The influence of external factors on lexical changes in the english language of the XXI century
Identification of the main problems of modern English XXI art. External factors that influenced the lexical changes in the English language. The role, meaning of the abbreviation in the process of replenishment of the vocabulary of the English language.
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The influence of external factors on lexical changes in the english language of the XXI century
У статті розглядаються актуальні проблеми сучасної англійської мови ХХІ століття. Автор, на підставі досліджень останніх років виокремив найяскравіші зовнішні фактори, які вплинули на лексичні зміни англійської мови. Ми спробували довести, що розвиток англійської мови як динамічної системи характеризується істотним впливом на неї екстралінгвістичних факторів. Такі явища як глобальна фінансова криза, оцифровування, інтернетизація, текстові повідомлення (смс) та інші спричинюють вплив на англійську мову, на її збагачення новими лексичними одиницями. Упродовж останніх десятиліть одним з найпродуктивніших способів поповнення словникового складу англійської мови є абревіація, крім цього простежується тенденція до подальшого зростання питомої ваги складних слів.
У статті проаналізовано фактори, які сприяють процесу утворення нових слів, і, на думку автора, є вагомими для подальшого вивчення та дослідження. Розглядаючи актуальні проблеми сучасної англійської мови ХХІ століття, ми, на основі досліджень останніх десятиліть, виокремили найяскравіші зовнішні фактори, які вплинули на лексичні зміни англійської мови ХХІ століття. english vocabulary abbreviation
Ключові слова: глобальна фінансова криза, модні слова, оцифровування, інтернетизація, абревіатури.
В статье рассматриваются актуальные проблемы современного английского языка ХХІ столетия. Автор, на основе исследований последних лет, выделяет наиболее яркие внешние факторы, которые повлияли на лексические изменения в английском языке. Мы попытались доказать, что развитие английского языка как динамической системы характеризуется важным влиянием на него экстралингвистических факторов. Такие явления как глобальный финансовый кризис, оцифровывание, интернетизация, текстовые сообщения (смс) и другие влияют на английский язык, на его обогащение новыми лексическими единицами. На протяжении последних десятилетий одним из самых продуктивных способов пополнения словарного состава английского языка является аббревиатура, кроме этого отмечается тенденция к дальнейшему увеличению влияния сложных слов.
В статье проанализированы факторы, обуславливающие процесс создания новых слов, и, по мнению автора, являющиеся важными для дальнейшего изучения и исследования. Рассматривая актуальные проблемы современного английского языка, мы, на основе исследований последних лет, смогли выделить наиболее значимые внешние факторы, которые повлияли на лексические изменения в английском языке ХХІ столетия.
Ключевые слова: глобальный финансовый кризис, модны слова, оцифровывание, интернетизация, аббревиатуры.
The article deals with the actual problems of modern English language of the ХХІ st century. On the basis of studies of the recent years, the author separated the most striking external factors which had an influence on lexical changes in the English language. We attempted to prove that the development of the English language as a dynamic system characterized greatly by an important influence of the extralingual factors. Such phenomenon as global financial crisis, digitization, internatization, text messaging (sms) and others are affected English and its enrichment of new lexical units. Over a period of recent decades one of the most productive way of English vocabulary replenishment was abbreviation. Also, the basic tendency of nowadays is increasing influence of compound words.
The article analyses factors which are caused the process of creation of new words. In author's judgment these factors are significant for further studying and investigation. In consideration of topical problems of modern English we sorted out the most important outer factors which affected greatly lexical changes in the English language. Anyone who studies lexicology should know the factors determining lexical changes in the English language of the XXIst century
Key words: global financial crisis, buzzwords, digitization, internetization, abbreviations.
In the last centuries many word creations are spread amongst the language community. It is because of new inventions and changes. Every language is in need of new words - borrowed, derived or otherwise formed, so, when new inventions and changes enter our lives, we are in need of naming them and of course to communicate about them. Language is dynamic, and it changes constantly. There are many ways to create new words: borrowing from other languages, blending together from several words or deriving from words we already have, we can convert words from one grammatical category to another, we can use processes include clippings, with which the word is shortened, etc. So finally, if we take a look around, we will see a mass of new words surrounding us, brought to us both consciously by language trends or advertising and unconsciously through language change over time.
