Structural and semantic peculiarities of the phraseological units with the colouring semantics (on the material of the novel "The white dragon" written by Anne McCaffrey)
Characterization of the basic specific structural and semantic features of phraseological units with color semantics. Investigation of the main lingual-national significance of the formation and functioning of the colonomisms of the English language.
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The actualization of the literature research works is grounded by that fact that color is able to reveal different feelings of the person. They could be: excitement, calmness, indifference, rudeness and happiness, coldness and warmness. These feelings and emotions have the opportunity to influence on our physiology and mental activity, according to to the point of view of different researchers, the emotional influence of the color became the reason of the symbolic meaning of various colors in general.
The actuality of the research is caused because of the lack of fundamental scientific works on researching English phraseological units with the color component, on researching semantic structure, its functioning within the context of literature texts. semantic phraseological colonomism
The object of the research is the structural-semantic peculiarities of English phraseological units with the color semantic. The subject of our research is the functioning of phraseological units with the color within the novel of Anne McCaffrey “The White Dragon”.
The goal of the article is the analysis of the English phraseological units with the component of color, to underline their structural-semantic organization and functioning within the language.
There are different ways of analysis of color-meaning within the linguistic science. The basis and fundamental directions of the research works were given by A. Vasilevich, Т. Vendina, V. Kulpina, Т. Mikhailova, S. Mishenko, and etc. The lingua-cultural aspect was studied by V. Krasnyanski, L. Novikov etc. The ontological research was made by N.Serov, the terminological issues were revealed by V. Kulpina etc. The content of lexis with the color meaning was analysed from the point of view of A. Vasilevich, A. Bragina, E. Idvina, I. Makeenko. The semantic structure was researched by E. Divina, L. Kachaeva, etc. The stylistic functions of the color's component were analyzed R. Alimpieva, G. Polishuk and by other scientists.
The analysis of research on phraseology proves that there is no general approach to the principle of classification of phraseological units with the coloring semantic. Within our research we analyze the phraseological units with the color semantic, taking as a basis the typological classification of academician V. Vinogradov and N. Shansky and the thematic classification proposed by the scientist V. Kulpina.
Since ancient times the certain gamma of favorite colors began to develop within the culture of various peoples. The national colors are historically well-founded and traditional, they correspond to the nature and temperament of the people and the surrounding environment: the red-yellow- black colors of the Spanish and the calm white-and-blue colors of the Finns. Depending on the environment, the temperament of the people, customs and traditions, aesthetic norms and religious beliefs, we deal with the spread of this or that color in the costume and everyday objects, in works of art, in speech: in idioms, proverbs and sayings depended.
It is known that the national-cultural elements of the cognitive system of a particular nation are present at all levels of the language, but the most striking features of the cognitive basis of a particular nation are found in phraseology. For many years in the writings on phraseology it has been argued that phraseological units are national-specific units of language that accumulate the cultural potential of the people. In contrast to units of direct nomination, phraseological units, nominative units of indirect derivative character, “verbalize non-abstract cognitive structures, and onomatopoeia concepts with a living” figurative basis, which are a special product of lingual- creative thinking, carried out in the process of speech activity of man.
In English, the greatest number of phraseological units was provided by the era of medieval chivalry, tournaments, life of citizens in the Middle Ages, life and work of peasants, military affairs. The most numerous groups of phraseological units with national-cultural semantics include groups of phraseological units, which contain in their composition the names of monetary units, anthroponomy, as well as phraseological units of literary origin.
The national cultural aspect of the study of linguistic units allows us to deepen and broaden the meaningful aspect of the phraseological material of modern language, and a concrete analysis of individual phraseological units allows us to answer the question of where and to what extent the most vivid national peculiarity of English phraseological units appears in relation to the phraseology of the Ukrainian language.
Country background knowledge includes the system of worldview, views, prevailing in this society, ethical assessments, aesthetic tastes, norms of linguistic and non-native behavior, and - most importantly - a large part of knowledge possessed by all members of society. This knowledge is very important for “decoding” and interpreting prototypes of phraseological units with national-cultural semantics for their awareness and correct interpretation. After all, many aspects of the life of the people, traditions of life, customs, historical events, etc., known to the members of this language community and unknown foreigners, led to the emergence of a phraseological unit with the national-cultural element of semantics.
