Correlation and use of non-finite forms of the verb in bilingual context

The article explores the ways of translating the infinitive, gerundy, and participle from English into Ukrainian. Infinitive in Ukrainian translations correlates with the undefined form of the verb, the verbal noun. The ways of translating the infinitive.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 07.04.2018
Размер файла 17,3 K

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А.В. Уманець

Кам 'янець-Подільський національний

університет імені Івана Огієнка

У статті досліджуються способи перекладу інфінітива, герундія і дієприкметника з англійської мови на українську. Інфінітив в українських перекладах корелює з неозначеною формою дієслова, віддієслівним іменником, іменником. Форми герундія корелюють у мові перекладу з прикметником, віддієслівним іменником чи можуть взагалі опускатися.

У перекладах текстів за професійним спрямуванням форми Participle I корелюють з активним дієприкметником, прикметником та іменником у їх українських перекладах, а також складовими підрядного означувального речення. Participle II перекладається прикметником, пасивним дієприкметником або ж пасивним дієприкметником у складі звороту.

Ключові слова: інфінітив, герундій, дієприкметник, тексти за професійним спрямуванням, мова оригіналу, мова перекладу.

The impact of rendering the variety of specific means of a source language at the morphological, syntactical, lexical and textual levels which characterize its informative structure and communicative functions depends much on adequate choice and comparative analysis of their counterparts in the target language. Many scientists pay special attention to functional approach in translation theory and practice, considering code, channel of communication, coding and decoding of a message, communicative intention of an author and different communicative strategies. Textual use of potentially motivated and non-motivated language units at different levels, socio-cultural, pragmatic, ethnic differentiating factors are implied in translation process.

Modern processes of globalization and integration influenced the impact and consequences of interlingual translation in modern society overall, and individual activities in particular. Manifold aspects of studying complex translation means reflecting textual macrosystems of a source and target languages which are determined by many factors (communicative goal of a message, socio-psychological background and extralingual content, combinability of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic characteristics etc.) have been topical in modern research works in the translation theory so far [1-8].

The given article describes means of translation of the English non-finite forms of the verb into Ukrainian in ESP texts. Teaching and learning English for specific purposes concentrates much on studying correlation and use of different grammatical forms in bilingual context. The highlighting of the basic tasks of ESP teaching and learning (i.e. developing skills of adequate response on different professional situations, improving specific frameworks in different ESP spheres, enhancing current communicative models and techniques for ESP learning and translation), and study of some means of rendering pragmatic potential of ESP texts constitute primary research objectives.

The aim of the given article is to describe some ways of correlation and translation of English non-finite forms of the verb into Ukrainian in ESP texts.

In our research we treated samples of translating the Infinitive into Ukrainian using the Infinitive, verbal noun, noun. The Gerund is translated into Ukrainian by the adjective, verbal noun or cannot be rendered into Ukrainian.

We envisaged the instances of translating active forms of the English Infinitive by means of the Ukrainian indefinite Infinitive after some nouns. They constitute the basic word stock of the investigated data. For example:

Is this a failure to grow up or a whole new stage of life [9]?

Це нездатність подорослішати чи абсолютно новий етап життя?

In our research we also treated samples of rendering the English Infinitive by verbal nouns. The cases of frequent use of verbal nouns as correlation means of rendering the English Infinitive in ESP texts are explained by semantic and syntactic peculiarities of a source and target languages. For example:

Secondary education alone is not enough to provide this [9].

In our research we described the ways of translating the English Gerund in ESP texts. In the function of the left-side attribute the Gerund can be translated into Ukrainian by adjectives. For example:

Here is another embarrassing but instructive error [10].

Sometimes the Gerund can be left out in the context of a target language (in many cases being). For example:

I could save my prestige only by being honest [10].

Я міг врятувати свій авторитет лише чесністю.

One of the most typical means of translating the English Gerund into Ukrainian is verbal nouns and nouns. For example:

He avenged himself by intruding where he did not belong [10].

Він помстився за себе втручанням туди, куди не слід було.

The same state of affairs may be assumed in many simple cases of lapses in speaking and writing [10].

To sum it up, while rendering some grammatical forms of the Infinitive and Gerund into Ukrainian in ESP texts in most cases we did not encounter their full equivalents in Ukrainian ESP texts. More in-depth study covers frequency of the use of their correlative means and ways of translation from a source into a target language.

In our paper we treated semantic and syntactic means of translating English Participles into Ukrainian. The necessary data were taken from authentic ESP texts.

Thus, the most frequent use of Participle I as an attribute of the sentence in a definite contextual surrounding is rendered by a tense form of a verb in the function of a predicate as a part of an attributive subordinate clause. For example:

56 per cent of those aged 18-29 have friends or family living outside the US [9].

56 відсотків людей у віці 18-29 років мають друзів або родину, що проживають за межами США.

We encountered a large number of instances of translating Participle I by an active participle, adjective or noun. For example:

It was ignorance when on my excursion to Wachau I believed that I had passed the resting-place of the revolutionary leader Fischof [10].