Foreign scientists as D. Crystal, R. Ling, N. Negroponte, D. Perlmutter, S. Silberstein, D. Tapscott, P. Trudgill, R. Watts and others investigate the correct use of modern English words and neologisms, such as lexical innovations caused by internet communication, internationalisms etc. A great contribution to the subject of English word-formation study was made by I. Arnold, R. Ginzburg, O. Meshkov, A. Smirnitsky, N. Rayevska and others. Our native researchers (V. Dmytruk, V. Polkovsky, V. Sokolov, P. Romanovski, M. Volkova, A. Zhyk and others) consider the contemporary English language as the universal language of the XXIst century.
The aim is to study factors determining lexical changes in English in the context of recent language studies. The purpose is achieved by fulfilling the following tasks: 1. to analyze articles on lexical innovations; 2. to choose main factors influencing the development of English; 3. to investigate global financial crisis, buzzwords, digitization, internetization, Business English, language of politics, text messaging and some others in order to explain lexical changes.
The topicality of the research is proved by the fact that nowadays, we can speak about the era of globalization. The growth of cross-cultural contacts, advent of new categories of identities which participates in a world culture and, as a result our languages have undergone different transformations. According to D. Crystal, it is “...a new reality that today's English, even the spoken British English, is already a mass of hybrid forms. The native speaker of English must accept that English belongs to the world, and new forms of English, born of new countries with new communicative needs, should be accepted into the flexible and adaptable galaxy of Englishes which constitute the English language” [1, p. 42].
Due to the situation observed in the post-modern society, some not genuine types of Englishes have also developed as in the last decades because vast numbers of people were pushed to emigration. As P. Romanovski supposes, “English is an instrument without which contemporary global citizens would not be able to exist or even survive. On the whole, it is worth stressing that Spanglish, Franglais, Polglish, Chinglish and many other linguistic combinations are a product of large bilingual communities or close border contacts” [2, p. 362].
A significant feature of a modern spoken language of Americans is a designation of a class of subjects or the phenomena one of words of this class. This phenomenon in language refers to synecdoche (a designation of the whole in connection with a part). Slang borrows enough most part of the dictionary of the modern American, and, in the XXIst century there is an active process of transition slang lexicon in literary English.
I. Holubovska in her article “Anthropological linguistics and classical languages: possibilities of research” writes that nowadays we can speak about changes in the language studying from anthropological point of view in order to research language inseparably linked with thinking, consciousness, cognition, culture, world outlook of a person and its community [3, p. 14]. There is a fundamental change taking place in the role of technology in business and society. The influx of neologisms is amazing. J. Keats (who writes for Jargon Watch column for Wired magazine) remarks: “For Jargon Watch each month I sort through a vast number of newspapers, magazines, and blogs, both mass-media and specialized publications, finding as many as one hundred notable words from which I select the four that seem most characteristic of the moment or most likely to have a future” [4, p. 8].
English vocabulary was enriched greatly because of global financial crisis (credit crisis, global economic downturn) started in 2007 as a result of American mortage market crash (subprime mortage crisis). The topicality of such problems caused learning financial terms by native speakers (subprime mortage, liquidity, derivatives, discount rate etc). Viktor Sokolov states a fact that nowadays “.. .there is the growth of valency using the lexeme “subprime” (subprime market, subprime solution, subprime snafu, subprime collapse, subprime lending, subprime mess etc)” [5, p. 253]. Also, TARP (Troubled Assets Relief Program) is the acronym of the organization which helps companies when they are in great difficulties. Nowadays it is the centre of lexical and phraseological paradigm: tarp cash, TARP bill, TARP funds, TARP money etc. The neologism exploding ARM means such a credit, when a borrower isn't able to pay money for it, and many others.
Another factor determining the lexical changes in English is using buzzwords (catchy words and phrases). According to V. Polkovsky the XXIst century has been characterized by many catchy words and phrases. “Whenever I pick up a trade journal, receive a notice for a seminar or conference, or visit a trade show, big headlines, banners and blaring videos tell me “out of the box'' is critical for today's or tomorrow's success, growth or even survival! It does not seem to matter whether that “out of the box” is thinking, doing, implementing or managing. Clearly, to some, it's the most important thing anyone can be doing today. “Out of the box'” is in, “in the box'” is out. Seems like authentic, “out of the box'” and innovation are the three magic terms to get us out of the present economic malaise” [6, p. 308].
Then, we should speak about digitization. “Computing is not about computers any more. It is about living” [7, p. 26] considers N. Negroponte. One example of this that we return to again and again is the Internet. As communication becomes increasingly digital, “...many of the values of a nation-state will give way to those of both larger and smaller electronic communities. We will socialize in digital neighborhoods in which physical space will be irrelevant and time will play a different role” [7, p. 26].
