Public policy on counteracting radicalism in Ukraine
Analysis of problematic issues of the spread of radicalism in the territory of modern Ukraine in the context of a counterterrorist operation in the country. Research of the directions of the state policy in the field of counteraction to this phenomenon.
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National Academy of Internal Affairs
PUBLIC POLICY ON COUNTERACTING RADICALISM IN UKRAINE
The world crisis phenomena are in socio-economic, political, spiritual spheres, in the context of interethnic relations, and also geopolitical and external economic influences are the catalysts of problem of public radicalization. There is an instant danger of realization of assassinations on this subsoil that touches all more separate countries - members of European Union.
Complication of problem of public radicalization is in that its basis are the crisis phenomena in socio-economic, political, spiritual spheres, and context of interethnic and interreligious relations, geopolitical and external economic influences. It problem subsoil on which transformation of processes of radicalization is in the instant danger of realization of assassinations becomes all more perceptible in the separate countries-members of European Union [1, p. 4].
Such negative tendencies induce to the increase of level of protection of many countries: the special services work in the increased mode, politicians aim to extend plenary powers in relation to a fight against terrorism, a limit is inculcated on the lead through of mass measures (collections, holidays, evening-parties, and others like that) [2, p. 49]. Logical reaction on the flash of activity of radicalized individuals, on gradual growth of level of terrorist threat the steps of governments of countries of EU became in relation to introduction of preventive measures, directed on non-admission of outgrowing of threat of radicalization in an instant terrorist danger.
The search of effective ways of counteraction radicalization, extremism and terrorism, without an overstatement can be named one of the most serious calls of ХХІ Century for most leading countries of the world. For today already for anybody does not cause doubts circumstance that effective activity in this sphere needs approach of the systems from the side of the state, unreserved narrow national limits. As international experience testifies, the threat of distribution of radicalism, extremism and terrorism, acquires all more global scales. Thus it has not only general sources but also general the tendency of transformation and adaptation to the modern terms, and accordingly - and alike system methods of counteraction.
Internal and external position of Ukraine in 2017 year is determined the difficult aggregate of factors, which carry in itself both threats and risks of deepening of the crisis phenomena and possibilities, for an output on the main way of national development. Events on the east of country negatively influence on growth of criminality on the whole in the state, threatening scales are acquired by distribution of shooting-iron and explosives.
To description of radical displays and measures on counteraction such research workers devoted the labors them, as V. Laker, F. Mayer, S. Rapoport, M. Sedzhvik, B. Khoffman, M. Yurgensmeyer and others. In Ukraine most detailed are works of such scientists of A. Aristova, V. Glushkov, V. Kancir, V. Klyus,
T. Leonenko, R. Manulatiy, K. Pashkov, I. Sekerevich, I. Sudak and others. A relevance scientific research from this question is indisputable as activation of displays of radicalism in international space makes the potential threat of its distribution in Ukraine.
Taking into account the stated purpose of the article consists in opening of specific signs and aims, inherent radicalism, reasons of this illegal activity, and also determination of ways of counteraction this negative phenomenon, at state level.
First of all we will note, that now under radicalism (from lat. radioalis - native) understood: an ideological and political flow which defends break with the acknowledged tradition comes forward for decisive methods in the decision of questions of political theory and political practice, change of basic political institutes and political system; spiritual setting, way of thinking, but as his investigation is an action, that consistently and rectilinear results in the planned purpose, casting aside any compromise, disagreeing with dominating in society looks, related to application of extreme power methods and facilities of achievement of purpose; sociocultural tradition, conditioned the proper type of person and national features of society and state. In basis of radicalism there are factors which determinants attitude of subject of policy toward political reality. Actually radicalism is one of methods of exit from the real social situation, usually by the most negative mean of decision of political problem.
Psychological maintenance of radicalism consists in that a man which hears the confession the values of radicalism follows simple decisions in the activity. She wants destruction without a recreation. Therefore displays of extreme radicalism as revolutions it is possible to examine as a result of lack of ability political leaders to find a structural exit from a crisis which would be able to result in subsequent development of the public system without substantial shocks.
Radicalism can show up in different forms: extremism, terrorism and revolutionism, that in the underestimation of evolutional factors of social progress. Separate researchers complement him and by such form, as nihilism.
To our opinion, for realization of task from counteraction radicalism a necessity is proceeding in the institute of prophylaxis, which existed in the state in the field of prevention of crime during great while and led to the efficiency. Complication of organization of prophylaxis of radicalism is in that his displays have socio-political, religious character and ideological ground often.