Based on the material studied, we came to the conclusion that the dominant color values in the phraseological units are: red, blue, white. But also noteworthy are the colors that contain the components: black, brown, green, gray, golden, purple, rose/pink, silver, yellow.
Language units always act as a structural unit, consisting of different morphological properties of words that are in different syntactic relationships. As noted by S. Uporova, in linguistics, the systematic approach to color vocabulary should rely on the following theoretical foundations: 1) the word - the color definition is emotionally colored, it does not simply denote the color, but also strives to express our relation to it; 2) the color can be expressed explicitly (by the direct name of the color or the sign on the color), and implicitly (by the name of the object whose color characteristic is fixed in everyday life or culture at the level of tradition).
According to the structure of phraseological units with color semantics, theses units can be divided into two large groups: 1) phraseological units with sentence structure. Compare: Ukrainian (трава завжди більш зелена з іншого боку пагорба; English (the grass is always greener on the other side of the hill); 2) phraseological units with the structure of the phrase. Compare: Ukrainian (світла голова)', English (a clear head).
Let's take a closer look at these groups based on the novel by Ann McCaffrey “White Dragon”. Among the phraseological units built on the sentence structure in the investigated material there are two groups of phraseological units. The first belongs to phraseological units, which call one or another phenomenon of reality (nominative). Such units, which correspond to the combination of words in the structure, act as a function of a certain term of the sentence. The other part includes phraseological units, which are communicative units and transmit the whole message. They are used either on their own or as part of a structurally more complex sentence.
Phraseological units with color semantics with a simple sentence structure within the novel by Anne McCaffrey “White Dragon”: Do you see any green in ту eye; Like a bolt from the blue; Between the devil and the deep blue sea; Dark Blue and Light Blue; It gives me the blues; Not worth a red cent; I'm browned off with it; I don't care a red cent (for); To roll out the red carpet for some-body; Look at smth through rose-coloured glasses; Paint a black picture; Kill the goose that laid/lays golden eggs; The red light district; Neither fish nor good red-herring; The kettle calling the pot black; Not as black as he painted; The blackest day of my life; The pot calls the kettle black; See through blue glasses; The man with the blue cap.
Among the phraseological units, which correspond to the combination of words in the structure, we have to determine the most typical structural types of phraseological units, which are the combinations of: 1) verbs and nouns (with preposition or without preposition); 2) adjective and noun; 3) verbs, prepositions and nouns; 4) verbs, nouns, prepositions and nouns; 5) adjectives, conjunctions and nouns; 6) noun and preposition; 7) noun and prepositional-case forms of the noun; 8) adjective, preposition, and noun; 9) verbs, adjectives and nouns; 10) verbs, adjectives, prepositions and nouns.
Phraseological units of the model “verb + noun” are the most numerous in English language. Almost all phraseological units of this model are verbally predicative and in the sentence act as a predicate function. In the vast majority of verbal-phrase phraseological units, the order of the location of the components may be different, although in the English language the verb prelates more often (verb precedes the noun). For example: to go yellow bananas - go crazy; to go brown nuts - go crazy; to go red - to become “red”, to adhere to communist beliefs; to give a green light to smb. - give a green light to someone; to beat smb black and blue - brutally beat somebody; to keep one's memory green - keep in memory, remember well; to burn blue - be a bad sign; to be / look white as sheet (ghost, death) - very much blurred (usually from fear or excitement); to turn white - be pale, whitewashed; to bleed white - a) blame; b) to embroider the thread, to make money; vote blue - vote for conservatives; talk a blue streak - talk a lot without stopping; to scream / shout the blue murder - wildly to condemn; to catch / take red-handed - catch a crime on the spot; to see red - come into fury.
In the phraseological units of the model “noun + adjective” the core component is a noun, in relation to which the adjective always acts as a component dependent. As for the relation between the values of the components of phraseology, it can be different: 1) the noun and the adjective are semantically equal and both are phrasal components; 2) the noun is the trick-forming component, and the adjective coexists as an insignificant term that often has an expressive character.
The order of the components of the phraseological units is fixed. The adjective, as a rule, stands before the noun (the noun is postpositive). In some cases, there is an inverse order of words, when the noun precedes the adjective (the noun is prepositive). Example: the pink glasses - dreamy; a clear head - light head, clear mind; a red herring - a distraction maneuver; a purple heart - open heart; a black eye; a golden handshake - modest handshake; and black mark - charge; a green room - artistic; a red flag is a signal of danger.
