is not far away. Great temptation "strelnuty close", but do not forget that a person reacts to close dangerous movements are reflex. It is a natural human trait, borrowed her in wild ancestors. Your opponents will likely play sports some sports and sport brings such good reflexes.

Shot in the face is best done not in bustling style hysterical jerk, but deceptively-smooth, "sneaky" move. Or under the disguise of another movement. It will not necessarily be pretty, but it should be effective. Do not expect anyone scare movements aggressive type. When pulling out a gun do not perform sharp and beautiful movements and postures take cinematic type. Your opponents are also watching American movies and such movements only deliver them your intentions. Mask their movements and do not hurry. Strive to be like a vegetable, not a grenade. Grenade alarming and mobilizes.

Unprepared physically and morally a person should not bet on a direct shot. His failure of will likely only complicate the situation. It is better to use the second type of shot for curtains.

Rules of gas weapons by police officers.

Applicable only organic gas weapon, when the use of other special equipment not produced the desired result on the offender, during the suppression of illegal acts that do not constitute a great danger to society provided administrative legislation of Ukraine in the following cases:

- To apprehend offenders in the exercise of administrative and judicial enforcement action pursuant to judicial decisions;

- To protect citizens and protect themselves from unlawful acts, if the life or health of others, a police officer in danger;

- For stopping group violations of public order.

Using gas weapons must be preceded by notice of intent to use it except in cases of sudden or armed attack, an attack using vehicles, military equipment, aircraft.

Gas weapon used from a distance of 01.03 meters in the chest.

Used cartridges with tear substance irritant action.

Do not use organic gas guns to women with obvious signs of pregnancy, the elderly, the disabled with severe signs of disability, as adolescents, unless they commit a group attack resistance, threatening the health of others, police or armed attack or armed resistance.

Do aiming shooting in the head section of the offender, reapply gas weapons within the affected area during the period of gas. Do not use organic gas gun at a distance closer than 1 meter, as well as areas in industries related to production of explosives and flammable substances in children's and medical institutions, in areas and on land reserved for diplomatic, consular and other representatives of foreign states, except for cases when the heads of offices receive requests to use these places appropriate means and measures to offenders.

Inappropriate use of gas weapons attendance entail responsibility established by the current legislation of Ukraine.

Rules of gas hand grenades, gas grenades ammunition from the police.

Manual gas grenades, cartridges with gas grenades are designed for psychophysical effects on offenders by creating hazodymnoyi clouds unbearable concentration is cleaner criminal suppression of illegal acts that contain elements of the crime.

Manual gas grenades, cartridges with gas grenades used in open areas and in the room to stop the group of disruption, riots, capture armed criminals by creating hazodymnoyi clouds up to 20 m3.

Cartridges with gas grenades vidstrilyuyutsya with special weapons to a distance of 100 m

Do not use hand-held gas grenades, cartridges with gas grenades in rooms in industries related to production of explosives and flammable substances in children's hospitals and in the buildings and on land reserved for diplomatic, consular and other representatives of foreign States, except in cases when the heads of offices receive requests to take the relevant measures and means to offenders in cases where they may suffer around, shoot cartridges with gas grenades on a horizontal trajectory and aiming to offenders.

Inappropriate use of hand-held gas grenades, gas grenades ammunition entails responsibility established by the current legislation of Ukraine.


The foregoing suggests the following conclusions.

1. By "occupational risk" is meant the probability of disorders resulting from the adverse effects of occupational factors including the severity of the consequences that arise. The essence of professional risk is the loss suffered to the full capacity of the existence associated with temporary or permanent disability due to occupational disease or industrial injury.

2. Activity of tax service, its special unit - the tax police - always occurs in circumstances where an appeal to the professional risks tion is an objective necessity. In particular, specific operational work, in addition to general requirements for mental and physical health, makes also a number of spe al these requirements. Firstly, the operational effectiveness of the employee under extreme condi islands depends primarily on the ability of the body - in the sense of normal pro tions of physical and mental functions (psychophysiological reliability, readiness at any moment to act in extreme conditions). Second, the operations officer on wines to be characterized by the ability to transition from one activity to another, he should have developed perception, improve their professional skill, moral and ethical qualities. Thirdly, the management of occupational risks, the essence of which is to minimize them, in needs a legal organization, including personnel and information, tech NIKO infrastructure, tactical software will adjust Genot management system at all levels: national and departmental - insur tion between the strategic, operational and tactical. In this regard, further stud lidzhennya such activity should be carried out primarily considering orhanizitsiyno-right-tion, moral, ethical, informational, praxeological - it has the tactical - and psychological aspects. Generally, tax practice you need to measures taken not only employees of tax blende police their operational units and other structural sections under tax, answered:

- Moral and ethical criteria: oath of duty, honor, principle of "all are equal before the law," the presumption of innocence, humanity, matching the behavior of each taxman ethical requirements of legal ethics, etc.;

- Legal and organizational criteria: they result from the requirements of the Law of Ukraine "On the State Tax Service of Ukraine", "On Police", "The operational activities form the basis for expansion ness" of the Criminal and Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine and other legislative and regulatory acts regulating relations in the sphere of opposition dates forging; require locat tion of general and specific requirements concerning the legality of actions in a state of necessity tion defense, extreme necessity, when detaining criminals compliance with the right dimensions appeal to the relevant laws and regulations requiring effective organiza tion software etc.

- Praxeological criteria that include tactical aspect: the ability to evaluate available so you form mation and specific situation, identify their advantages in it by holders, without himself in eq stress mal situations ation possible freedom of action to prevent the sky enhance diagnostic power effects on the actions of criminals, in knit their own initiative, but managing operational available forces, resources, and opportuni Vost, to ensure superiority in numbers, the ability proya twist in any situation their intellectual that cial opportunities, always be wise to equip others.

3. Gas weapon is defined as a weapon designed to temporarily defeat the purpose served by the use of tear and irritating substances. Gas weapons (gas pistols and revolvers, including ammunition for them, mechanical sprayers, spray and other devices equipped tear or irritants) is regarded as a self-defense weapon. Gas weapons divided into: 1) cans filled with an irritant substance and tear action, 2) pistols and revolvers, ammunition which are filled with the same substance.

4. Experts advise not to be afraid to use a gas gun, because its potential to neutralize the enemy very large and often tempted to practice. Something else seems right with the use of gas pistols and revolvers.

List of references

1. Hohytashvyly G. Evaluation dash - the basis of management ohranoy labor / / Journal "Ocran labor", 2007. - № 4. - C. - 31-36.

2. Michael Greenberg. / / "RUZHЁ. - № 6.

3. and others. Duty.

4. - 2002. - № 4 (18). - S. 202-205.

5. Kotyahov Alexander. Using hazovыh ballonchykov.

6. Royk Valentine.

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