Internetization or informational revolution is one of the most powerful factors influencing the enrichment of modern English vocabulary. Such prefixes as anti-, auto-, back-, bi-, micro-, de-, e-, digi-, hyper-, macro- proved to be the most productive computer prefixes: antivirus, auto-answer, backhitching, bilayer, digispeak, hyperdiagram, microcas etc [8, p. 21]. It should be also mentioned that prefix “e-” is one of the highly-productive means of coining new computer terms, and in addition to it we can say that it is one of the latest appeared means, as all the derivatives built with the help of
“e-” are classified as neologisms. Sv. Philonik has grouped the lexical units that have the word-building element “e-” (electronic) in their structure into groups based on their meaning and illustrated their usage by providing examples taken from different magazines and the Internet. She divides lexical units according to the sphere of usage and meaning into such groups: business (e-sale, e-marketing, e-cash, etc.); education (e-rater, e-Science etc.), employment (e-cruitment e-Job, etc.), electronic equivalent of printed/written texts (e-book, e-brary e-mail), people (e-Envoy, eMentor), politics (e- democracy e-Minister) [9, p. 437].
The most productive computer suffixes are a) noun-forming suffixes: - er: eraser, transceiver, transmitter, user, etc.; -ion: notification, quantization, recognition, transposition, etc.; -ing: recording, splitting, videoconferencing, etc.; -ability: acceptability, accessibility, etc.; b) adjective-forming suffixes: - ed: abandoned, keyed, managed, triggered, etc.; -able: acceptable, addressable, portable, etc.; c) verb-forming suffixes: -ize: alphabetize, computerize, digitize.
The process of shortening is very inherent to English in whole and to computer vocabulary in particular. Shortening is the most productive way in computing, Internet and programming. The most popular shortenings are: W W W (World Wide Web), http (hypertext transfer protocol, used on the World Wide Web), PDA (personal digital assistant), CD (compact disc), ROM (ReadOnly Memory), RAM (Random Access Memory), USB (Universal Serial Bus), etc.
R. Mahachashvili divides shortenings into 3 subtypes: 1. acronyms:
HAND (Have A Nice Day), kiss (Keep it simple, stupid), FAT (File Allocation Tables)); 2. abbreviations: AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port), DDTT (Don't Do That Then) etc.; 3. elliptical shortenings of word combinations: dialup (dialup connection); pop-up (pop-up balloon, pop-up window), mobile (mobile phone), beta (beta-version), junk (junk mail), banner (web banner) [10, p. 24].
Frankenword is a word formed by combining two (or more) parts of other words. This term was coined in the mid-nineties in the context of .observation of the growing number of neologisms formed by cannibalizing chunks of existing words” [8, p. 20]. The term was subsequently adopted in linguistics, where such words are often referred to as blends (telescopisms), from the idea of “blending” or “mixing” words together. Blends appeared in all aspects of informative intercourse, with terms like Internet (Inter'national+net) - global net, netiquette (Inter'net +etiquette') - the rules of good Internet behavior, emoticon (`emot'ion+icon) - combinations of symbols, that people attach to their messages in order to express feelings [8, p. 20].
In the second half of the XXth century the number of blends was small account. Today we can speak about an active process of increasing of words, which are formed according to this relatively new model. It is possible to state that the usage of blends turns the natural language into a new language called “Webspeak” with its own rules, patterns and rather peculiar syntax and morphology.
So, in the linguistic aspect, new computer phenomena appearing with the unbelievable speed need immediate reflection in the modern English language. Due to this reason, “.in the recent years the English language vocabulary enrichment processes have reached its highest rates. It should also be noted that under the circumstances of the modern stage of the informational revolution, the sphere of English lexical innovations directly related to the scientific and technological progress, i.e. so called computer terms are developing particularly intensively” [10, p. 6].
Another factor is Business English which serves many purposes. It provides the members of an economic community, such as customers, investors, with the tools needed to discuss various business issues. For example, branding is tricky business. And half the challenge is trying to break through the language barrier that can exist between brand owners and branding experts. V. Polkovsky writes, that nowadays “.no aspect of life is left untouched by the upgrade police. Doctors are now physicians. Lawyers are now attorneys-in-law. Policemen and policewomen are now law enforcement officers. Jails are now correctional facilities. [6, p. 307]. There are a lot of new loan words from other languages in the sphere of business (blitzkrieg tender offer - which is a takeover offer that is intended to be so attractive that very few objections will arise and the takeover will occur swiftly; Marubozu (close-cut) and Doji (simultaneous or concurrent), are used in technical analysis as well etc [11, p. 73].