Phraseological units with color semantics with the structure of “verb + preposition + noun”: to see through blue glasses - pessimistic look at things;
to be in the blue 1) get out of the way, go bad; 2) fail to fail (defeat); 3) to be in debt; to make (or turn) the air blue - to swear, to spit on, to dishonor someone; to be blue in the face - open your mouth with astonishment; to mark a white stone - to mark one day as especially happy; to wave / show / fly the white flag - surrender; show peaceful intentions and good will stand in a white sheet - publicly repent;
Phraseological units with color semantics with the structure of “verb + noun + preposition + noun” in the novel by Anne McCaffrey “White Dragon”: to beat black and blue - beat to the bruises, leave no living space; to be blue in the face - open your mouth with astonishment; to be whiter than white - be extremely honest, ethical; to be / look white as sheet (ghost, death) - very much blurred (usually from fear or excitement); to go as red as a beet (root) - flare up from excitement, embarrassment;
Phraseological units with color semantics with the “preposition + noun” structure in the novel by Anne McCaffrey “White Dragon”: once in a blue moon - once a hundred years, very rarely; by all that is blue - I swear by anything; until / till you are blue in face - until the complete loss of strength, to exhaustion, to bruise; out of the blue - unexpectedly; like a red rag (to a bull) - about a subject especially irritating like a red rag for a bull.
Phraseological units with color semantics with the structure of “verb + adjective + noun” in the novel by Anne McCaffrey “White Dragon”: to keep one's memory green - to keep in memory, to remember well; to make (or turn) the blue air - swear, swear words, dishonor someone; to wave / show / fly the white flag - surrender; show peaceful intentions and goodwill.
Phraseological units with the structure of “verb + adjective + preposition + noun” in the novel by Anne McCaffrey “White Dragon”: to be blue in the face - to open your mouth with astonishment; to be / look white as sheet (ghost, death) - very much blurred (usually from horror or excitement); red as a beet (root) - reddening from excitement, shyness; to become red in the face - to blow up.
Phraseological units with color semantics with the structure of “adjective + preposition + noun” in the novel by Anne McCaffrey “White Dragon”: red as blood -bloody red; yellow as Guinea - yellowish-pale; gray with anger - blackened with anger; blue in the face - scarlet from anger, tension and the like; blue with cold - on skin exposed to cold; red as a beet - red from shame, anger; black as sin (thunder, thundercloud) - darker than the cloud; red as fire - fiery red.
The most commonly used words in the English language are phraseological units with the color “red”: a red herring is a distracting maneuver; red in tooth and claw is a fierce competition; red as blood is blood - red. The color definition of “red” is associated with active male etymology, this is the color of life, the fire of war, energy, aggression, danger, impulse, emotion, passion, love, joy, festivity, vitality, health, physical strength and youth. In the symbolism of the color definition “red” there is also a negative aspect - this color was sometimes associated with evil.
The least frequent phraseological units with the color “purple” were found: a purple heart is a purple heart. “Purple” from ancient times is the color of royal power and dignity. One can conclude that: phraseological merging, that is, absolutely indivisible, indecomposable stable connections, the general meaning of which does not depend on the meaning of the words from which they are formed (examples: black as ink - joyless, between the devil and the deep blue sea - between two lights); phraseological unity, that is, the stable combination of words in which, in the presence of a common indirect value, the signs of the semantic separation of the components are clearly retained (examples: in a brown study - in (gloomy) reflection, see red - to fall into rage); phraseological combinations, that is, stable perspectives, which include words with free, phraseologically fixed meanings (examples: a black eye - blue, and golden handshake - gold hand-click); phraseological expressions, that is, conversions with the literal meaning of the components (examples: a blue stocking - blue stocking, purple heart - purple heart).
Taking into account the large share of phraseological combinations with the component of color definition, we can conclude that the component “color definition” played a significant role in the history of language and history of the occurrence of this component in phraseological units, since phraseological connections are unmotivated and non-derivative, they have folk etymology. Conservatism of the English people, commitment to traditions are the main characteristics of the English picture of the world.
During the study, it was concluded that English-language phraseological combinations with color semantics is a multidimensional phenomenon with complex structure and semantics. Further research will focus on the peculiarities of color translation on the material of modern English literature.
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