In view of this, on the conviction of M. Gucalo the priority value in preventive activities are acquired social, informative, educational, humanitarian aspects. They must become inalienable making part of the national system of measures of prevention. Obligatory in the ideological propagandist segment of activity of the proper state structures there must be measures on the counterpropaganda of terrorism and religious extremism. The complex of measures of prophylactic orientation must be represented in Program of counterterrorist measures, which becomes firmly established President of Ukraine and formed the Counterterrorist center at SB of Ukraine, one of basic tasks of which there is development of conceptual principles and programs of fight against terrorism, recommendations, directed on the increase of efficiency of measures on an exposure and removal of reasons and terms, which are instrumental in assassinating and other crimes, carried out with a terrorist purpose [1, p. 8-9].
Updated strategic documents adopted after the Revolution of Dignity in 2014 define existing and potential threats to our state security we are dealing with today. These threats are mostly characterized as hybrid as being manifested in numerous areas simultaneously with ability to easily transform and accommodate to new conditions and environments. Aggression demonstrated by Russian Federation is so far the main threat for Ukraine's state sovereignty and territorial integrity - the aim is to deteriorate social and political stability within the country and debilitate the economy with active use of special services - one of the most efficient «tools» in hands of Russian authority. Occupied Ukrainian regions are turned into «blind spots» where any single legislative instrument - neither domestic, nor international - is not sufficient, where fear and hatred give birth to dangerous sources of threats to state security.
One of the key threats to Ukraine's state security is the activity of illegal military formations constantly supplied with the latest armament samples, ammunition, material and financial resource and appropriately trained at military bases. Combatants use numerous terrorist techniques similar to those chosen by ISIS or Al-Qaeda, spreading the so called «targeted attack» practice. Russian intelligence uses its agents to promote ethnic, religious and social confrontations, nurturing and disseminating separatist attitude in different regions of Ukraine - it requires additional efforts in terms of law enforcement, counterintelligence capacity strengthening for prevention and elimination of terrorist threats along with citizens' securing. radicalism counterterrorist state policy
Despite the fact that Ukraine still has not been granted EU membership, our clear intention to integrate in the European Union (manifested through implementation of Visa Liberalization Action Plan and delivery of Ukraine-EU Association Agreement) determines specific provisions of relevant EU anti-discrimination documents to be taken into account during adoption of anti-discrimination measures and policy drafting in Ukraine. Within this context we should mention provisions of three priority EU Directives: Directive 2000/43/EC (implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin), Directive 2000/78/EC (establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation), Directive 2006/54/EC (implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation).
During the implementation of the Strategy HR Commissioner pays due attention to approaches and practices of The European Court of Justice (ECJ) - judicial body of the Communities aimed to officially interpret the Eu legislation
According to Analytical Report to Annual Address of the President of Ukraine to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (2012) reforming of Ukrainian national security system must be performed on the basis of priorities set in the Strategy of National Security of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, Sustainable Development Strategy «Ukraine - 2020», Concept of Security and Defense Sector Development, state Military Doctrine and other strategic documents with due attention to current processes affecting NATO member states.
Potential factors which can be instrumental in distribution on territory of Ukraine of activity of international terrorist and extremist organizations is transparency of scopes, liberal visa policy, possibility of legalization of business for the receipt of facilities, considerable volumes of illegal migration, contraband goods of weapon, drugs [1, p. 8]. In the conditions of counteraction hybrid war of the Russian Federation main priority of Ukraine in the field of national safety is minimization of threats to state sovereignty, conditioning for proceeding in territorial integrity of Ukraine, guaranteeing of the peaceful future.
Ukrainian intelligence services reforming (in the context of «National Intelligence Program - 2016» implementation) is aimed to strengthen their coordination in order to develop the intelligence capacity, focusing on prioritized areas of state security protection.
The key aim of Security Service of Ukraine reforming is deep qualitative transformation of the structure in accordance to best European practices related to national security and human rights legislation compliance. Security Service of Ukraine will transfer the majority of its law enforcement functions to other competent agencies focusing on establishment of efficient counterintelligence measures, neutralization of separatist and extremist organizations, terrorism combating.
Current legislation regulating Ukrainian youth policy does not duly reflect the reality of hybrid war initiated by Russia against Ukraine. It can be clearly seen through deep analysis of key legislative instruments related to strategic planning - Strategy of State Youth Policy Development - 2020, Strategy of Patriotic Education 2016-2020, national and regional programs (State Targeted Social Programs «Youth of Ukraine» 2016-2020, Concept of State Social Program «State Action Plan on Implementation of The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child - 2021»).