“The Net is beginning to affect all of us - the way we create wealth, the enterprise, the nature of commerce and marketing, the delivery system for entertainment, the role and dynamics of learning in the economy, the nature of government and governance, our culture, and arguably the role of the nation-state in the body politic” [12, p. 3]. D. Tapscott considers, that “The new formula will be N-Gen + the Net = electronic commerce. The Net is becoming a new medium for sales, support, and services of virtually anything, as tens of millions of Net-savvy purchasers come of age” [там само, p. 11].
The nomination in modern English within design, interior and furniture domain which reveal civilization development continue to increase. Nowadays appeared such new houses as digital or clever house, ecological house, dynamic house. So, we can speak about the terms as fitted or built-in furniture (LED, RMPD, HCEL). Here are some examples of the furniture: wall- partition, autonomic slow-down devices, integral chair, book (of a bed), folding armchair/chair, fold-away chair, table with extension leaf, drop-leaf table, folding table, pull-out bed, folding bed, glass screen, glass column [13, p. 107].
Political language as another factor is very complex and it is tightly connected with business discourse. Many of the metaphors that politicians use to describe gender questions are based on a “battle of the sexes” metaphor where women are seeking to gain access to male privilege and status. So, we can speak about “...extreme semantic flexibility, when a polysemic capacity becomes a tool of immense innovative force, serving human imagination and political vision” [6, p. 311]. “Body politic”, “head of state”, `ship of state', etc. are all metaphors commonly in use for describing political situations and processes. Also, we can meet such examples as “surgical strike”, “sex up” and “blowback” etc.
Derivatives of names in modern English language are used not only at a private-household level of dialogue (among relatives, friends and friends), but also in official conditions. As an example names of some presidents of the USA can serve it: James Earl Carter it was reduced up to Jimmy Carter, William Jefferson Clinton - up to Bill Clinton. V. Polkovsky believes, that “.the growing use of nicknames in politics (as well as in sports, cinema, business and commerce and other fields) is a very peculiar phenomenon” [6, p. 309].
Text messaging (SMS) is a behavior which has been studied more extensively (R. Larson, R. Ling, P. Senge and others). “Like grooming SMS messages, relational beeps are a form of “phatic” communication, where messages (words or utterances) are used to signal and reinforce a relationship” [14, p. 24]. The popular belief is that SMS has evolved as a XXIst century phenomenon, with a highly individual graphic style full of abbreviations, used by a young generation that does not care about standards: attn - attention, dunno - I don't know, 0 7734 - hello, SWALK - sent with a loving kiss, “Іdnt wnt2go ot 4 Inch coz Ive 2 stdy hrd 4my finL Xams :-(((,2 mths awy. Sry. CUA” - I don't want to go out for lunch because I have to study hard for my final examinations, two months away. Sorry. See you around.
Next factor is social media, because it spans Internet and mobile devices. The world of blogs, by its nature, is a moving target - constantly changing, never quite settling. D. Perlmutter writes that “...blogs really represent a clear break from past constraints dictating that mass media content could be produced only by industries. Now, any motivated individual with access to a networked computer can be both creator and consumer of content” [15, p. 47]. A short glossary of blogosphere is appeared: blogroll, post, spam, spammer etc.
Due to these reasons, in the recent years the English language vocabulary enrichment processes have reached the highest rates. Certainly there are many other factors influencing the development of new vocabulary units. They are: new methods of education, new discoveries in science, in particular, in biology and medicine, ecology, motor-car constructing, terrorism etc, but we took into consideration only those which have played a significant part in lexicological studies of recent years.
So, the existence of English words is usually taken for granted by the speakers. However, to understand a language means knowing the vocabulary of that language. Anyone who studies lexicology should know the factors determining lexical changes in the English language of the XXIst century, which are: 1. global financial crisis; 2. buzzwords; 3. digitization; 4. internetization; 5. Business English; 6. language of politics; 7. text messaging; 8. social media and many others.
The researched issues are rather contradictory, and, therefore, open to further research. There are still many potential problems and actual issues connected with the notion of English lexical innovations.
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4. Keats J. Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology / Jonathon Keats. - Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2011. - 177 p.
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