Невіглаством пояснюється те, що на моїй екскурсії в Вахау я вважав, що я відвідав місце відпочинку революційного лідера Фішгофа.

As often as I attempt a distortion I succumb to an error or some other faulty act, which betrays my dishonesty, as was manifested in this and in the preceding examples [10].

As part of a structure participle / adjective + infinitive Participle I in most cases is translated by an attributive subordinate clause introduced by conjunctions «що» or «який».

This suppressed fantasy then falsified the text of my book at the point where I broke off the analysis, by forcing me to put the name of the brother for that of the father [10].

Це подавило мою фантазію і змусило мене написати замість імені батька ім'я брата, що спотворило текст моєї книги в тому місці, де я обірвав аналіз.

In the function of a right-side attribute Participle II is rendered into Ukrainian by a passive participle. For example:

Whoever reads through the dream analysed on page 361 will find some parts unveiled; that I have broken off the thoughts which would have contained an unfavourable criticism of my father [10].

We also analyzed samples of the use of Participle II in the function of a leftside attribute and the ways of its translation into Ukrainian. In most cases it is rendered into Ukrainian by an adjective or passive Participle.

Goethe said of Lichtenberg: «Where he cracks a joke, there lies a concealed problem» [10].

Thus, the main task of using correlative means in translation ESP texts is comparative analysis of their use both in a source and target languages based on dynamic equivalency, communicative similarity and interdependence of forms and content, functional and semantic roles, and specific features of language units at morphological, semantic and syntactic levels, preserving textual integrity and authenticity.

The English Infinitive is rendered into Ukrainian by the Infinitive, verbal noun and noun. The Gerund is translated into Ukrainian by the adjective, verbal noun or cannot be rendered into Ukrainian at all. While translating English Participle I in ESP texts most frequent means are active Participles, adjectives, nouns and parts of attributive subordinate clauses. The predominant ways of translating Participle II are adjectives, passive Participles and parts of participial constructions.

The prospects of our future research consist in further theoretical and experimental investigation of different aspects of translation theory, and peculiarities of translating ESP texts and bilingual units in particular.

Список використаних джерел

infinitive gerundy english ukrainian

1. Андрієнко Т.П. Стратегії очуження й одомашнення в перекладі художнього дискурсу з англійської мови на українську / Т.П. Андрієнко. - К. : Вид-во Київ. міжнародн. ун-ту, 2011. - 265 с.

2. Білозерська Л.П. Термінологія та переклад : [навч. посібник для студентів філологічного напряму підготовки] / Л.П. Білозерська, Н.В. Возненко, С.В. Раде- цька. - Вінниця : Нова КНИГА, 2010. - 232 с.

3. Дзенс Н.И. Теория и практика перевода : [учебное пособие] / Н.И. Дзенс, И.Р. Перевышина, В.А. Кошкаров. - СПб. : Антология, 2007. - 560 с.

4. Есакова М.Н. Прагматические аспекты перевода (на материале произведений М. Булгакова) / М.Н. Есакова // Вест. Моск. ун-та. Сер.22. Теория перевода. - 2008. - №4. - С. 3-25.

5. Карабан В.І. Попередження інтерференції мови оригіналу в перекладі (вибрані граматичні та лексичні проблеми перекладу з української мови на англійську) : [навчальний посібник] / В.І. Карабан, О.В. Борисова, Б.М. Колодій. - Вінниця : Нова книга, 2003. - 208 с.

6. Пентковская Т.В. Локализация перевода как лингвотекстологическая проблема / Т.В. Пентковская // Вест. Моск. ун-та. Сер. 9. Филология. - 2009. - №6. - С. 51-64.

7. Сдобников В.В. Теория перевода : учебник [для студентов лингвистических вузов и факультетов иностранных языков] / В.В. Сдобников, О.В. Петрова. - М. : АСТ : Восток - Запад, 2006. - 448 с.

8. Соціокультурні та етнолінгвістичні проблеми галузевого перекладу в парадигмі євроінтеграції : матеріали І Всеукраїнської науково-практичної конференції 3 квіт. 2008 р. / за заг. ред. А.Г Гудманяна, С.І. Сидоренка. - К. : НАУ 2008. - 220 с.

9. Режим доступу: to-grow-up.

10. Режим доступу: (p.74-78).

The article envisages the ways of translation of English Infinitive, Gerund and Participle into Ukrainian in ESP texts. In our research we treated the ways of translating the Infinitive into Ukrainian using the Infinitive, verbal noun. The Gerund is translated into Ukrainian by the adjective, verbal noun or cannot be rendered into Ukrainian.

We encountered instances of translating Participle 1 by means of active Participles, adjectives and nouns, as a part of an attributive subordinate clause. Participle II is rendered into Ukrainian by adjective, passive participle or a part of a participial construction.

Key words: Infinitive, Gerund, Participle, ESP texts, source language, target language.

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