Civil initiatives for supporting the Armed Forces and other military divisions opposing the hybrid aggression are promoted on the state level (patronage, volunteering, donorship) along with youth «domestic tourism» and stimulation of Ukrainian youth integration into European and Euro-Atlantic intellectual space. Massive resource is directed at activation of fundraising mechanisms for implementation of youth regional exchange programs (especially children and teenagers from retaken Donbas areas and battle line zones).
With the purpose of positive changes it is suggested to carry out in the field of youth policy: wide promotion at national level of measures from the increase of legal and political culture of young people, encouragement of civil activity, positive social and personal conduct; rational combination of national patriotic education is with the pragmatic measures of state economic stimulation in all of tangent spheres (to educational, scientific, cultural, sporting, social, fiscal and others like that); stimulation of the programs is in relation to distribution among the young people of scientific world view, naturally scientific knowledge's and media informative literacy; intensification of youth «internal tourism» (above all things for children and youth of Donbas); stimulation of integration of the Ukrainian youth to European and Euro-Atlantic intellectual space (in particular, through participating in representative, communicative measures, system of youth exchanges, expansion of geography of countries which the proper agreements are celled with, and others like that); making of strategy of prevention of counteraction to marginalization and criminalization of youth environment, which will provide appropriate complex organizational and legal measures recognition realities of hybrid war. Effective realization marked will allow to meet criticism on the humanitarian calls of hybrid war and will become a ponderable long-term investment in a human capital - major component part of national riches, and consequently, in the future of the Ukrainian state [3, p. 454-455].
Separately it should be noted that an active collaboration from NATO is inalienable component part of euro integration course of our state, instrumental in assertion in Ukraine of democratic values, is the important instrument of support of reforms, in particular in the sector of safety and defensive, and also provides general counteraction the modern calls of safety and threats.
The decision of set the state tasks needs clear successive and continuous work from alteration of all of component parts of the system of national safety. In basis of its development it must be stopped up understanding of that providing safety of Ukraine in a long-term plan is impossible by the tactical reacting on a calculation internal and external threats, risks and calls. This process includes long-term strategy of forming of mutual responsibility of person, society and state, and also compatibility, with the regional and international systems of safety [3, p. 35].
We have to state that State Policy on Radicalization Prevention is mostly declarative: rejecting or diminishing the scope and intensity of intolerance spreading in society; ignoring the recommendations of international institutions and commitments taken by Ukraine in terms of combating manifestations of intolerant racism or xenophobia. Ukraine urges to exploit all available opportunities provided by OSCE The purpose of Ukraine in order to promote its institutional capacity in terms of racism and xenophobia prevention, resolution of international (including hybrid) conflicts.
1. Hutsalo, M.H. (2012). Nalehitymni formy politychnoho nasylstva: proiavy i tendentsii rozvytku [Illegitimate forms of political violence: displays and progress]. Zаpоbіhаnnia rаdykаlіzаtsii і tеrоryzmu: mіzhnаrоdnyi dоsvіd і nаtsіоnаlnyi vymir,
Prevent radicalization and terrorism trends: international experience and national measuring: Proceedings of the Round Table. Kyiv: N!SD [in Ukrainian].
2. Pavlenko, C.J. (2017). Tеоrеtychnі tа prai^ch^ prob^y protydii rеlіhіinоmu tеrоryzmu v Ukraini [Theoretical and practical problems of counteraction religious terrorism in Ukraine]. Nаukоvyi wsnyk Nаtsіоnаlnоi аkаdеmii vnutnshnikh sprav, Scientific Journal of the National Academy of Internal Affairs, 2(103), 48-58 [in Ukrainian].
3. Analitychna dopovid do Shchorichnoho Poslannia Prezydenta Ukrainy do Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy: pro vnutrishnie ta zovnishnie stanovyshche Ukrainy v 2017 rotsi [An analytical lecture is to Annual Message of President of Ukraine in Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine: About internal and external position of Ukraine in 2017 year]. Kyiv: NISD [in Ukrainian].
The problem questions of distribution of displays of radicalism are analyzed on the walks of life of modern Ukraine in the conditions of external aggression of Russian Federation on the East and South of country. Definite forms of display of radicalism, outlined directions of public policy in the field of counteraction this phenomenon.
Keywords: radicalism, extremism, terrorism, national safety, public policy, youth policy, counteraction.
Проаналізовано проблемні питання поширення радикалізму на теренах сучасної України в умовах проведення антитерористичної операції в країні. Визначено форми вияву радикалізму. Окреслено напрями державної політики у сфері протидії цьому явищу.
Ключові слова: радикалізм, екстремізм, тероризм, національна безпека, державна політика, молодіжна політика, протидія.
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