Basic principles of compiling polish-ukrainian and ukrainian-polish phraseological dictionary

Principles of the creation of the Polish-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish phraseological vocabulary. Problematic issues that need to be solved before packing. Harmonization of terms that have significant differences in the understanding of linguists.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Язык английский
Дата добавления 30.12.2017
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Basic principles of compiling polish-ukrainian and ukrainian-polish phraseological dictionary

A. Luchyk

The article outlines the basic principles of compiling Polish-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish phraseological dictionary, determines its sources, substantiates the scope of entry units, highlights the structure of a dictionary entry, supports the idea that the explanatory part is to be included in the dictionary entry. Problem issues to be solved before compiling the dictionary are listed separately

Keywords: phraseological dictionary, translation dictionary, idiom, structure of a dictionary entry, entry unit, headword, stylistic marker.

Necessity and importance of compiling a Polish- Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish dictionary both for development of linguistic thought and practice have been repeatedly emphasized in our earlier publications [see 1, p. 2].

Nowadays, the conditions for practical implementation of these ideas have been created. First of all, it is the existence of national reference lexicographic sources, in particular Ukrainian and Polish phraseological dictionaries. The latter studies containing thorough definitions of the entry units may be a reliable source for compiling translation dictionaries of a new type, which should contain explanatory structure components. In our opinion, in order to compile such dictionaries, academic dictionaries have to be used in the first place such as, for example, “Ukrainian Phraseological Dictionary” (“Фразеологічний словник української мови”) [3] and “Great PWN Phraseological Dictionary with Proverbs” (“Wielki slownik frazeologiczny PWN z przy- slowiami”) [4]. The aforesaid phraseological dictionaries of two compared languages show certain similarities in their structure and qualitative composition of entry units. Both lexicographical works consist of dictionary entries with headwords that are cat- egorematic components of idioms. The idioms, which are stylistically marked, appear in alphabetical order of their components after the headwords, definitions are illustrated with citations in order to confirm that the idioms exist in the language as well to disclose their meaning to the fullest extent. The dictionaries also contain synonyms and antonyms of entry units.

However, considerable similarity in structuring of the aforesaid dictionaries, unfortunately, does not mean easy matching of equivalent Polish idioms with Ukrainian units and vice versa. This is to a large extent caused by methods of presenting dictionary entries in the dictionaries. For instance, the foreword to “Ukrainian Phraseological Dictionary” states that “idioms that have fixed set forms appear in the same but not in initial form in the registry” [3, p. 6]. In the analyzed phraseological dictionary of the Polish language, all idioms that have variable forms appear in the initial form of their components in the registry. Therefore, for example, Ukrainian idioms with core component вовк appear in several dictionary entries with entry words: вовк, вовка, вовки, вовків, вовком. All Polish idioms with corresponding component wilk are, by contrast, contained in one dictionary entry with the headword wilk.

Sometimes the differences in compiling the dictionaries are caused by different understanding of the scope of phraseology by Ukrainian and Polish scientists. For example, Polish lexicographers usually have a broad understanding of the term `idiom' as a set group of words in a certain language the meaning of which does not arise from the meaning of these words [4, p. 4]. Although the foreword to this dictionary does not contain a definition of the idiom, the text of this study reflects the aforesaid approach to understanding of phraseological units.

The compilers of “Ukrainian Phraseological Dictionary” have a broader understanding of the term `idiom', which they define as a language unit that “expresses specific phraseological meaning originated largely as a result of metaphoric rethinking of a free word phrase, grammatical category and has regular, reproducible by tradition set of components that lost their lexical independence and is also a part of sentence” [3, p. 4]. Due to this definition, such units as «set phrases, proverbs, sayings, catchphrases, set comparisons, compound terms, non-phraseolog- ical tautological expressions» as well as periphrastic expressions, function words - compound prepositions, compound conjunctions etc. are not considered idioms (ibid.). Although in practice these limitations are implemented inconsistently when, for example, separately written particles, interjections, pronouns set comparisons like що за, ось що, а ще й, ото ще, ти ба! тим-то й ба! ба де то! Що завгодно, що попало, як (мов, ніби) кіт наплакав

etc. are included in the dictionary, while compiling Polish-Ukrainian phraseological dictionary this presents some difficulties related to different approaches to the scope of phraseology of representatives of Ukrainian and Polish linguistic schools. These and other differences need to be adjusted before compiling a translation dictionary. In our opinion, first of all, the lexicographers have to agree on a definition of the term `idiom' that would be the most appropriate for this type of works. This will undoubtedly contribute to establishing the scope of entry units. We believe that the first edition of such a dictionary should contain core phraseological units of the source language and the next editions may be supplemented by near-core, semi-peripheral and peripheral elements of the phraseological sublevel of the language system. In order to establish the scope of such elements, we have to consider characteristics of their expression form, inner content and functioning peculiarities. Apparently, the core of phraseological system in terms of expression form comprises at least two-word multi-accent structures. In terms of inner organization, these are semantically integral, metaphorically rethought, reproducible free word groups with relatively constant composition and structure of components that lost their lexical independence acting as any parts of sentence, which eliminates the possibility of them being grammaticalized. Such units have to be included in the registry of the aforesaid translation dictionary. It is clear that it is not always possible to find corresponding structures in the target language; therefore, they shall be translated by means of constructions that are the closest by semantics or descriptively. For example, Ukrainian idiom впіймати (піймати, спіймати, вхопити) вовка за вухо (за вуха) meaning “виявити сміливість, кмітливість, спритність; уміти використати що-небудь із користю для себе” does not have an equivalent in Polish that's why it is translated descriptively “ujawnic smiaiosc, roztropnosc; moc wykorzystac cos z korzysci^ dla siebie”. Another Ukrainian idiom with a component вовк - вовк кишки догризає - has a Polish equivalent comparative set phrase - glodny jak wilk. However, these translation means, which can also be set separately written adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, particles, interjections, pronouns, set phrases as well as proverbs and sayings, apparently should not be included in the registry of the reverse Polish-Ukrainian dictionary. It is advisable to compose the registry only of core elements of phraseological subsystem, i. e. of those which correspond to the foregoing definition of the idiom.

Since the idioms reflect the linguistic picture of the world in a specific way, it does not suffice to place only a corresponding unit of the target language in the translation part of the dictionary. We are convinced that without an explanatory part of the dictionary entry translation of its entry unit will not be effective enough. Thus, in the Polish-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish phraseological translation dictionary each entry unit should be supplemented with semantic characteristics by means of explanation. In Polish-Ukrainian dictionary the explanations will be provided in Polish and in Ukrainian-Polish dictionary - in Ukrainian. Definitions of entry units will appear in parentheses: Bajka o zelaznym wilku (opo- wiadanie o czyms, co wydaje si? nieprawdopodobne, nierealne, w co trudno uwierzyc). Перша ластівка (початок у появі, становленні чого-небудь).

If an idiom has two and more meanings, each meaning shall be defined separately: Spiewac bara- nim glosem 1) (piakac); 2) (spiewac faiszuj^).

Ukrainian equivalents of Polish entry units shall be presented as follows:

equivalents of entry units follow the definitions of entry units:

Spiewac baranim glosem 1) (piakac) давитися плачем, розпускати сльози, крокодилячі сльози, відділлється сльозами;

if the meaning of a Polish idiom corresponds to the meaning of one Ukrainian idiom or word, Polish idiom shall be translated with this unit: Miec swoj rozum (byc swiadomym tego, co si? robi, wiedziec, co robic w danej sytuacji, jak post?powacNie miec rozumu (w giowie) мати свій розум;

if a Polish entry unit has, except for one Ukrainian equivalent idiom, other widely used equivalents, the latter shall appear in the order from the closest meaning to the more distant, separated by commas:

Nie miec rozumu (w glowie) (byc glupim) не мати царя в голові, небагатий на розум, кволий на розум, не при своєму розумі;

if a Polish entry unit has no appropriate Ukrainian equivalent idioms, it shall be translated with a word or descriptively:

Bialy kruk (osobliwosc, rzadkosc, unikat, giow- nie w odniesieniu do rzadkich, cennych ksi^zek) рідкісний, унікальний, раритетний;

if an entry idiom has multiple meanings, a Ukrainian equivalent shall follow every meaning: Zbl^kana owca, owieczka 1) (o kims, kto

odi^czyi si? od jakiejs grupy, odrzucii jej zasady; odszczepieniec) заблукана (заблудла, блудна, приблудна) вівця; 2) (o kims, kto ziamai zasady swej wiary; grzesznik) бути (стати) грішником, заблукана (заблудла, блудна, приблудна) вівця.

Markers indicating stylistic, historical-temporal or emotional-expressive characteristics of certain idioms shall appear directly after entry units in the dictionary:

Молодий та зелений жарт. (який не набув життєвого досвіду; недосвідчений, юний).

Unfortunately, it is the markers of entry units in Ukrainian and Polish phraseological dictionaries that are most different. This is evident in both quantitative composition of markers and presentation of peculiarities of phraseological units functioning. In the forewords to the dictionaries, there are practically no explanations with regard to one or another marker. Marker registries may be found only on the lists of abbreviations. These issues still have to be brought in accordance in order to compile Polish- Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish phraseological dictionary.

At the end of a dictionary entry, fiction and other literature works by authors of 19th-21st century shall be quoted with indication of their names or pseudonyms. In Polish-Ukrainian dictionary only Polish entry units shall be illustrated, and in Ukrai- nian-Polish dictionary - only Ukrainian idioms. If two different quotations placed one after another have the same author, quotations shall be separated by a slash / and the author's name or pseudonym shall appear only after the last illustration:

Wilk morski (o doswiadczonym marynarzu) морський вовк

Nawet stare wilki morskie po dlugim pobycie na Iqdzie, w pierwszych dniach na statku chorujq czasem jak zwykli smiertelnicy (J. Palkiewicz).

Морський вовк (досвідчений моряк) wilk morski

Перед ним суворі екзаменатори, бувалі морські вовки, екзаменують тебе на далекі плавання (О. Гончар); - Нам головне - до моря добратися. А там на корабель юнгами влаштуватись, куди хоч попливемо, справжніми морськими вовками станемо (Ю. Збанацький).

References

Лучик А. А. Про деякі проблеми української перекладної лексикографії / А. А. Лучик, С. Козловський // Науковий вісник Волинського національного університету імені Лесі Українки. Філологічні науки: Мовознавство. - 2011. - № 2. - Ч. 2. - C. 4-9.

Лучик А. А. Лексикографічний опис сталих словосполучень: проблеми і перспективи / А. А. Лучик // Мовознавчі студії. - Вип. 50. - К. : ВПЦ НаУКМА. - С. 47-49. ukrainian polish dictionary

Фразеологічний словник української мови / укл. В. М. Біло- ноженко, В. О. Винник, І. С. Гнатюк та ін. - К. : Наукова думка, 1993. - 984 с.

Wielki slownik frazeologiczny PWN z przyslowiami / укл. A. Klosinska, E. Sobol, A. Stankiewicz. - Warszawa : Wy- dawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2007. - 840 s.

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